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ade formed of grenadiers and Highlanders distinguished themselves remarkably on this occasion." conduct of the Highlanders (who had now acquired In the battle of Fellinghausen, in July, 1761, the the character of veteran soldiers) was again honored by a flattering mark of approbation by the com

Ferdinand of Brunswick has been graciously pleased to signify his entire approbation of their conduct on the 15th and 16th of July. The soldier-like perseverance of the Highland regiments in resisting and repulsing the repeated attacks of the chosen troops of France, has deservedly gained them the highest honor. The intrepidity of the little band of Highlanders merits the highest praise." He adds—“ The humanity and generosity with which the soldiers treated the great flock of prisoners they took, does them as much honor as their subduing the enemy."

and afterwards acted for a while as adjutant-gen- and activity." Another account says:-" The brigeral, and as secretary to Lord George Sackville, who at that time commanded the English branch of the allied forces. On the resignation of that nobleman, he was again without employment, but his own services and his father's interest had influence enough with Mr. Pitt to secure his ap-mander-in-chief. "His Serene Highness Prince pointment to the command of a new Highland force about to be raised and sent to the scene of war in Germany. The corps was to consist of five companies, and Keith's rank was that of major-commandant. His commission was made out in the most gratifying manner, his command being quite a separate one, and only under Prince Ferdinand and Lord Granby. It was not long before"Keith's Highlanders" became well known to the public. General Stewart of Garth, in his spirited account of the Highland regiments, after remarking that the body commanded by Keith joined the allied army under Prince Ferdinand, in 1759, observes "The opinion early formed of this corps may be estimated from the fact of their having been ordered to attack the enemy the third day after they arrived in the camp of the allies. In what manner this duty was executed, may be learned from the following statement" :

The Highlanders, under Major Keith, supported by the hussars of Luehnec, who commanded the whole detachment, attacked the village of Eyback, sword in hand, where Baron Fremont's regiment of dragoons were posted, and routed them with great slaughter. The greater part of the regiment was killed, and many prisoners taken, together with 200 horses and all their baggage. The Highlanders distinguished themselves greatly by their intrepidity, which was the more remarkable, as they were no other than raw recruits just arrived from their own country, and altogether unacquainted with regular discipline.

The good opinion which Prince Ferdinand formed of this corps, led him to recommend its being augmented. This was accordingly done, and the men who had been marched down from the Highlands, and embodied at Perth and Stirling, joined the allies in Germany in 1760. They were immediately paid the distinguished honor of being placed in the grenadier brigade.

After the battle of Fellinghausen, Keith wrote to his father that Prince Ferdinand, to show his sense of the gallantry of the Highlanders, "deigned to embrace your son in the presence of all the general officers, which favor he accompanied with the most flattering expressions of regard for the brave little bodies." So high was their reputation that Marshal Broglie, who commanded the troops to which they were opposed, said, in reference at once "that he once to their stature and their courage, wished he were a man six feet high, but that now he was reconciled to his size, since he has seen the wonders performed by the little mountaineers." The testimony to their good conduct wherever they were known did them equal honor. As they marched through Holland, on their route home. they were received with acclamations, the women presenting them with laurel leaves, and the children imitating their dress and swords. In England they were hospitably entertained at the dif ferent towns through which they passed; and at Derby not only was no payment accepted from them for quarters, but subscriptions were raised to give gratuities to the men. of feeling, we may be well assured, arose not merely from an admiration of their heroism, but from the grateful recollection of the people of the town, that when the Highlanders were there under Charles Edward, they had respected persons and property, and conducted themselves in all respects with exemplary propriety.

This last exhibition

The Highland corps was disbanded in the summer of 1763, and the following year was passed by Keith chiefly in Paris, where he was received with a great deal of attention. enemy

The campaign having opened (says Gen. Stewart) on the 20th July, 1760, the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick marched for the camp at Kelle, with a body of troops, including the two battalions of English grenadiers and two of Highlanders; and on the 30th, in a smart action, defeated the with considerable loss. The prince, in writing to George II. an account of the battle, after stating the loss of the enemy at fifteen hundred men, and more than an equal number of prisoners, adds, "Ours, which was moderate, fell chiefly on Maxwell's brave battalion of English grenadiers, and two regiments of Scotch Highlanders, which did wonders."

