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the hearts of their pupils? You are too young, low; methinks, had I been the peasant, I should Pavel, to understand what I mean; but one day have struck him dead at my feet."

you will more easily feel that it was as impolitic as it was cruel to refuse so long placing us on a par with the rest of the world. Now, before looking in at the fair, I must go and see if certain debtors of mine cannot be brought to feel that I have a right to my money. I lent it to them at a time when no Christian would have advanced a stiver of course, I take an unusual interest on it, for if nothing had tempted me to take upon myself so onerous a bargain, what should have induced me to run the risk?"

Emerging from the Jewish quarter into a street of fine appearance, Noah entered one of its most showy houses, leaving Pavel the whilst outside. When he again made his appearance, his face was sadder, and he looked about him with a more timid air than before.

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"Serf-serf," repeated the boy, and not all the gayety of the fair could dissipate the idea connected with that word, which haunted him throughout the day. At last their purchases were made, and Pavel was most eager to return home, for to him the pain of witnessing the deep humiliation of Noah, part of which was reflected upon himself, was as exquisite as it was new. Turning down the principal street leading to the town gate, they passed beneath a scaffolding erected against one of the houses, and the boy chancing to raise his head, encountered the malicious glances of a couple of young house-painters engaged in their avocations immediately above him. With a cry of derision the youths flung "I have been paid, as usual, with threats," he down on poor Noah's bright new silk dress and said. "It is one of those many houses that in-cap as much of their white paint as their brushes dulge in a criminal expenditure which is to be could contain. For the first time that day Pavel covered by any means, lawful or unlawful, that saw the meek being wince under hard usage, and can be devised; but even whilst yon proud gen- as the boys in the street echoed the hoarse laugheral spoke to me with such contempt, and in so ter of those on the scaffolding, two hot tears stole high a tone, and with such coarse words, and down Noah's subdued countenance. Pavel felt would have me thrown down stairs, forsooth, I his blood boil. partly for the unmerited aggresread on his pale brow and in his anxious eye caression, and partly at what he considered the unmanworse than those that hover round my board. I liness of Noah's resignation. He was would not change conditions with him."

A little further on a drove of cattle blocked the way, and compelled Noah and Pavel to step beneath a gateway. Whilst waiting patiently the moment when they could resume their peregrinations, they heard two voices, one raised in anger, the other in a tone of supplication, issuing from a courtyard, and, turning round, they saw a young man, in a military costume, belaboring to his heart's content, about head, face, and neck, a gigantic young peasant, who held the reins of two powerful horses.

on the

point of giving utterance to his feelings in ungentle expressions, when the Jew, guessing by his heightening color and flashing eye what was passing in his mind, seized him by the arm, and hurried him away; nor did he loosen his hold until they had left the town gate behind them.

"You mean it well, you mean it kindly, Pavel, I know," he said, "but you might have brought us to a fearful pass-child that you are! You know not yet what it is to be mobbed; you know not what it is to be a Jew! Ah!" he added, heavTo effect this piece of brutali-ing a deep sigh as he gazed on his besmeared vestty, the young officer had been obliged to mount ment, "it is not for this foolish stuff that I grieve; upon the wheel of the vehicle. One touch of the it is for my Salome's vexation. But what right whip on the fiery animals, and the tormentor would have we to wear fine, or even clean things? No have been flung to the earth, but the young peas-other joys are permitted us but those we conceal. ant, even whilst howling beneath his master's We are obliged to hide our every pleasure, howblows, instinctively tightened the reins. One ever innocent, and people accuse us of mystery! thrust of his iron hand might have proved deadly They laugh at our innocence, and shudder at our to the effeminate-looking being who indulged in imagined crimes! Ay, it's a hard lot to bear; 1 this paroxysm of despotism, and yet that strong know but of one which at all resembles it-it is hand stirred not. Pavel could not endure the that of the vassal." sight. He who, a couple of years previous, had coolly witnessed the flogging of men, and, for that matter, of women too, in the general's stable-yard -nay, had himself struck older children than himself, as confident in their passiveness as was now the elegant officer in that of his victim-he covered his eyes in disgust, and ran from the spot. But he then ranked among the strikers, and was now likely to rank among the struck, and this change had quickened his sensibilities.

