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as if it was stuffed with lead; I cannot hold [in bank-notes stitched in a sort of linit. Clem!- catch! oh!" Clem was not in time to catch, and the last exclamation was caused by Poll slipping from Winny's hands, and falling with a

crash on the floor.

It fell with a crash, and the skin burst; and out fell a great heap of gold; sovereigns and half-sovereigns rolled away like so many little yellow imps set free from bondage.

"Well, if iver!" exclaimed Sally French, who was the first to recover her senses.

Winny stood on the chair in bewildered amazement; Clem, who had hastened from the kitchen on hearing Winny's exclamation, stared as if the parrot had come to life, instead of having gone to pieces.

Precious Poll, indeed! A hundred and thirty-four pounds they counted, when they had sufficiently recovered from their astonishment; and on examining the skin of the collapsed bird, they found fifty pounds more

Several years have passed. Clein Armstrong is the proprietor of the forge, and also of a pretty white cottage, with a bit of well-stocked garden-ground. Winny is stouter than she used to be, and has two "todlin' wee things "hanging by her skirts. Her husband thinks her prettier than ever, as he kisses her rosy cheeks, and tosses his children in the air, when he returns home from his day's work.

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I DREAM'D that my soul was a dewdrop, As a dewdrop I fell to the ground; And here, in the hearts of the flowers, A grave of sweet odour I found :

But my sisters, the other drops drew me With them, in a silvery throng,

To their sweet source, dancing round me, And, drawing me, danced me along.

Where my sisters and I went dancing, Gay flowers on the green banks grew; And the flowers I kiss'd, and with kisses I greeted the gold sand too :

Till down, with the brooklet, I bounded,
On the wheel of the water-mill,

And whirl'd it; and wander'd, and water'd
The thirsty young corn on the hill.

Thence, over the hill-top headlong,

As I fell to the hollows below,

And, with lips that sought love everlasting,
I snatch'd but a fleeting kiss.

Onward, and onward, till falling
Into the infinite main,

In its fathomless waters I buried

My love, and my hope, and pain.

And "here," I thought, "all ends surely," As the great billow bore me away, "Here my spirit shall rest, and for ever, "From its longing, and labour, and play."

But anew to the azure of heaven

Was my being upborne; and anew From the heaven to the earth I descended In a drop of celestial dew.

All the Year Round.

POLYGAMY IN ITS INFLUENCE ON POPULATION. At the last meeting of the Anthropological

"Here," I thought," is the end of my journey, Society, a paper by Dr. J. Campbell was read And my life, too, is ended now.

But the current drew me, and drew me,
By forest, and dale, and down,
And under the turrets and bridges,
And into the roaring town.

Onward, and onward, and never noment of perfect bliss,

"On Polygamy: its influence in determining the sex of our race, and its effects on the growth of population." Minute details of the relative proportions of female to male births in the harems of the king and other important dignitaries of Siam were given. The result seems to be that the proportions of males and females born were, as in the case of monogamist marriages, entirely equal.

From The Saturday Review. GARIBALDI'S RULE OF THE MONK.*

upon religion and politics and into personal reminiscences, we presume that we shall be doing our duty best by dwelling very slight

and calling attention to it chiefly as a pamphlet on the state of the Papal Government. We shall regard Garibaldi as performing a function similar to that of a Commissioner inquiring into the condition of agricultural labourers, and deal with the contents of the Rule of the Monk as we should deal with a blue-book. The following statements will, we hope, convey a tolerably accurate impression of the General's opinions about modern Rome.

