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struggle against Austria. The more san- men of their country both in politics and guine partisans on either side urged their letters. General Görgey's great rival, the leader to suppress his rival by violent ex-governor, has of late years revived the means. To bring Görgey before a court-recollection of that war by the publication martial, to disperse the Assembly at Deb. of his "Memoirs." Their publication led reczin as Cromwell dispersed the Long to a certain recrudescence of the old conParliament, such would have been the troversies. Görgey and his friends relogical issues of the disagreement. But pled by articles in the Budapest Review the leaders shrank from such extreme and other periodicals. At last, in the courses. Each was too sensible of the spring of the current year, two or three weakness of his own position; each per- members of the old Honved army, dis haps over-estimated the power of his cussing the question among themselves, rival. It was only the military disasters determined to collect the opinions of their consequent upon the energetic and effec. surviving comrades. Finding that their tual intervention of the Russians that gave own view of the matter was generally the soldier a final preponderance over the though not universally held, they drew up agitator. Kossuth abdicated and fled; a declaration to the effect that in capitu Görgey remained and capitulated. By lating at Vilagos General Görgey had surrendering, not to the Austrian, but to altogether acted as became a soldier and the Russian commander, he emphasized a patriot. This declaration, dated the the fact that Hungary yielded. only to 30th of May, was presented to the general force majeure, and was conquered only by on the 22nd of November, by which time foreign arms. In so acting he conceived it had been signed by two hundred and that he was saving the military honor of seven old Honved officers, a goodly numhis country. One, however, of the con- ber when we take into account the rav sequences of his so acting was that his ages which thirty-five years have made in life was spared through the express inter- their ranks. The document begins by vention of Russia, while his companions reflecting on their daily diminishing numin arms were shot, hanged, and impris- bers—one of them, General Gaspar, has oned. Under these circumstances it was died since his signature was affixed — on but natural, however illogical and unfair, the advanced age of those who still reto make him responsible, not only for the main, on the destruction of the original failure of the campaign, but also for the official papers by the enemy, and the deseverity of the repression which began as sirableness in the interests of historic soon as the Russian troops had left Hun- truth of their making such a declaration. gary. Thus, as a deputy expressed him- They are further moved to do so by feelself in 1868, "poor Görgey had to be ings of humanity and of loyalty to a combranded as a traitor that we might save rade and a commander who for so many the prestige of the country." From 1849 years has supported with so much manly to 1867 Görgey was "interned" in Kla- fortitude so great a weight of unmerited op genfurt as a political suspect, and was probrium; further, by a juster idea of the not permitted to return home until the honor of their country than to suppose reconciliation of the king and the nation that it can be served by the maintenance took place in the latter year. On several of a fable invented in a moment of despair, occasions after his return he was publicly the need for which fable, if it ever existed, and grossly insulted both in the capital having long ago passed away. They then and the provinces. Yet he counted point out the desperate position of the among his friends and adherents the most Hungarian army before Vilagos, and reprominent and most esteemed members call General Görgey's words in his fareof Hungarian society, and he was em-well proclamation to his troops, "It is ployed by the government both as a chem-impossible that the right cause should be ist and an engineer.

lost forever." Among the names ap Few European countries have changed pended may be noticed those of General so much as Hungary during the last thirty- Klapka, Count Scherr Thosz, the Prus five, or even during the last seventeen sian Baron Uechtritz, Counts Esterhazy, years. The generation that fought and Karolyi, and Andrassy, and that of M. suffered in the War of Independence has Gustave Kossuth, sometime lieutenant in become a minority, although its surviving the Honved army and a cousin of the govmembers are still the most distinguished | ernor.

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From The Contemporary Review. ANCIENT PALESTINE AND MODERN


LINE by line and touch by touch the picture of ancient Palestine is being drawn, and in proportion as it grows in finish and begins to stand out on the canvas, public attention is the more attracted to it.

sions may be reached. The Egyptologist and the Assyriologist may perhaps be unwilling to allow the Syriologist, as he may be called, an equal footing with themselves. Their own discoveries have, perhaps, been more numerous, more important historically, and founded on more difficult and arduous study than those of the explorers of Palestine and of Syria. Yet there can be no doubt that this will not be the view of the general public, and, indeed, the fact is confessed in the manner of appeal to that public adopted by the students of Assyrian and Egyptian antiquities. To Englishmen generally the results of these researches are inter

reference to the light thereby thrown on the study of the Bible and of Hebrew antiquities in general. It is most important for the student of Syrian antiquities to be fully aware of the work which is being done in these other departments of research. Nor can he feel that he thoroughly understands the Jews of the Talmudic period till he has penetrated to their land of exile has become familiar with the ideas of Medes and Persians, with Zendic literature, and even with Esthonian folk-lore, not less than with the pre-Islamite Arabs of the Hejaz, and with the mixed Greco-Turkish populations of Cyprus and Asia Minor.