"But I-I-" said Pavel; he stopped short, his breathing became thick, his voice husky, “I—I am no vassal!"

The inflection of doubt which he gave those words went to Noah's very heart. There were suppressed tears, there was a poignant anguish, in the tremor of that voice.

"You, my poor boy," said Noah, "I know it not for sure, but have been told so by your cousin -you are registered as such on the estate on which you were born."

"I may be so inscribed, but I am not!" said the

"It was a shocking sight!" he said, as soon as the Jew rejoined him; "I wonder that strong man could endure so much from such a puny fel-boy, proudly.

"Of that I have not the means of judging,"| workmen of the towns that you monopolize all the Noah replied. “Many a lord's son is his own trade." brother's vassal; many a nephew has mounted behind the carriage in which his aunt sat; it all depends which side the relationship comes.'

"If I thought so, I would run away," said Pavel. "You would get no passport."

"Even that charge I will not deny. No one could buy or sell—there were no traffic in Poland or in Gallicia without our aid-the whole activity of the land is ours. But why is it? Because we are more industrious, more active than the people

"Can a man, then, be rooted, like a tree, to a of the soil. Where we have found competition, as

particular spot?"

"Even so."

"Then it is his own fault," said Pavel, with vehemence," if he make not those repent who keep him against his will!"

"Very true," said Noah; "but of what use is one man standing forth to revenge the wrongs of the community? He only forfeits his life."


in Russia, have we been able to supersede the natives? No! Besides, are we not also children of the soil? have we not been born upon it for centuries? Take away a heartless prejudice which the priesthood, in times past, created, and envy has fanned, and have we not a right to call ourselves Poles, and to flourish as part and parcel of the nation? You know, Pavel, you yourself were "What's life?" exclaimed Pavel, disdainfully. delighted the other day with the account given us "A thing you don't yet know," said Noah, with by a learned brother of my creed, of a distant couna sad smile. Besides, that's not the worst. He try called America; well, do you think that the who rises singly is but a criminal. It's only when foreign settlers there will not, in fewer centuries one can, by his example, effect a useful progress than we have dwelled in Europe, call that land gain a general aim, that any deed of violence can their own, and consider themselves part of the be excused-it were otherwise but an instance of nation? Is it not madness to treat us as strangers private vengeance which a man cannot justify even or mere sojourners who have, generation after gento his own conscience. It were, moreover, totally eration, been born on the land, and have no other useless. It would only embitter the condition of to go to? Why should we not be Poles or Gerthe rest. But what are we talking of?-subjects mans; because we do not believe in the divinity of far beyond your years, if not beyond your discre- Christ? Are there not thousands of Poles and tion. I wish my poor Salome had not so set her Germans who share that heresy? And if we could heart on this dress-ay, it is a sad thing to be a be crushed into a hopeless poverty-if the laws Jew! You have seen but little to-day of the humil- should increase in severity, what might not be iation it is our lot to encounter. I was once pres-feared from our numbers and our despair?" ent with some friends, at a grand review in Warsaw, and to command a better sight we got up into a tree. Would you believe it?-under pretence of inadvertency, we were fired at, and one or two of us dropped to the ground, more hurt, I will own, by the fall-and the shouts of merriment with which the incident was witnessed by the Christian spectators, ay, even by fine ladies in their carriages than by the shot; but blood flowed, and a limb was broken."

"I will tell you," said Pavel, "your chief sin lies in submitting as you do-it is your tameness that makes you the scorn of the Christians."

