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knowledge he possesses the precious fac- | Salonica-Nitrovitza branch at Uskub or at ulty of speaking all European languages Varosch. The line is to run along the with equal facility, and has also at his dis- upper Morava by Lescovatz and Vraina. posal a treasure of quotations from the The latter town can then be easily conmost varied literature. In the different nected with Varosch on the Salonica line, towns in which the Institute has met, he the distance between these two places has replied to the authorities appointed to being quite trifling. This branch line, receive us in their own language, and gen. which will be quickly terminated, is of erally as fluently as a native. Baron Neu- capital importance. It will be the nearmann takes me to the university of which est route to Athens, and even to Egypt he is one of the chief ornaments. It is and the extreme East; and will ultimately, situated quite near the cathedral, and is a in all probability, beat not only Marseilles very ancient building, which will shortly but Brindisi. The other section of the be abandoned for the sumptuous edifice line, from Nisch to Sofia and Constantiin course of construction on the Ring. I nople, presents great difficulties. In the am introduced to Professor Lorenz von first place, the pass through which the Stein, author of the best work that has Nischava flows before reaching Pirot is ever been written on Socialism, "Der So- so wild, narrow, and savage, as to chalcialismus in Frankreich," and also of lenge the skill of our engineers. Then, several works on public law and political after leaving Pirot, the line must rise over economy, which are very highly consid- some of the last heights of the Balkans ered in Germany. I am also very pleased to reach the plain of Sofia; the rocks to make the acquaintace of my youthful here, too, are very bad. Beyond, on the colleague, M. Schleinitz, who has just high plateau, there will be no difficulty, published an important work on the devel- and a line was half completed by the opment of landed property. Baron Neu- Turks ten years ago, between Sofia and mann transmits me a letter from Baron Sarambay (the terminus of their system); Kállay, the financial minister, appointing fifteen or sixteen months would suffice to an interview with me before I leave; but finish it. To be brief, this year we shall I see first M. de Serres, the director of be able to go by rail all through Servia as the Austrian railways, who will be able to far as Nisch. A year later, if no time be give me some details as to the connection lost, we shall reach Salonica, and, two between the Hungarian and Servian and years afterwards, Constantinople." the Ottoman lines: a question of the very first importance for the future of the East, and which I had promised myself to study.
The Austrian Railway Companies' offices are in a palace on the Place Schwarzenberg, the finest part of the Ring. Their interior arrangements are quite in keeping with the outside appearance. Immense white marble staircases, spacious and comfortable offices, and the furniture in the reception-rooms all velvet and gold. What a contrast between this modern luxury and the simplicity of the ministerial offices! It is the symbol of a serious economic revolution. Industry takes pri ority of politics. M. de Serres spreads out a map of the railway system on the table. "See," he says, "this is the direct line from Pesth to Belgrade; it crosses the Danube at Peterwardein and the Save at Semlin; it was necessary therefore to construct two immense bridges, the piles of which have been constructed by the Fives-Lille Company. The BelgradeNisch section will be very soon inaugurated. At Nisch there will be a bifurca tion of two lines, one continues to Sofia and the other, branching off, joins the
I thanked M. de Serres for all these interesting details. "The completion of these lines," I said, "will be an event of capital interest for the Eastern world. It will be the signal for an economic transformation far otherwise important than political combinations, and will hasten the accomplishment of an inevitable result the development and the supremacy of the dominant races. Your Austrian railways and Hungary will be the first to benefit, but very soon the whole of Europe will share the advantages which will accrue from the civilizing of the Balkan peninsula."
I call after this on Baron Kállay. I am very pleased to have an opportunity of seeing him, for I am told on all sides that he is one of the most distinguished states. men of the empire. He is a pure Mag. yar, descended from one of Arpad's com panions, who came to Hungary towards the close of the ninth century. They must have been a careful and thrifty family, for they have been successful in retaining their fortune, an excellent precedent for a financial minister. When quite young, Kállay displayed an extraordinary taste for learning, and he was anxious to
know everything; he worked very hard at the Slav and Eastern languages and translated Stuart Mill's "Liberty" into Magyar, and for his literary labor he obtained the honor of being nominated a member of the Hungarian Academy.