The results of Palestine exploration are in harmony with the true scientific spirit, because, on the one hand, they are based on actual and special information, collected without reference to any theory and free from suspicion of any tendency; and, on the other, because they depend on that comparative method whereby all our greatesting, not so much in themselves as in est results in science have been gained. The main object has been to provide ample, accurate, and recent information as to the country, its architecture, topography, fauna, flora, and geology, and as to the social peculiarities (race, dress, customs, manners, language, and employments) of the various dwellers in that Holy Land of the Hebrew and the Christian, which is the theatre of the events recorded in the Old and New Testaments. But it is not merely by visiting and measuring ruins, photographing peasants, executing surveys, and collecting specimens and inscriptions that results of general interest are to be obtained. The explorer must be a student as well; he must be in cordial It is for this reason that hasty journeys, communication with all other students undertaken by travellers not familiar with with whom he may be able to communi- the real problems to be solved in Syria, cate; he must know what others have have as yet led only to very meagre redone and are doing, and what he may sults. Here and there a lucky find may fairly expect to find in the places he visits fall to the share of one whose knowledge - where to look, in short, and what to is hardly sufficient to enable him to apseek. The results for which such a stu-preciate its value; but if the study of dent hopes are not always those which Palestine antiquities is to attain to the the public expects; but if the Palestine explorers have not brought back the ark from Jerusalem, the golden calves from Bethel, Ahab's ivory palace, or Samson's coffin, their claims to the public confi. dence are not thereby weakened; for it is by that which they have not discovered, quite as much as by that which they have, that real students will judge the value of the work which they offer for general use But, still more, it is by a comparative system only that really important conclu

level of true science, it can only be through the combined efforts of properly instructed explorers working in harmony with their fellow-laborers and students of the East.

During the last four years there has been considerable activity in the work of exploration and in the study of Syrian antiquities, and the results now begin very evidently to affect the critical examination of the Scriptures and the primary instruction of our schools. The work has not been confined to the action of the

vance in our knowledge of epigraphy which will assist future students of this great subject to assign due value to their discoveries, while the Harkavy manuscripts of the prophets may well be expected to yield new critical results, especially if they should prove to be older than the earliest existing manuscripts as yet known of the Hebrew Scriptures; and the discovery of the valuable tractate called "Teaching of the Apostles," in Turkey, shows that even in early Christian literature new and important discoveries may yet be possible.

Palestine Exploration Fund, although | publication of Dr. Isaac Taylor's "History this society has been the centre round of the Alphabet" marks an important adwhich it is grouped. Individual efforts have largely contributed to the increase of our knowledge, and the members of the Biblical Archæological Society have also not been idle. As regards the work of the first-named society, we have received since 1881 seven stout quarto volumes full of plans, sketches, and detailed descriptions. Five of these relate to the survey of western Palestine, one contains a valuable account of the fauna and flora of the Holy Land, by Canon Tristram; and the last is devoted to an account of twenty years of exploration in Jerusalem, with papers in addition on the history of the city and on its existing monuments. The great work thus completed forms the basis of a true scentific study of Palestine antiquities; but the most valuable results are perhaps still in the future, when this mass of information has been well sifted and summarized. In addition to this work, we have the survey of eastern Palestine, inaugurated in 1881, which has already yielded important results as yet lying hidden in manuscript plans and notes which the society should strive to produce as soon as possible; for though the district examined was small, the amount of information collected was larger and more interesting than any which they have as yet published relating to western Palestine. Accounts of the exploration of the Hebron Haram by the officers accompanying the royal princes in 1882, and the reconnaissance of Sinai and southern Palestine, with a view to the settlement of geological questions, undertaken by Professor Hull for the society in 1883, are also among the more recent publications of the Palestine Exploration Fund.

The Biblical Archæological Society has turned its attention to the so-called Hittite question, which promises results of great interest in the future; and the Egyptian Exploration Fund has employed M. Naville, the well-known Swiss antiquarian, to dig in the Delta, with the interesting result that he has identified Pithom, thus casting important light on the Exodus route. In addition to these labors, the

In individual discoveries the general reader may feel little interest. There are some who do not care where Succoth was, and think it of little importance in what character the kings of Judah wrote their inscriptions. Yet such general readers do feel a constantly growing interest in the general question as to the results of all those inquiries which bear on the Bible literature. There are questions connected with the Bible on which exploration throws no light, and aspects with which the antiquarian has little to do. The naïve question, which the explorer has often to answer, "Do your discoveries go to prove that the Bible is true?" betokens a somewhat vague habit of thought and speech, and is one which cannot properly be answered in a single word. It cannot but be felt, however, that explora. tion has resulted in disposing of many crude objections to the Bible narrative. It has explained very many difficulties, it has shown some curious expressions and episodes to be perfectly correct from an Oriental point of view. It has given a true coloring to our understanding of the Hebrew Scriptures, and has shown that the historic facts of such books as Kings or Chronicles with the geography of Joshua and of the New Testament are genuine and reliable, and that they can be checked by incidental notices in the history of Assyria or of Egypt, in monuments yet legible in Syria or Moab, in the ruins and ancient nomenclature still remaining in the Holy Land. From a purely human standpoint, which regards the Scriptures as ancient literature, exploration has be

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