"Does the savage vindictiveness of the gypsy, a wanderer and an outcast like ourselves, cause him to be respected? An oppressed people who have no hold on the sympathies of the rest of the human race would be misunderstood in their just resentment as they have been in their resignation." "But, then, the peasants complain," said Pavel, "that you get possession of all their lands, and the

[COOKE THE ACTOR HIS MENTAL INTOXICATIONS.] COOKE the actor says in one of his journals, "To use a strange expression, I am sometimes in a kind of mental intoxication. Some I believe would call it insanity; I believe it is allied to it. I then can imagine myself in strange situations, and in strange places. This humor, or whatever it is, comes uninvited, but is nevertheless easily dispelled; at least generally so. When it cannot be dispelled, it must of course become madness."

"But you have no wish to return to Jerusalem," said Pavel.

"What should we do there?"

"That's it," said Pavel; "the moment you cannot earn money you will have nothing to say to anything. I'll be bound you would not care to enter into Paradise if you could not traffic there, and, what's more-cheat!"

"We are what people have made us," answered Noah, darkly. "Before casting our sins in our teeth, let them do something towards improving us. No one pays higher taxes to the state; and yet does government give us schools, hospitals, a clergy, asylums, or the benefit of any public institution? All these we have to provide for ourselves, or do without. And think you that hate begets loveoppression, cheerful acquiescence? Go ask the serf how he feels towards his lord?" And thus was Pavel taught early to enter upon the most dangerous social questions, and to view them in the darkest light.

Upon this curious passage his biographer remarks, "These mental intoxications, it is needless to observe, were the consequence of physical intoxications; and it was in these humors, when he could imagine himself in strange situations and strange places.' But he used to indulge himself in a species of romancing that might perhaps be termed coherent madness."-Dunlop's Memoirs of George Frederick Cooke, vol. 1, p. 104.




red pepper and tomatoes. This was the miner's simple dinner. Tearing off a piece of one of the tortillas, he twisted it with his fingers into a sort of scoop, (called in Mexico la cuchara de Montezuma, or Montezuma's spoon,) and taking up in this a mouthful of the beans, he dipped it into the burning sauce, and swallowed it, spoon and all.

"Because, mi corazoncito—my little heart," replied the young man, "there is to be another blast to-day; and the administrador wishes to have it fired while the men are at dinner."

The smile instantly disappeared from Margarita's face.

"Santa Maria!" she exclaimed, "another blast! Oh, Manuel, how long do you mean to continue in this dreadful duty?"

THE sun had not yet attained its meridian height above the bare and rugged mountains of Zacatecas, when a man in the garb of a Mexican miner descended slowly down a narrow and tortuous path which wound along the side of a steep declivity. "How is it that you are so early to-day, ManuAt length he reached a spot where a small plat-elito?" asked the female, who watched him with form or shelf, jutting from the mountain slope, and an affectionate smile, while he was thus satisfaccovered with vegetation, seemed to invite him to torily engaged. rest. It appeared, indeed, that he had intended to stop at this spot, for he turned aside at once and seated himself on the green sward beside a fountain which here gushed from the overhanging steep, and created by its moisture the verdure that surrounded it. Directly over this spring, a large tree, a species of mountain ash, sent its thousand roots into the crevices of the rock, and shaded with its spreading branches the gushing fount and the green turf beneath. The miner's first act was to take a long draught of the refreshing wave, and then he proceeded to bathe his face and hands in the running water. When the earth-stains which covered his visage were washed away, he appeared a young creole of some twenty-two or three years, with a bright black eye, long straight hair, dark complexion, and a frank, gay, fearless expression of countenance. He wore a coarse jacket and loose trousers of some brown woollen stuff, bound at the waist by a leather girdle, in which was thrust the never-failing knife. He sat for a time, whistling carelessly, with his eyes fixed on the descending path.

Presently a wide covered basket became visible in this direction, with a small hand grasping it on one side. Then a pretty face, with a pair of sparkling black eyes, and two small ruddy lips, parted in a smile of pleasure and surprise, came into view. Then followed the erect and shapely figure to which the pretty face belonged, gayly auired, as became a miner's wife, in a gorgeous petticoat, whereof the upper part was of a bright yellow and the lower of a flaming scarlet; an equally brilliant roboso, or cotton shawl, of many variegated hues, was thrown over the shoulders, and the small feet were daintily encased in skyblue satin shoes.