Having failed to be elected deputy in 1866, he was appointed consul-general at Belgrade, which post he held for eight years. This period was not lost to science, for he spent it in collecting matter for a history of Servia. In 1874 he was elected deputy in the Hungarian Diet and took his place on the Conservative benches, now the Moderate Left. He started a newspaper, the Kelet Nepe, (“The People of the East"), in which he depicted the part Hungary ought to play in eastern Europe.
of a section in the Foreign Office. He published his history of Servia in Hungarian; it has since been translated into German and Servian, and even at Belgrade it is admitted to be the best that exists. He also published about this time an important pamphlet in German and Hungarian, on the aspirations of Russia in the East during the past three centuries. Under the Chancellor Haymerlé he became secretary of state, and his authority increased rapidly. Count Szlavy, formerly Hungarian minister, a very capable man, but with little acquaintance with the countries beyond the Danube, was then financial minister; and, as such, was the sole administrator of Bosnia. The occupation was a total failure. It entailed immense expense, the taxes were not paid into the exchequer, it was said that the money was detained by the government officials as during the reign of the Turks, and both the Trans-Leithanian and CisLeithanian Parliaments showed signs of discontent. Szlavy resigned his post. The emperor very rightly thinks an immense deal of Bosnia. It is his hobby, his special interest. During his reign Venetian Lombardy has been lost, and his kingdom, consequently, diminished. Bosnia is a compensation for this, and possesses the great advantage of adjoining Croatia, so that it could easily be absorbed into the empire; whereas, with the Italian provinces, this was totally impossible. The emperor then looked around him for the man capable of setting Bosnian affairs in order, and at once selected Kállay, who was appointed to replace Szlavy.
It will be remembered that when the Turko-Russian war broke out, followed by the occupation of Bosnia in 1876, the Magyars were most vehement in their manifestations of sympathy with the Turks, and the opposition was most violent in attacking the occupation. The Hungarians were so bitterly hostile to this movement, because they thought it would be productive of an increase in the number of the Slav inhabitants in the empire. Even the government party were so convinced of the unpopularity of Andrassy's policy that they durst not openly support it. Just at this time Kállay took upon himself to defend it in the House. He told his party that it was senseless to favor the Turkish cause. He proved clearly that the occupation of Bosnia was a necessity, even from a Hungarian point of view; because this State forms a corner The first act of the new minister was separating Servia from Montenegro, and personally to visit the occupied province thus being in the hands of Austria-Hun- of which he speaks all the varied dialects, gary, prevents the formation of an impor- and to converse with the Catholics, Ortant Slav State which might exercise an thodox, and Mahommedans there. irresistible attraction on the Croatians, thus succeeded in reassuring Turkish landwho are of the same race and speak the holders, in encouraging the peasantry to same language. He explained his favor. patience, in reforming abuses and turning ite projects, and spoke of the commercial the thieves out of the temple. Expenses and civilizing mission of Hungary in the became at once reduced and the deficit East. This attitude of a man who knew diminished, but the undertaking might the Balkan peninsula by heart, and had well be compared to the cleansing of the deeply studied all the questions referring Augean stables. Baron Kállay employed to it, was most irritating to many members great tact and consideration, coupled with of his party, who continued for some little relentless firmness. To be able to set a time Turcophile; but the speech pro- clock in thorough order it is necessary to duced a profound impression on the nation be perfectly acquainted with its mechanin general, and public opinion was con- ism. Last year he was warned that a siderably modified. Baron Kállay was tiny cloud was appearing in Montenegro. designated by Count Andrassy as the A fresh insurrection was dreaded. He Austrian representative in the commis- started at once to ascertain the exact posision on Roumelian affairs, and, on his tion of affairs for himself, and he took return to Vienna, he was appointed chief | his wife with him to give his visit a
there, fully to realize the hindrances to be met with at every step. For instance, the Turkish law constitutes the State the owner of all forests, and I am especially desirous of retaining rights on these for the purpose of preserving them; on the other hand, in accordance with a Slav custom, the villagers claim certain rights on the forests. If they merely cut the wood they needed for household purposes, only slight harm would be done; but they ruthlessly cut down trees, and then turn in their goats who eat and destroy the young shoots, so that there is never any chance of the old trees being replaced. These wretched animals are the plague of the country. Wherever they manage to penetrate, nothing is to be found but brushwood.