THE title and author of this book are calculated to excite a certain amount of curi-ly upon the merits of the novel as a novel, osity. Most people will be amused at making acquaintance with General Garibaldi in the new character of a literary gentleman, and will be glad to hear his remarks about Rome, though it may be that they will anticipate less new light upon the Eternal City than upon the peculiarities of the General. The anonymous writer of a preface does what he can to heighten our curiosity. He is careful indeed to provide against adverse criticism by assuring us that the deficiencies of the work are due rather to the trans- Rome, as we know, is a city governed by lation than to the original "; but he adds priests. Now the General hates the "the vigour and charm of the great Liber- priesthood as a lying and mischievous instiator's Italian are such as to show that he tution," though he is ready to welcome them might have rivalled Alfieri or Manzoni, if to a nobler vocation when they have divesthe had not preferred to emulate the Gracchi ed themselves of their "malignity and bufor the Rienzi." Further, he is kind enough foonery." Meanwhile he regards them as to inform us that the narrative is "idyllic "assassins of the soul," and therefore as in the pastoral scenes, tender and poetic in more culpable than assassins of the body. the domestic passages, Metastasio-like in A priest knows himself to be an impostor, some of its episodes, and terribly earnest in unless he is a fool; and generally leads a its denunciations"; and if we were inclined life of the grossest sensuality whilst deceivto save ourselves the trouble of criticisin, ing the people into the belief that he is a we might be content to appropriate these virtuous ascetic. It is easy to imagine what words, omitting the marks of quotation, a priest must be when exalted to positions and give them as our own judgment. Of of power. Let us take, for example, Carcourse the translator ought to know best a dinal Procopio, the Pope's favourite. Prowork over which he has taken so much copio once upon a time deceived a beautiful pains, and we will therefore give the Gen-girl, lodged her in his palace till the birth eral credit for an indefinite amount of grace- of a child, and then had the child murdered, ful language, the fine essence of which has and turned the mother out upon the world unavoidably disappeared from the English in a state of insanity. This was only one version. But, inferior as translations gen-specimen of a long series of evil deeds. erally are to originals, there are some mat- Finally, by acts of the basest treachery, he ters-such, for example, as statements of fact — in which, if we assume a moderate amount of fidelity, the difference between the two cannot be very great. Now it is the peculiarity of the novel before us that it is not fiction founded upon fact, but "fact founded upon fiction." The more we have meditated upon this phrase, the less we have been able to appreciate the precise difference between the things opposed; but we take the assertion to mean, more or less, that the picture given of Roman society in the nineteenth century is substantially accurate. Names may be altered and facts slightly disguised, but the general tone of the description represents faithfully what Garibaldi sincerely believes to be true. Now as the story is of the most artless kind, and as the General has a way of suddenly digressing into explanations of his views

• The Rule of the Monk; or, Rome in the Nine

teenth Century. By General Garibaldi. London and New York: Cassell, Petter, & Galpin.


gets another still more beautiful girl into
the same sink of iniquity, and at a critical
moment, when she is struggling with him
and two of his degraded myrmidons, three
patriots, each of whom is also of exquisite
beauty, incredible courage, and most un-
blamable character (qualities which belong
to all Italian patriots), surprise the villains,
gag them, and save their victim.
morning the Roman populace has the pleas-
ant spectacle of the Cardinal and his two
minions dead and suspended by the neck
from the windows of the palace. It is not
often, however, that such condign punish-
ment is inflicted upon evildoers in high
places. As a rule, they carry on their in-
fernal tyranny with great satisfaction to
themselves. They have servants-gener-
ally priests who are ready to go about
committing murder and other atrocities on
the slightest hint of their superiors. Thus,
for example, a widow is left dangerously ill
with a princely fortune and a small boy.