"Enhorabuena-in good time, Margarita," said the miner, showing his white teeth. "I am here before you."

"Until I can find a better, my life," replied the miner gayly. "Would you have me go back to my old employment of barretero—of simple miner -at six dollars a week, when here as pegador, as the sole and trusted matchlighter, I am earning sixteen?"

"Alas!" returned Margarita, "of what use will the money be, if it happen to you as to Pedro Bravo, only three months ago? Ah, I think I see the mangled body, as it was carried by our cottage, with poor Inesita crying over it. And then, there is Juan Valdez, stone-blind now for five years. And old Anton, a cripple from his youth. Of what advantage was their high wages to them?"

"None, sweetheart," replied Manuel," because what they won by boldness and skill they lost by carelessness. If a man will persist in firing matches when his brain is muddled with aguardi ente, he must expect to suffer for it. However, I shall not be a pegador always. In good time, if it please San Francisco, I shall be captain of a mine. And who knows but that one of these days I may be an administrador—an overseer, and a rich man, as well as others?"


"To be sure," replied Margarita, eagerly. Why not you as well as Miguel Gomez?-Don Miguel, forsooth, as he must be called now! And yet I remember him when he was only a poor buscon-a common mine-hunter, and always in debt to my father for aguardiente and tobacco. Yet because he happened to light on a good vein, and "Yes, in good truth," replied the young wo-sold it to the English company for ten thousand man, laughing; "and I was afraid all the time dollars, and was made overseer, he thinks himself that I might be too early, and the tortillas and fri- now a great gentleman, and that everybody must joles would get cold. But now they will be a give way to him." dinner fit for a governor."

"Poor Don Miguel!" said the miner, laughing. "You are too hard upon our administrador, Margarita. First, you refuse his hand and heart, not to speak of his dollars; and then you abuse him behind his back."

With these words she quickly deposited her burden on the ground, and removed the covers, first from the basket, and then from the earthenware dishes which it contained. There was a plate of tortillas, or thin pancakes of maize, a bowl "Ah!" said Margarita, hastily, "if you knew of stewed frijoles, (a kind of small black beans,) -" and then she stopped suddenly, as if she and another bowl containing a fiery sauce made of had said more than she intended.

"What is there that you know, mi mugercita—| my little wife, that I do not?" asked Manuel, looking up in surprise.

Si las minas de San Bernabé
No diéron tan buena ley,
No casaria Juan Barra
Bon la hija del virey.

Which may

be rendered :

If Saint Barnabas' mine

Had not yielded ore so fine,
Juan Barra ne'er had wedded'

A maiden of the viceroy's line.

Manuel's song ceased when he reached the Rinconada, a sharp angle in the path, beside which the precipice sank plump down, a sheer descent of more than five hundred feet. The recollection of what his wife had just told him sent a cold shudder through his frame, and he

"It was something that happened before our marriage," replied Margarita, seriously. "I promised then to conceal it; but I have often been troubled since with the thought of my promise. If I sin in breaking it now, I will beg Padre Isidro to absolve me, for I know there should be no secrets between us two. It was Anita, the wife of Juan Pedraza, the poor drunken cargador, who told me what she heard from her husband. When you and Miguel Gomez were quarrelling for love of me," continued the young woman, with naïve gravity, "Juan said that Miguel promised him the place of captain of the galera, with twenty had not recovered his usual gayety when he dollars a week, if he would commit a dreadful crime. It was to follow you when you were coming down the mountain, and push you off the precipice at the Rinconada, so that you might seem to have fallen by accident. Juan would not be guilty of such a horrible act for the world, but he was so afraid of the overseer that he dared not speak of it to any one but his wife. I did not know it till after we were married, and then I would not tell you because it could do no good; for Gomez knows now that if I were free to-morrow I would rather jump off the Rinconada myself than take him with all his money."