non-official character. Lady Kállay is as intelligent as she is beautiful, and as courageous as intelligent; this latter is indeed a family quality: Countess Bethlen, she is descended from the hero of Transylvania, Bethlen Gabor. Their journey through Bosnia would form the subject of a poem. While on his way from ovation | to ovation, he succeeded in stamping out the lighted wick which was about to set fire to the powder. Since then, it appears, matters there have continued to improve; at all events, the deficit has disappeared, the emperor is delighted, and every one tells me that if Austria succeed in retaining Bosnia she will certainly owe it to Kállay, and that a most important rôle is assuredly reserved for him in the future administration of the empire. He believes in a great destiny for Hungary, but he is "As the preservation of these woods is by no means an ultra-Magyar. He is pru- of the first necessity in so mountainous a dent, thoughtful, and is well aware of the region we intend to pass a law to this end, quagmires by the way. His Eastern ex- but the difficulty will be to enforce it. It perience is of great service to him. I call would almost necessitate an army of keepon him at his offices, in a little narrowers, and constant struggles in every direc street and on the second floor. The tion. What is really lacking in this fine wooden staircase is dark and narrow. I cannot help comparing it in my mind to the magnificent palace of the railway company, and I must confess my preference for this. I am astonished to find him so young; he is but forty-three years old. The old empire used to be governed by old men, but this is no longer the case. Youth has now the upper hand, and is responsible, doubtless, for the present firm and decisive policy of Austria-Hungary. The Hungarians hold the reins, and their blood has preserved the ardor and decision of youthful people. It seemed to me that I breathed in Austria an air of revival.
country so favored by nature is a gentry who would set an example of agricultural progress, as in Hungary. I will give you an example in proof of this. As a boy I remember that a very heavy, old-fashioned plough was used on our land. In 1848, compulsory labor was abolished, wages increased, and we had to cultivate ourselves. We at once sent for the most perfected American iron ploughs, and at the present day these alone are employed even by the peasants. Austria has a great mission to fulfil in Bosnia, which will in all probability benefit general Europe even more than ourselves. She must, by civilizing the country, justify her occupation of it."
Baron Kállay spoke to me first of the zadrugas, the family communities which existed everywhere in India, as has so For myself," I replied, “I have always well been shown by Sir Henry Maine. maintained, in opposition to my friends "Since you published your book on the English Liberals, that the annexation primitive property" (which was, he says, of Bosnia and Herzegovina to Dalmatia at the time perfectly accurate), “ many was a necessity, and I fully explained this changes have taken place the patri- at a period when the question was not at archal family living on its collective and unalienable domain is rapidly disappear. ing. I regret this quite as much as you can do, but what can be done?"
Speaking of Bosnia, "We are blamed," he says, "for not having yet settled the agrarian question there, but Ireland is sufficient proof of the difficulties to be met with in solving such problems. In Bosnia these are further complicated by the conflict between the Mussulman and our Western laws. One must be on the spot and study these vexed questions
all under discussion, but the essential
"It is absolutely necessary for Dalmatia to become connected with Bosnia. As a Montenegrin guide one day remarked to Miss Muir Mackenzie, Dalmatia
without Bosnia is like a face without a head, and Bosnia without Dalmatia is a head without a face. There and the inland villages, the former with their fine names being no communication between the Dalmatian ports are but unimportant little towns stripped of all their former splendor. For instance, Ragusa, formerly an independent republic, has a population of six thousand inhabitants; Zara, nine thousand; Zebeniko, six thousand; and Cattaro, situated in the most lovely bay in Europe, and with a natural basin sufficiently spacious to accommodate the navy of all Europe, has but two
thousand and seventy-eight inhabitants. In several of
point of all is the making of a railway and - call it even Asiatic, if you will — we roads to connect the interior with the ports on the coast. The Serayevo-Mortar line is absolutely a necessity."