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We have perhaps gone far enough to explain the nature of the blessings enjoyed under the "rule of the monk." If a tenth part of the General's statements be true, most of the present rulers of Rome deserve summary execution or imprisonment for life. We will not attempt to describe the admirable race of beings who oppose their devilish machinations. Every Roman patriot is the quintessence of all that is most admirable in human nature. Elaborate plots are constantly going forwards in spite of the watchfulness of the police, and when the conspirators are discovered and surrounded by overwhelming numbers, all they have to do is to throw themselves courageously upon the base mercenaries, who instantaneously disperse in panic from before a tenth of their number. Occasionally the patriots have to take to the woods and live with certain virtuous brigands, where the " idyllic scenes described by the translator take place. The Arcadian innocence of the persons concerned may be estimated by the fact that the marriage ceremony in an interesting case consists chiefly in an English heroine joining the hands of the contracting parties and pronouncing them to be man and wife. This "solemn act of wedlock," we are assured, is "none the less solemn nor binding" for being so celebrated. Attacks from the wretched set of cut-throats who form the Papal army occasionally interrupt these scenes of rural felicity, but when the tyrants appear the chief brigand always

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A priest is told off to frighten her with fears of his attentions to her younger companof hell until she has left the whole of her ions. property to the Church. Unluckily she shows symptoms of returning health. The priest accordingly goes to her house, and, assisted by a nun whoin he has sent to her as a nurse, opens her mouth, pours a deadly fluid down her throat, and lets her head fall heavily back on the pillows, while a complacent smile spreads itself over his diabolical features as, after one gasp, her jaw falls. The priests, moreover, have chambers of torture in their palaces, of which they know how to make good use either upon patriots or, in case of need, upon their own wretched servants. "Bring the girl to me,' exclaims Procopio to his menial," or the palace cellars shall hear thee squeak thy self-praise to the tune of the cord or the pincers"; and we are assured that this was no vain threat, but that, incredible as it may appear to outsiders, tortures too horrible to describe take place daily in the Rome of the present day. In fact, on another occasion, a wretched sergeant who connives at the escape of a patriot is reduced to a "shapeless mass" for this concession to humanity. Yet the atrocities committed by the Cardinals seem to be nothing as compared to the hideous scenes which take place in convents. The General assures us that, having examined the convents in 1849, he found in all, without an exception, instruments of torture; and in all without an exception, were vaults plainly dedicated to the reception of bones of infants." Indeed, a certain hero on one occasion forces his way into a nunnery by an ingenious strata-blows a horn, and a sufficient number of gem, and compels the superior by threats of instant death to guide him to a prison in which his mistress is confined. The superior manages to give him the slip, but he descends through mysterious passages, with trap-doors and false walls, until at length, guided partly by a most offensive smell, he finds his way into a chamber of horrors. Here against the wall" hung several human beings, suspended by the neck, the waist, and the arms, all but one dead, and more or less decomposed. The solitary exception was a young man, once of a fine form, but now an emaciated phantom." The young man is fixed to the wall by massive chains, and when his deliverer looks round for means of breaking them he finds nothing but horrible instruments of torture, which priests weakly describe as instruments for the mortification of the flesh." The young man is of course freed, and relates a hideous story of moral corruption, the main point being that the superior had consigned him to his dungeon out of jealousy

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heroic patriots spring to all appearance out of the earth. It is a curious fact that, in spite of the most thrilling hairbreadth escapes, none of the virtuous are ever killed or seriously injured till the last chapter, when a general massacre takes place amongst the men, and the ladies go off to wait for a regenerated Italy.

We would fain hope that the stuff we have been describing was not really written by Garibaldi, but that some hoax has been practiced upon the translator and publisher. However, it is a fact that the book comes out with all the external appearance of authenticity, and that the circumstance of its bearing Garibaldi's name has been enough to secure for it favourable notices from writers who ought to know better. Garibaldi has suffered before now from the indiscretion of his intimates, and we fear he has on this occasion been flattered into an exhibition of weakness which will give cause of triumph to his enemies. He was never credited with much worldly wisdom; but

we could scarcely have believed, except | book almost more pitiable than absurd, but from his own mouth, that he was capable of it is not inconsistent with the possession of talking such nonsense as that which fills the certain great qualities which in times of Rule of the Monk. All that a reasonable disturbance may convert a tenth-rate novadmirer could say in defence is that it ex- elist into a formidable enemy. This strange hibits the wonderful simplicity of the Gen- mixture of absolute childishness with genueral's character. The book is like the first ine heroism would make Garibaldi a far attempt of an enthusiastic and rather clever better hero than author of a romance; and lad, after listening to a lecture on Rome perhaps, in days to come, some man of from Dr. Achilli; and the politics are those genius may create a new and striking of innocent young ladies who believe every- character from the materials provided by body who differs from them to be a black- his life and writings. hearted traitor. Such simplicity makes the


