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ministration has less and less interest. Embar-
From the Spectator, 1 Sept.
ern equivalent. Our government plays strange
"Oh!" he cries, "I did not do it-I know noth
ing about it. It is not the people or the country, not England which has done all this, but the gov ernment a very different thing."
Not so different as you would have us believe. Who appoints the ministers but the people, by the representatives whom the people elect? And the ministers thus popularly appointed have a right to plead popular authority. If the people dislike the consequent discredit, surely England is not too stupid, too feeble, or too poor, to bring about a better state of things? The root of the mischief lies in the fact, that although "England" dislikes the shame of avowing the acts of her public servants, she does not really feel any great concern at the wrong done. The middle and upper classes especially entertain this negative feeling of indifferSo long as taxes and insurrections are kept ence. Even the down, so long as they are safe and their money is saved, they are indifferent to the rest. Chartists share the feeling so far as foreign countries are concerned; they are content with a moral So long as English repudiation" of state debts. ministers remain in office, "England" is really responsible for what they do, and must bear the discredit as meekly as she may.
THE pieces which hold up the republic or republicans to withering ridicule continue to enjoy great popularity at the theatres; and, indeed, it One of is to see them alone that people pay. the latest of them affords the public an opportunity of expressing its sentiments in a striking manner. After making the French figure under the different governments of Louis XVI., the revolution, Napoleon, the restoration, and Louis Philippe, the piece represents them under the blessed republic of 1848, and in the midst of it the curtain falls. "What!" shouts an actor seated in the pit, "you leave us in a republic! What a shame! We won't have that! We won't stop in a republic!" The audience applaud with fury; and the actor then goes on to repeat his complaint of the infamy of the author in leaving his piece unfinished, for, says he, it is impossible that the French people can be so lamentably unfortunate as to have to remain under a republic. He accordingly makes a great clamor for the author to A personage come forward and explain himself. representing the author makes his bow before the Finish the curtain. "Up with the curtain! piece! We can't remain in the midst of a republic!" Author: "Ladies and gentlemen, I really cannot do otherwise for the present than to A REVEREND correspondent of an English paper have the curtain fall on a republic. I have represtates that he has applied the gutta percha tubing sented our governments of the last sixty years, in his chapel to great advantage to the deaf portion and now conclude with that under which we have of his congregation. He states that he has a large "No-no! we won't the happiness to live!" oval funnel of sheet gutta percha inserted in the have that. Another dénouement! another dénoue- book board in front of the Bible, attached to which "Well, then-ladies and gentlemen- is a piece of inch tubing passing down the inside come in a week's time, and I will promise you a of the pulpit and under the floor, from which branch happier dénouement!" The sly hit is understood tubes are conducted to the pews of persons whose directly, and shouts of laughter arise. Can a form hearing is defective, the end of the tube being supof government thus openly ridiculed and hated plied with an ear-piece. hope to stand ?—French Correspondent of the Britannia.
1. Madame Récamier,
2. The late Rev. Henry Colman,
3. The Modern Vassal, Chap. 11.,
4. The Watchlighter of San Adrian, 5. Death of Mehemet Ali,
6. The late Jacob Perkins,
7. Daniel Webster,
8. Fredricka Bremer,
9. Lacon, by Rev. C. C. Colton,
New York Evening Post,
10. EUROPE, -The Hungarian Memorial; Congress of
pects of Germany; Affairs of Rome; Dismember-Sundry Papers,
POETRY. Expectation, 106.-The Elfin Bride, 124.
Red-Hot Shot; Steamer President, 105.-Mental Intoxications, 119.SHORT ARTICLES. Gutta Percha Tubing, 143.
PROSPECTUS.-This work is conducted in the spirit of | now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favorably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is twice as large, and appears so often, we not only give spirit and freshness to it by many things which were excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to satisfy the wants of the American reader.
The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's noble criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and mountain Scenery; and the contributions to Literature, History, and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator, the sparkling Examiner, the judicious Athenæum, the busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Christian Observer; these are intermixed with the Military and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with the best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom from Punch; and, when we think it good enough, make ase of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and from the new growth of the British colonies.
The steamship has brought Europe, Asia and Africa, into our neighborhood; and will greatly multiply our connections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with all parts of the world; so that much more than ever it
Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections; our readers with the great department of Foreign and, in general, we shall systematically and very fully acquaint affairs, without entirely neglecting our own. While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable to all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid progress of the movement-to Statesmen, Divines, Lawyers, and Physicians-to men of business and men of leisure-it is still a stronger object to make it attractive and useful to their Wives and Children. We believe that we can thus do some good in our day and generation; and hope to make the work indispensable in every well-in formed family. We say indispensable, because in this day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetite must be gratified.