"The villain!" said Manuel, while his eyes sparkled and his hand clutched instinctively at his knife. "It was well for him, Margarita, that you did not tell me this a year ago. But perhaps he has repented of it since; he has been very good-natured to me of late. However, I think his time is up. The English director, Don Jayme, came this morning from Mexico, and seems very much dissatisfied with the working of the mine. It is whispered among the men that the overseer is certain to lose his place."

reached the mouth of the shaft. Here, in the
galera, or great shed surrounding the pit, he
found the English director, Don Jayme, the over-
seer, Miguel Gomez, and several clerks, miners,
porters, and mule-drivers. Don Jayme seemed
to be in a bad humor, and the overseer looked
black and sullen.
"Enhorabuena-in good time, my man,'
" said
the director. "We are all ready for you; and
now let every one here be attentive to his duties.
There has been too much carelessness heretofore,
particularly in the blasting. Many complaints
have been made among the townspeople and pro-
prietors of the accidents which occur here. You,
I am told, are a very skilful and quickwitted work-
man," he continued, addressing Manuel.
well that we have some on whom we can rely."
Gomez listened to this significant speech with-
out venturing to reply, but his swarthy face grew
livid, and his eyes flashed with a baleful fire.
Two horses, especially trained to the duty, were
now attached to the malacate, a machine by which
the buckets were raised and lowered in the shaft.
Manuel then placed upon his head a conical hat,

"It is

"Ah, that is good news, indeed!" said Mar- having a socket on the top, which held a lighted garita, clasping her hands.

"And so this was the reason," added Manuel, gayly, "why you preferred a poor barretero, with only his miner's pick and his dollar a day, to the rich administrador?"

"Of what good is money," returned Margarita, earnestly," without happiness? Riches fly away, but the good heart remains."

"That is as true as though Padre Isidro had said it," rejoined Manuel, as he rose hastily from his seat on the turf; "but time flies, too, my dear little preacher, and they will be waiting for me at the mine."

The young couple separated with many affectionate injunctions on the part of the wife, to which the miner laughingly promised a punctual attention. Margarita, as she replaced the basket on her head, heard the clear manly voice of her husband, far above her, singing the refrain of a ballad once very popular among the miners of Zacatecas, which described the good fortune of a poor adventurer of that town in former days:

candle. He took in one hand a small rope, of
which the other end was held by the overseer,
and by shaking which the matchlighter was to
give the signal when he was ready to ascend.
On the promptitude with which his ascent took
place depended, of course, his safety from the
effects of the explosion. Manuel now stepped
into the bucket, which was slowly lowered down
the shaft, a distance of about a hundred yards.
Two arreadores, or drivers, held the horses' heads,
and waited in anxious silence for the signal from
Gomez. All was still as death in the galera.
"Let go!" shouted the overseer.

The drivers loosed the heads of the horses, and the well-trained animals dashed off at once, and circled the malacate at full speed. In a minute the bucket rose to view-empty!

"Back! Down with it! For life! for life!" exclaimed the director, stamping with impatience and anger. 'Oh, what idiotcy, what insanity, is this!"


The men hastened to obey his order, but before

the bucket had descended a dozen yards, the roar | him. After some reflection, he fixed upon the of the explosion smote upon their ears, and a direction in which he judged the passage to lie, and swam carefully towards it. He was soon convinced, by the space passed over, that he was mistaken in his judgment; but considering it better to keep on until he found the wall than to

cloud of smoke and dust was driven violently up the shaft, and filled the galera. When it cleared away, the faces of all present were seen to be pale with horror.

"You villain!" cried the director to Gomez; waste his strength in swimming about at random, "what is the meaning of this?"