On a subsequent occasion, that of a night attack on a fortress, he says:-"The Scots Highlanders mounted the breaches, sword in hand, supported by the chasseurs. The service was complete, and the troops displayed equal courage, soldier-like conduct,

In 1765 he re

turned to London, and for four years formed one of a set of clever men, most of whom held high appointments in the government, and who all lived much together. In the interval he was given the regular rank of colonel in the British army, and in 1769 was appointed envoy to the court of Saxony. Mr. Pitt, who was disposed to be his friend, was aware of his acquirements, and had

says Mr. Gillespie Smyth, "more noticed in the army, "No trait in the character of the Highlander was," than the respect paid by them to their chaplain, Mr. Macaulay, and the influence he possessed with them."

The lovers never met again until the lady was a grandmother, and the chevalier three score years and ten. The scene is described by Madame de Créqui, as before :

the opportunity of knowing something of his busi- | ing, and without having a bitter recollection of what ness habits, and no doubt thought that he was well I suffered. We ascertained, however, that he was suited for the line in which his father was already a Calvinist, and he said so himself; and Heaven is distinguished. His new position, however, seemed my witness that from that moment I did not hesitate. I refused the hand of milord maréchal, and only likely to develop his social qualities, as the two days afterwards he set out to return to his own following account of the routine of his existence country, from whence he wrote to say that grief indicates :and despair would lead him to acts that might bring Now I'm about it, I'll give you a little sketch him to the scaffold. There, my child, is the hisof my way of living. Morning, eight o'clock-tory of the only predilection I ever had in my life Dish of coffee, half a basin of tea, billets dour, em- for any one except M. Créqui, to whom I was broiderers, toymen, and tailors. Ten-Business of honest enough to talk of it without reserve. Europe; with a little music now and then, pour en gayee les affaires. Twelve-Devoirs at one or other of the courts (for we have three or four.) From thence to fine ladies, toilettes, trifles, and tender things. Two-Dine in public-three courses and a dessert; venture upon a half glass of pure wine, to exhilarate the spirits without hurting the complexion. Four-Rendezvous, sly visits, declarations, éclairecissements, &c. &c. Sir-Politics, philosophy, and whist. Seven-Opera, appartement, or private party. A world of business, jealousies, fears, poutings, &c. After settling all these jarring interests, play a single rubber at whist, en attendant le souper. Ten-Pick the wing of a partridge, propos galans, scandal, and petites chansons. Crown the feast with a bumper of Burgundy from the fairest hand; and at twelve steal away mysteriously-home to bed! There's a pretty lutestring kind of life for you!


In telling of a run which he made to Berlin, Keith describes the great Frederick as younger, handsomer, and livelier by far than he had figured to himself, his conversation as keen and interesting, and his looks, when he was in good humor, as agreeable." While there, he made the acquaintance of a remarkable man, who was a near relative of his own-George Keith, ninth Earl Marischal of Scotland, who, on account of the part he took in the rebellion of 1715, was obliged to leave his country, and was invited by Frederick to reside, as his friend, in Berlin. The lord marischal deserves some episodal notice. At the age of four-and-twenty he arrived in Paris on a mission from the English Jacobites, and while residing there with his uncles the Dukes of Perth and Melfort, he became attached to a young lady of great beauty, and of the noble family of De Breteuil. One day he said to her, apropos to nothing-" If I dared to fall in love with you would you ever forgive me?" "I should be enchanted," was the fair reply; and the handsome Scotchman was permitted to read Spanish with the object of his love. As to English, no one then thought of learning it or any other northern language. The marischal's proposal of marriage was formally made and regularly submitted to the heads of the family, amongst whom was unluckily an aunt, who shrieked at the idea, "because the Maréchal of Scotland must be a Protestant." The sequel of piety, constancy, and despair is told by the lady herself, when young no more, and after having been long married to another :

The visit of the Maréchal of Scotland took place in the presence of Madame de Nevers, and it moved her to the depths of her soul. You were then born, my dear grandson, and the maréchal was seventy years of age. Listen," said he, "listen to the only French verses I ever composed, and perhaps the only reproaches that ever were addressed to

you :


Un trait, lancé par caprice,

M'atteignit dans mon printems:
J'en porte la cicatrice

Encore, sous mes cheveux blancs.
Craignez les maux qu' l'amour cause,
Et plaignez un insensé

Qui n'a point cueilli la rose,

Et qui l'epine a blessé."