"I am quite of your opinion," answers Baron Kállay, "ma i danari, all cannot be done in a day. We have but just completed the Brod-Serayevo line, which takes passengers in a day from Vienna to the centre of Bosnia. It is one of the first boons conferred by the occupation, and its consequences will be almost measureless."
I refer to a speech he has recently pronounced at the Academy of Pesth. In it he develops his favorite subject, the great mission Hungary is destined to fulfil in the future; being connected with the East through the Magyars and with the West through her ideas and institutions, she must be a link betwern the Eastern and Western worlds. This theory provoked a complete overflow of attacks against Magyar pride from all the German and Slav papers. "These Hungarians," they said, "imagine themselves to be the centre of the universe, and their Hungaria the entire world, Ungarischer Globus. Let them return to their steppes, these Asiatics, these Tartars, these first cousins of the Turks." In the midst of all this vehemence, I am reminded of a little quotation from a book of Count Zays, which most accurately paints the ardent patriotism of the Hungarians, at once their honor and strength, but which develops a spirit of domination and makes them detested by other races. The quotation is as follows: "The Magyar loves his country and his nationality better than humanity, better than liberty, better than himself, better even than God and his eternal sal vation." Kállay's high intelligence prevents his falling into this exaggerated Chauvinism. No one understood me," he says, "and no one chose to understand. I was not talking politics. I had no desire to do so in our Academy at a scientific and literary meeting. I simply announced an undeniable fact. Situated at the point of junction of a series of different races and for the very reason that we speak a non-Indo-Germanic idiom
these impoverished cities, beggars have taken up their abode in the ancient palaces of the princes of commerce, and the lion of St Mark overlooks these buildings fall ing into ruins. This coast, which has the misfortune to adjoin a Turkish province, will never regain its for mer position until good roads and railways have been constructed between its splendid ports and the fertile inland territory, whose productiveness is at present essentially hampered by the vilest imaginable_administration." (La Prusse et l'Autriche depuis Sadowa, ii., p. 151. 1868)
are compelled to be acquainted with all the languages of Western Europe. Our institutions, our educational systems, belong to the Western world. At the same time, by some mysterious connection with our blood, Eastern dialects are very easily accessible and comprehensible to us. have over and over again remarked that I can grasp much more clearly the meaning of an Eastern manuscript or document by translating it into Magyar, than if I read a German or English translation of it."
The Ring, and how this splendid boulevard has been made, is certainly a question worthy of an economist's inquiries. What changes since 1846! At that period, from the heights of the old ramparts that had sustained the famous siege of 1683, one could obtain a panorama of the entire city, with its extensive faubourgs separated from the centre by a dusty esplanade where the Hungarian regiments, with their tight blue trousers, drilled every evening. The Volksgarten, where Strauss played his waltzes, and the Grecian temple with Canova's statue, have been left intact; but a boulevard twice as wide as those in Paris runs along the entire length; ample space has been reserved for the erection of public monuments and the remainder of the land sold at enormous prices. The State and the town have constructed public edifices vying with each other in magnificence; two splendid theatres, a town hall, which will certainly cost fifty million francs; a palace for the University, two museums, and a House of Parliament for the Reichsrath. All around the Ring, in addition to the buildings just mentioned, are archdukes' palaces, immense hotels, and pri vate residences, which, from their grand proportions and the richness of their decorations, are monuments themselves. I know of nothing comparable to the Ring in any other capital. Where did Austria find the necessary funds for all these constructions? The State and the town made a most successful speculation: the price paid to them for the ground on the esplanade almost covered all their expenses, but the purchasers of that ground and the constructions placed upon it — who paid for all that? The hundreds of millions of francs represented by this land and by the public buildings and private dwellings on it, all that must spring from the savings of the country. This affords a clear proof that in spite of the unfortunate wars, the loss of Venetian Lombardy and the Krach of 1873, in spite also of home difficulties
and the persistent deficit, continuing from year to year, Austria has become much wealthier. The State is a beggar, but the nation has accumulated capital which expends itself in all these splendors of the Ring. As on the banks of the Rhine, all this is due to machinery. As man can with his new and powerful tools procure nourishment and clothing for a less sum, he can devote a larger portion of his revenue and labor to his board, his pleasures, to art and various institutions.