EFFECTS OF MOUNTAIN CLIMBING. important observations have been made during the past summer on the effects of mountain climbing on the most important bodily functions. Dr. Marcet has published his "Observations on the Temperature of the Human Body at various altitudes in connection with the act of ascending," in the November number of the Philosophical Magazine, and M. Lordet has communicated to one of the French journals a very important memoir on the "Disturbances of Respiration, Circulation, and of the Bodily Temperature at great heights on Mont Blanc." As M. Lordet's observations are the most elaborate of the two, we shall confine our observations to his results. From Chamounix to the grand plateau (from 3,444 to 12,879 feet) the disturbances of respiration are little marked on experienced Alpine climbers, who hold down the head to diminish the orifice of the breathing organs and respire only through the nose and suck a pebble to keep the closed mouth moist. Up to this point the respirations were nearly constant, and averaged twenty-four in a minute, but from hence to the top (15,776 feet) they were about thirty-six in the minute, the pectoral muscles feeling as if they were rigid, and the sides as if squeezed in a vice. After two hours' rest at the top these inconveniences disappeared, and the breathings fell to twenty-five. It was found by means of an instrument called an anaphograph, that the quantity of air inspired and expired was much less than on the plain, and as the air was under so low a pressure the quantity of oxygen given to the lungs was necessarily small. Although the pace throughout the ascent was very slow, the circulation was enormously accelerated. M. Lordet's average pulse being sixty, it increased from Chamounix to the top; ascending to the heights of 80, 116, 136, and finally to 160 and more to the minute. The THE REV. J. R. Lumby has undertaken to edit artery at the wrist felt almost empty, and the for the Early English Text Society the Angloleast pressure stopped the pulse. From 14,760 Saxon "Sermons" of Bishop Lupus. Mr. Wilfeet the superficial veins began to swell, and liam Chappell has at press the second Part of even the guides felt heaviness of the head, and the Roxburghe Ballads" for the Ballad Socipainful somnolence from venous stagnation and ety.

Some imperfect oxygenization of the blood. The internal temperature of the body was carefully taken at different heights by a thermometer placed beneath the tongue. It was found that in ascending from Chamounix to the summit, the temperature fell, while they were moving, from 7° to 11° below the ordinary standard of 999 Fahr., an enormous diminution for mammals; but that on remaining stationary for a few seconds it rose to nearly its normal amount. The influence of food is very marked, but only transitory, the act of digestion raising the temperature to its normal height for nearly half an hour. This great diminution of heat may be thus explained:-on a plain, the intensity of the respiratory combustion increases proportionally to the expenditure of force, the heat being transformed into mechanical force, and enough heat being thus formed to compensate for the expenditure of force. But on great mountain heights, where the mechanical labour of the ascent is very great, the expenditure of force consumes more heat than the organism can supply when the body is cooled, and frequent halts must be made to reheat it. The rapidity of the circulation and the rarefaction of the air must also contribute to the cooling process. The mountain sickness, which attacked two of the party very severely, is due to the depression of the temperature, and, probably, also to the vitiation of the blood by carbonic acid. To keep up their heat the guides usually eat about every two hours, but at great heights inexperienced climbers usually feel so great a want of appetite as to be almost incapable of swallowing food.

Once a Week.

Translated for Public Opinion by Rev. Dr. Maziere | Church will end with dispersion into count-
Brady, from "L'Osservatore Romano."