Vol. i., p. 137.

The lord marischal was, on the intercession of the King of Prussia, restored to his estates in Scotland, and Mr. Adolphus says that having then but lately returned from Spain, he, to show his gratitude, communicated to our government their earliest information on the subject of the remarkable treaty known as the "Family Compact." He was the brother of the gallant Marshal Keith, to whom, we may observe, our Sir Robert Murray Keith erected a monument at Hochkirchen, where he fell, and the inscription on which was written by Metastasio. The lord marischal retained, until he was past eighty, the winning liveliness of his manner; and Madame de Créqui, surviving him many years, died at nearly a hundred.

After a two years' residence in Dresden, Keith was, much to his sorrow, sent as ambassador to the court of Denmark. It pained him to give up the intimacies he had formed in Saxony; and he could not contemplate without repugnance the colder climate and more formal manners of Denmark. The appointment was, however, a proof of the confidence which the government reposed in him, and eventually proved to be the means of extending his influence and reputation. To show how greatly he was regarded in Dresden we may mention that the electress dowager, of whose talents and character he had always expressed a high opinion, was, during his stay in Denmark, his weekly correspondent, and, as he said himself, on as easy a footing as my sister Anne." Keith's connection with this northern court


I had never thought of that! The discovery burst upon me so suddenly and so grievously that I leads to the story of that young, fair, and injured cannot, even now, dwell upon it without shudder- princess, Carolina Matilda, Queen of Denmark,

which forms the most interesting portion of these volumes, and was, as the editor assures us, at first their only object. There is not, we believe, an historical romance connected with the annals of any country which is at the same time more tragical and more affecting; and its details are not, in our day, so well remembered but that they may be

referred to with interest.

were arrayed the ladies, and on the other the men; and at the end were two rows of young women, dressed in white, who strewed flowers before her majesty as she approached."

these details of the contemporary chronicler in the How irresistibly (says Mrs. Gillespie Smyth) do quaint language of the times the " bloom-colored" dress, white wreath, and flowers strewed before the Carolina Matilda was the posthumous child of virgin bride by the young maidens of her new Frederick Prince of Wales, and sister of King dominions suggest to those acquainted with the George III. She was, from her earliest years, sad sequel, the idea of an unconscious victim proremarkable for the sweetness of her character, and ceeding to her doom! Yet, among those who witnessed this brilliant reception, who would have venher mind was highly cultivated. To an acquaint- tured to predict that within five years the interpoance with the classics she added a knowledge of sition of her royal brother of England would have French and German, which she spoke with per- been called for, to rescue from popular fury and the fect fluency. Her charities, while a girl, made virulence of faction, the princess so enthusiastically her known to the indigent in the neighborhood of hailed; or imagine that the cannon which pealed Kew; and when Queen of Denmark she often the welcome from the forts of her new capital took with her own hands supplies of money to the would, within that period, with extorted courtesy, poor, with stockings for their children, knitted by dom of which she had been the delight and ornagive the signal of her perpetual exile from a kingherself and her ladies. She was above the mid- ment? It was not until after the event, that an dle height, well-formed, yet inclined to embon- honest eye-witness thus remarks: "The tears of point. "Her face was a regular oval, and her her majesty on parting from the dear country in eyebrows, arched with symmetry, added sweetness which she drew her first breath, might have inspired and expression to her beautiful eyes. Her lips in those who beheld them gloomy forebodings as to and teeth exhibited the lively colors of coral and the issue of the voyage she was about to undertake."-Vol. i., p. 63. the whiteness of alabaster. She had a good complexion, although not so fair as some of the royal In January, 1768, the young queen gave birth family, and her hair was of a light chestnut. Her to a son; but notwithstanding the event, the voice was sweet and melodious, and her aspect queen dowager continued to practise her amrather gracious than majestic; but she had in her bitious arts, and to avail herself of the ascendency tout ensemble a most prepossessing physiognomy." which she had early acquired over the king, as Such was she at sixteen, when her hand was well as with his leading counsellors. Her object sought in marriage by Christian VII., the young now was to separate him from his wife, and afford monarch of Denmark. The proposal, it is said, herself the chances of making out causes for their was received by her in sadness, although there is domestic unhappiness. With this view she sugno reason to think that she regarded the young gested his travelling for improvement and observaking then but seventeen-with anything like tion, and it was accordingly determined that he repugnance. He is described as rather under the should visit, first London, and then the other great middle height, yet finely proportioned, light, com- courts of Europe. Except one faithful statespact, and possessing a considerable degree of agil-man, Count Bernstorff, it was remarked that every ity and strength. "His complexion remarkably nobleman in his train was well calculated to perfair; his features, if not handsome, were regular; vert his principles, and aid him in all that was his eyes blue, lively, and expressive; his hair wrong. On their reaching England, Horace Walvery light he had a good forehead and aquiline pole, the great authority in little things, thus nose, a handsome mouth, and a fine set of teeth." describes the royal Dane : He was, it was added, elegant in his dress, courteous, and generous to profusion. The darkest share of their tragic fates is that which relates to him. He was left by his father, when very young, in the charge of an ambitious stepmother, who sought, even in his father's lifetime, to repress, rather than cultivate, his mental powers; disregarding, at the same time, both his principles and his health, in the hope that he might be early removed, and that her own son, who was but four years younger, should be made king in his stead. Thus much is necessary to make our reference to the narrative intelligible.