"Upon my life—as I am a Christian-the rope shook in my hands," replied Gomez, whose teeth chattered, and whose whole frame seemed to tremble with nervous agitation, while his eyes carefully avoided those of the director.

he proceeded steadily forward for a distance, as he judged, of nearly two hundred yards. At length he encountered the wall, which rose per pendicularly far above his head, as he found by the splash of the water which he threw against it. Coasting along it, and occasionally touching The latter did not waste another word upon it with one hand, he advanced for about a hundred him, but seizing a shovel he sprang into the buck-yards further, by which time his limbs were beet, along with two of the miners, and was quickly coming stiff and benumbed in the ice-cold water, lowered down the shaft. Here they set about removing, as rapidly and carefully as possible, the pile of earth and stones with which the explosion had filled the bottom of the shaft, not doubting that they should find the mangled remains of the poor matchlighter beneath them.

and his heart had almost failed him. But he was not destined to perish thus. He suddenly came upon a passage, the opening of which was a little lower than the surface of the water. It was evident from this fact, as well as from the size of the passage, that it could not be that by which he had entered. However, it offered him at least a respite from death, and he promptly availed himself of it. After sitting motionless for a time to recover from the exhaustion of his recent efforts, he rose and proceeded to explore the passage. It proved to be a sort of vaulted chamber, of about. his own height, and just wide enough for him to touch its sides with his outstretched hands. A

There was a tradition of an ancient socabon, or adit, which had been driven at vast expense through the mountain, to effect the drainage of the old mine of San Adrian. When the mine was abandoned, the adit, of course, was no longer attended to; its external opening became closed up, and, in the space of more than two hundred years which had passed, its precise locality-indeed, everything but the mere fact of its existence-was forgotten. Manuel well remembered to have one day heard Don Jayme say to a Mexican gentleman, who accompanied him on a former visit to the mine, that he should consider the discovery of the old socabon an inestimable service, as it would, probably, save the company an immense expense for drainage in their new works.

While they are thus engaged in a fruitless search, let us follow the actual course of Manuel's proceedings. He had just lighted the matches, and was on the point of stepping into the bucket, when it was suddenly drawn up. A conviction of the overseer's perfidy instantly flashed upon him, and with it a sense of the horror of his position. But Manuel was, as the director had said, a quickwitted fellow. He knew that the work-soul-cheering idea suddenly flashed upon his mind. men employed in the shaft had, a few days before, come upon a small side-cut, or passage, barely large enough to admit the body of a man, and that, on tracing it to its termination, it was found to lead to an immense chamber in the old mine of San Adrian. This famous mine, as is well known, was worked shortly after the conquest of Mexico, and, having yielded immense wealth to its proprietors, was abandoned, about the end of the sixteenth century, on account of the difficulty experienced in its drainage. The workmen who had explored the passage had reported that the chamber was nearly full of water, and was so large that the light of their candles did not penetrate to the further extremity. The recollection of this discovery now occurred to Manuel's mind, and seemed to offer him a chance of escape. Looking eagerly around, he observed the opening about three feet above his head; and gaining it by a desperate spring, he drew himself up by the hands, and plunged into the passage. Urged by the dread of the coming explosion he rushed eagerly onward, and just as the roar of the blast filled his ears he fell headlong forward into a sheet of water, which spread about three feet below the extremity of the passage. He sank beneath the surface, and when he rose, confused and breathless, it was to find himself floating in utter darkness, without removing. the slightest idea of the point by which he had entered, and with hardly a chance of discovering the opening, which lay so high above the water. A more horrible situation can hardly be conceived. ing the surface. Still, even in this extremity, hope did not desertnewed strength.

The further the miner advanced the more assured he became of the truth of his supposition. The adit was-as from its situation it must necessarily be of great length; and Manuel walked, as he supposed, nearly five hundred yards before reaching the extremity. The water all the way was just up to his ankles, and he thought he could perceive at times that it had a slight current in the direction in which he was going. The passage was closed, as he had anticipated, by a solid mass of earth and stones, which he at once set about

Making good use of his long knife,

he worked indefatigably for more than an hour. At last he struck the roots of a tree, a circumstance which assured him that he was approach

The conviction gave him reHe cut with his knife, and dug

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