We hope that, by "winnowing the wheat from the chaff," by providing abundantly for the imagination, and by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work which shall be popular, while at the same time it will aspire to raise the standard of public taste.
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WASHINGTON, 27 DEC., 1845.
Or all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this has appeared to me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the English language, but this by its immense extent and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human mind in the utmost expansion of the present age.
J. Q. ADAMS.
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 284.-27 OCTOBER, 1849
From the N. Y. Courier and Enquirer.
me, and I ordered it to be thrown overboard. Why AMERICANS IN JAPAN.-CRUISE OF THE U. S. In the usual style of Japanese officials, after a choose this method of sending me a letter?" you
We have already published from the China Mail a condensed notice of the rescue from Japan of a number of American sailors, who had been shipwrecked upon that coast, where they had been kept in prison and treated with the grossest barbarity for many months. The account, however, was very brief, and we are very glad, therefore, to find a much more extended narrative of it in the Chinese Repository, proof-sheets of which, sent out by S. Wells Williams, Esq., have been received by the editor of the Providence Journal. From this narrative we learn that the Preble left Hong Kong upon this cruise the 22d of March, and returned on the 20th of May. She reached Napa April 10th, and remained three days. Dr. Betelheim is there as a missionary, but has not been able as yet to open the slightest communication with the natives, who do not molest him in any way, but avoid him whenever he appears. The authorities desired the Preble to take him away, but he had no wish to leave. The Japanese requested Capt. Glynn to keep away from that place in future. They would not sell him any supplies, though they offered to give him whatever he might want; he refused to take anything, however, unless he could be allowed to pay for it. From Napa the Preble sailed for Nangasacki, which she reached April 17th.
thing has been done, the interpreter replied, "That was right! That was right! But our laws require that all ships should be notified of certain things. This was a common man; he had his orders as I have mine, from the chiefs over me, and you must not blame him." The paper here alluded to contained warning to ships, directions where they are to anchor, and what questions they are to answer.
After the Preble had anchored, a military officer, named Serai Tatsnosen, came aboard to learn her errand. His rank and credentials were carefully examined as a preliminary step; after which full particulars of the nation, object, and character of the ship were told through the same interpreter, Moreama Einaska, who spoke tolerably good English, but understood only as much as he wanted to. This chief was told that the commander of the Preble came with written instructions to bring away sixteen American seamen cast upon the Japanese coast. This announcement called forth a series of questions from him about the manner in which the shipwreck and number of men was ascertained, who sent the Preble after them, &c. &c. Captain Glynn replied in general terms, and endeavored to learn how long his countrymen had been there, what treatment they had received, and why two of them had died; but the interpreter parried these interrogatories in a very trifling manner. A promise was elicited, however, that he would inquire of the governor, H. E. Edo Tsokimano, whether the men would be delivered up without the delay of referring to Yeddo. standing inquiry was made if the ship was in need of anything; but the chief was told that no provisions, fuel, or water, could be received unless the Japanese would take pay, as it was against the laws of the United States for a national vessel to receive anything in the way of presents. He declined the proposal to exchange salutes, saying they were never made, nor the compliment ever given, either by French or English men-of-war.