and indeed the full pathos of which we in England can with difficulty appreciate, owing to distance both of time and space. Not only is Hungary a long way off, occu pying but a small place in an Englishman's mental horizon, but the events referred to in that document happened thirty-five years ago, in those antediluvian days when the Second Empire as yet was not, and the World's Fair had not been held in Hyde Park. Even in Hungary the War of Independence is passing into the domain of history. Those, however, of our readers who are old enough to remember that war as a contemporary event discussed in the columns of the Times and the Daily News, and afterwards retold in burning words by the most eloquent foreigner that ever addressed an English andience, will remember that the Hungarian commander-in-chief, Arthur Görgey, was the scapegoat sent out into the wilderness with all the sins and sorrows of that unsuccessful struggle upon his head. It was not enough that two of the most formidable military powers of the Continent joined their forces to crush the Hungarians; they were betrayed, so we were assured, by the foremost soldier in their
All that I succeeded in ascertaining in Vienna with respect to the present situation of Bosnia served to confirm the views I already entertained as to that country. The interests of civilization, and especially those of the southern Slavs, command our approval of this occupation. We arrive at this conclusion by an argument which appears to me irrefutable. Was it, yes or no, of importance that Bosnia should be freed from the Turkish yoke? No friend of humanity in general and of the Slavs can answer this question otherwise than in the affirmative. Who then is to carry out this freedom? Russia is not to be thought of. The forming of Bosnia into an independent State would be still worse, for it would be simply delivering|ranks, to whom the governor Kossuth up the rayas without the slightest defence to the Mussulman begs. The most tempting plan seemed to be to unite it to Servia, but in that case Bosnia would have been separated from its neighbor Dalmatia, and the Servian government would have been compelled to undertake the difficult task of keeping its ancient enemies, the Mussulman Bosniacs, in check. The only other solution was the present one. Austria-Hungary can neither Mag. yarize nor Germanize Bosnia. She brings it safety, order, education, and roads; or, in other words, the elements of modern civilization. Is not this all the Slavophils can possibly desire? Thus will be formed a new nation, which will grow up side by side with Croatia and Dalmatia, fortifying these two countries as it develops, and serving at the same time as a connecting link between them.
Emile de Laveleye.
From The Saturday Review.
THE other day in a private room in one of the by-streets of Pesth, five old soldiers presented to their former com mander a document, the full significance
had in a moment of misplaced confidence entrusted the fortunes of his country. What was the precise character of the unworthy motives that led General Görgey to soil his laurels with treachery was variously and vaguely explained; but it was generally assumed that his motives must have been unworthy. The capitulation of Vilagos, when twenty-four thou sand men, with one hundred and forty-four cannon, laid down their arms before the Russian commander, was for the Hungarian nation the humiliations of Sedan and Metz and Paris rolled into one. By it two delusions dear to the national mind seemed in danger of being dissipated that Hungary alone in arms could defy all her enemies round about, and, if not, the free peoples of the West would interfere in her behalf. The theory of Görgey's treason came in opportunely to save the amour propre of the nation and of those who had fostered those dangerous and dear illusions. The events which pre. ceded and those which followed the capitulation combined to lend plausibility to the theory of treason. Early in the course of the war it had become apparent that the Assembly, under the leadership of Kossuth, and the army under the leadership of Görgey, held irreconcilable views with regard to the proper aim and scope of the