THEY who upheld the Anglican Church Establishment in Catholic Ireland were, of course, manifestly wrong, inasmuch as it was an abuse, an iniquity, an insufferable tyranny; and the English Parliament by removing it afforded satisfaction, though an incomplete one, to Irish Catholics. Yet those champions of heresy were logically right in foreseeing and prophesying that the abolition of the heretical Anglican Church in all the rest of the United Kingdom would follow as an obvious consequence upon its abolition in Ireland. It is the case, indeed, that no Bill has been laid before Parliament, nor any ministerial manifesto issued, nor even any resolution presented by members of the legislature, for effecting the abolition of the heretical State Church in England. But it is none the less true that the same Church is already falling to ruin, and is in process of demolition under the action of causes far more effectual than Acts of Parliament. Its overthrow will increase the long series of sects, heresies, and schisms which affected the form of a separate Church, but have vanished into nothingness under the advance of ages, and have become like to the end of branches severed from the tree, withered at last into ashes, to be scattered by the winds of


The fall of the Anglican Church has been prepared and expedited by many causes, but above all by the internal divisions which rend it asunder. Formerly there were only two great parties, which under the names of High Church and Low Church were at war within the bosom of the Anglican heresy. To these must now be added a third party, namely, the Broad Church, formed of Rationalists, who deny revelation, the sacred Book, and all supernatural religion. Under the action of these three dissolvent parties, the heterogeneous body called the Anglican Church will be precipitated into ruin, in a future, whose advent, albeit more immediate than heretics believe, yet ever seems too distant to satisfy the ardent zeal of Catholics.

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less sects, to glimmer and vanish as suddenly as the ignis fatuus. The Broad Church will do nothing save second those efforts of the pseudo-bishop Colenso and the writers of the Essays and Reviews," which are demolishing all the remains of the Catholic Church conserved, up to the present, in Anglicanism. One of such fragments of Catholicity is the semblance of Holy Orders. An Anglican, who received imposition of hands from a pseudo-prelate, lost, according to English laws, his lay character and privileges, and became incapable of resuming afterwards the status of a layman. He was debarred, consequently, from attaining any of those official positions such as seats in the House of Commons, or in muncipal corporations, which laymen only could hold. This disability moreover extended, contrary to all reason and justice, even to those converts to Catholicism who had once been married, Anglican clerics, and whom, albeit in the Catholic Church they were mere laymen, the laws of their own country compelled, despite their wishes, to remain Anglican ecclesiastics.

Lively opposition has now arisen, not only against the Acts of Parliament which exclude Anglican clergymen from the House of Commons and municipal corporations, but also against the alleged indelibility conferred by these pretended Holy Orders. A petition for the removal of those disabling laws, containing an open denial of the supposed indelible character of the spurious Anglican Orders, was lately presented to the Premier, Mr. Gladstone. It bore the signatures of 34 members of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, all clergymen of the Broad Church party. Many young men in England refuse participation in the Broad Church ministry, through fear of being unable, subsequently, to free themselves from these pretended Holy Orders. The chiefs of the Broad Church are now found protesting against the laws which impose that disability, and denying the very indelibility which they have hitherto always adduced in support of the validity of their Orders. It is well known, that although the The High Church, which in the Anglican Anglican Church may pretend to have presect preserves a great portion of Catholic served the true priesthood as it exists in dogma, which retains a hierarchy, and the Catholic Church, the inconsistency of which practices something like Catholic dis- such claims has ever been demonstrated by cipline, will finish with conversion to the irrefragable evidences, and that condemnatrue faith. Of such a conversion splendid tion was passed on those writings which in and edifying exemplars have been already the last century upheld as true and valid furnished by those great luminaries of An- the Anglican priesthood, derived from glicanism who this day are reckoned the Parker and Cranmer, whose earliest ordimost zealous among Catholics. The Low nations of heretical ministers were cele

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