Her appearance, says the narrative, was announced to the authorities of that town immediately, and a boat was seen approaching as soon as she anchored. This unusual haste, as well as the repeated inquiries subsequently made whether there was not another vessel in company, were not fully explained until Capt. Glynn learned at Shanghái, | that the ship Natches had passed through the straits of Van Diemen only the day before his arrival. A Japanese boarding officer, Moreama Einaska, hailed the ship in English, to say she must anchor in a place he pointed out until the governor's order could be received; but Captain Glynn told him that place was unsafe, as well as his present anchorage, and he should stand in un-harbor, but in the morning of the 19th, a large til he gained a safe berth inside the harbor. When the ship had reached the offing, abreast Happenberg Island, the man hailed her, saying, "You may anchor where you please." On coming aboard, when the ship was first hailed, he inquired why the Preble came to Japan; and that question being evaded, he asked the captain if he received a paper. "No. One of your boats came alongside, and threw a bamboo stick on deck, in which was thrust a paper; but, if it was intended for me, that is not the proper manner to communicate to CCLXXXIV. LIVING AGE. VOL. XXIII. 10
During the night everything was quiet in the
number of boats were seen under the land, and the
at her, as a substitute for the prohibition to visit ashore. A ridiculous instance of their duplicity
was also shown. The captain was desirous of A military officer, Matsmora Shai, came off to getting some fossil coal, and when the chief went salute Captain Glynn, on behalf of the governor. over the ship, he was purposely taken by the The captain observed it was uncivil, and argued forge, and asked if he had any of the substance very little confidence in his promise to observe the ashore there used to heat iron. "No. What a regulations of the port, to place a cordon of armed curious stone it is!" The officer wrapped a large boats around his ship, while free intercourse and lump in a paper, for him to carry ashore, but he reciprocal civility would tend to a better acquaint- begged him not to rob the small stock remaining, ance and mutual good will between the Japanese and would take only a bit of the rare mineral, and other countries. "Why are American men-of-carefully depositing it in his sleeve. We think war sent so far from home?" was the only rejoin- the fool must have laughed in his sleeve at his der, as if nothing had been said to him. He was supposed success in making the foreigners think made fully acquainted, however, with the con- the people of Nangasacki had no coal, when it is dition of the American navy, and the size, arma- their chief fuel. ment, and crew of the one then in port; but the A semi-official reply was received from Mr. evasions made by the interpreter to the queries put Levyssolin in the afternoon, stating that he had to him, were characteristic of this suspicious people been requested to translate the letter to the gov—a people among whom the system of espionage ernor of Nangasacki, and having been told that and mutual responsibility has well nigh destroyed special permission from court was necessary beeverything like frankness, truth, and confidence. fore the men could be delivered to a man-of-war, No one of the officials on board seemed to know he had intimated the necessity of giving them up, anything upon any other subject than their master's message; for though one of them had been at Yeddo, and seen the emperor, he could give no idea of his age, nor of the distance there. One of the surest ways of succeeding with the Japanese is to imitate them in this respect, and convey to them the impression that you are obliged to carry out your orders, and know nothing beyond what you were sent to execute. Before this chief left, Captain Glynn gave him a letter to the governor, in which he made a formal demand for the men, and requested his excellency to inform them of the Preble's arrival.
and had proposed to receive them himself, after having had an interview with the commander of the Preble. To this note a reply was immediately returned, expressing a hope that the proposed conference would take place. Meanwhile, the cordon of guard-boats was increased and drawn nearer the ship; torches were lighted in each one by night, placed in pans at the ends of long poles, to observe if any person attempted to swim ashore, and as many precautions were taken to prevent intercourse as if the vessel had had the plague.
On the 23d, Serai Tatsnosen returned. He remarked that Mr. Levyssohn had had an interview with the governor, and proposed to obviate the need of referring to Yeddo by taking the men himself, and would come aboard in two days upon the matter. Captain Glynn told him this mode of answering an official note was very improper, and the commander of the Preble could only confer with the governor, and could not be put off and delayed in this manner with vain excuses, concluding his reply by asking, "Am I to get the men ?" "This cannot be. Why not stay a few days? You will get the men, I think." This last phrase formed a part of almost every remark of the interpreter, and when questioned if the men would come aboard in two days, he said again, "I cannot say how long it will be; I think you will get your sailors."
The same officer did not return till the 22d, and on coming aboard, after salutations had passed, he was asked if he had the governor's answer, to which he replied, "It would come another time, not now." He was told that neither a verbal answer nor a messenger would be received as satisfactory; to which he said that, according to Japanese usage, he had come to speak by word of mouth. He was pressed to say definitely when the men would be given up, and was told that if they were not soon handed over, the instructions of his superior would oblige Captain Glynn to take other measures, for he must get them. The necessity of referring to Yeddo was constantly thrown in to account for the delay which might take place before they came on board; but when about to leave, he said an answer would come Some little hesitancy was exhibited by the Japfrom the governor the next day, and an intimation anese officials, before they remarked that Captain whether a reference must be made to Yeddo. An Glynn could not see Mr. Levyssohn, for he was example of the caution of these officials was ex-ill; and that it was necessary for the governor to hibited when they were requested to take a packet get permission from Yeddo before giving up the of newspapers to Mr. Levyssohn, the opperhoofd men. Upon receiving this answer, the comman[president of the Dutch factory] at Desima, for which they had already obtained permission, but not to take a letter with it; they demurred a long time, but finding that the papers which they felt bound to take could not be carried away without the letter, the chief at last took upon himself the immense responsibility of carrying them both
der of the Preble sternly told the chief, that is enough; the ship can stay at Nangasacki no longer : its commander has business only with the governor of that city, and knows nothing of the Dutch factory in this business, and he will get under weigh in a few hours, and leave to report his reception to his superior and to his own government
which had sent him there, and well knew how to forgiven, after they had asked pardon; they were recover its citizens, and had the power to do so. instructed to behave properly, and promised to Hearing this decided language, the chief seemed obey the warning. Their repeated attempts to to lose his imperturbable nonchalance, and said he break out, compelled the Japanese authorities to would exert all his influence to get the men soon, take them away from the temple and put them in adding, “I think you may expect it—” Stop! prison, though not only had they themselves promYou have had time enough to think, and I'll do ised to be quiet, but the Dutch superintendent had the thinking now," replied the captain. "Do cautioned them to remain easy until they were libyou promise me now that the men shall be deliv-erated. After reciting the time, nature, and reered up in three days from this, for I will stay no sult of the diseases each one had suffered, it conlonger?" Thus pressed, the governor's messen- cluded with saying that their incarceration was ger promised that in three days they should be wholly owing to their own restiveness. Soon handed over to the American commander, where- after the reading of these documents, and their upon the parties shook hands. The chief after- delivery to Captain Glynn, the party left the ship. wards walked over the vessel, inspected the crew at general quarters, &c., and then took his leave. On the 25th, the chief, Matsmora Shai, returned, and on taking his seat, remarked that Mr. Levyssohn, being too sick to come off, had sent a substitute, who was in the boat alongside, and he wished to know if he might come on board. Captain Glynn directed the officer to go to the gangway and invite him to come up, but Moreama, the interpreter, interfered, and said it was necessary for him to give him permission to do so. This gentleman, Mr. Bassle, brought a letter from Mr. Levyssohn, offering a quantity of provisions, which Captain Glynn was of course compelled to decline, as he had already told the authorities he must pay for what he took. Mr. B. also brought some Japanese official documents in Dutch, with four signatures and seals attached to them, which he orally translated.
A new visitor, Hagewara Matasak, came on the 26th, with Moreama, to announce to Captain Glynn that the men would be given up according to promise, and inquiring, with some earnestness, if he would then sail. The positive assurance that this would be done seemed to relieve him vastly; and he then proceeded to say that Captain Glynn's request to visit Mr. Levyssohn on shore had been communicated to the governor, who had refused to grant permission, as it was against the laws of Japan. He was told that this was enough, and the question was then asked if the laws of Japan were in book. "No, no; not so the French and Dutch put their laws in books, but our governor gives us the law." "Did your governor give you the law prohibiting foreigners visiting the Dutch factory at Desima, or did the emperor make it?" asked Captain Glynn. He was told that this was an imperial regulation; and One of them was an informal reply from the when a copy of Ingersoll's Digest of the Laws governor, through the opperhoofd, in which, after of the United States was offered to him for his reciting the names of the sailors, he says that it acceptance, he again quoted law to decline taking has been represented at court that the men were it. The number and object of American vessels to be sent away by the next Dutch ship, and are which yearly resorted to the Japanese waters was now handed over to the superintendent, to be sur-then stated, and on this subject the chief was evirendered to the American man-of-war; but though dently interested. they (the sailors) reported that their ship was wrecked, yet the law of Japan strictly forbids any person voluntarily approaching its shore; and as it is plain that long voyages cannot be taken in boats, in future persons coming ashore in this manner will be carefully examined. The governor adds, that these men were provided for, and yet, in violation of the laws of the land, broke out of their residence several times, and escaped into the country, but were recaptured, and pardon granted to them; and concludes by requesting the superintendent to inform the American commander that whalers from his country are not to resort to the Japanese seas, as the present case, and one in 1847, show that they are becoming more numer
After this conversation, a boat bearing the Netherlands flag came alongside, and Mr. Bassle and another gentleman came on board, bringing some papers in Dutch signed by the four head Japanese interpreters, which Mr. B. orally translated. One of them contained an extract from the laws to the following effect :
When shipwrecked foreigners have no means of returning home, they are allowed to sojourn, and their wants are provided for; and on their arrival here they are to be sent back to their country by the Dutch superintendent, which is thus fixed by the law. This being duly considered, it is accordingly not allowed in future to land in the Japanese empire.
Shortly after this, the Japanese officers and the The other paper seemed to be a report of their whole party took their leave, and the boat containguard, and contained a notice of the arrival nearing the shipwrecked mariners came alongside, and the island of Lisili, belonging to Yesso, within the principality of Matsmai, of fifteen North American whalers, who asked for assistance, and had a residence given them. It then detailed the several occasions on which these men had broken out of their "residence," and been retaken, and
they on deck. Their names were- Robert Mc-