The youthful pair were married at the Chapel Royal of St. James', on the 1st October, 1766and on the 18th, the bridal queen first landed in her new dominions. The bridge at Altona was covered with scarlet cloth, "on one side whereof

I came to town to see the Danish king. He is as diminutive as if he came out of a kernel in the fairy tales. He is not ill-made, or weakly made, though so small; and though his face is pale and delicate, it is not at all ugly. Still, he has more he is not twenty, is as well as any one expects a of royalty than folly in his air, and considering that king in a puppet-show to be.

And again :

Well, then, this great king is a very little one. He has the sublime strut of his grandfather (or a cock-sparrow) and the divine white eyes of all his family on the mother's side. His curiosity seems to have consisted in the original plan of travelling, for I cannot say he takes notice of anything in particular. The mob adore and huzza him, and so they did at the first instant. They now begin to know why, for he flings money to them out of the window, and by the end of the week I do not doubt

Amurath. You would take his first minister for


they will want to choose him for Middlesex. His and leaving that, practised with some reputation court is extremely well ordered, for they bow as low as a physician at Altona. His evil fortune led to him at every word, as if his name were Sultan him to Copenhagen, where very considerable talonly the first of his slaves. I hope this example, ents, a fine person and graceful manner, which they have been good enough to exhibit at the opera, will civilize us. There is, indeed, a pert young gentleman who a little discomposes this august ceremonial; his name is Count Holke, his age three and twenty, and his post answers to one that we had formerly in England, ages ago, called in our tongue, a high favorite. Minerva, in the shape of Count Bernstorff (or out of all shape in the person of the Duchess of -) is to conduct Telemachus to York races; for can a monarch be perfectly accomplished in the mysteries of kingcraft, unless initiated in the art of jockeyship? Vol. i., pp. 173-4.


mended him to the king. On the return of the royal party to Denmark, Christian presented Struensee to the queen with his own hand, recommended him to her confidence as a physician, and very soon afterwards promoted him to the station of privy councillor. His influence was now in the ascendant, and an occasion offered which at once, and very naturally, established it. The follies and excesses of the king, which, bad as they were, were all, through the artifices of his stepmother, exaggerated to the queen, led to their being alienated from each other, and to their living apart. Struensee succeeded in reconciling them. From that day he received every hour new marks of their regard, was soon known as the confidential adviser of the king, and in a little time appointed his first minister, with almost unlimited powers. He was, moreover, given the highest title of nobility, that of a Count of Denmark.

Count Holke, the Narcissus of the group-ever his own admirer-was, as well as Molke, his rival in the royal confidence, a shallow follower of pleasure, and the scenes into which they led their thoughtless master were of the most discreditable kind. Monarchs, however, who go about incognito, sometimes meet with warnings which they would not be likely to receive under other circum- This rapid elevation was most unfortunate for stances, and so it proved with our young Christian him. It exposed him to the envy of a jealous VII. One evening he and his friends went in aristocracy, and rendered him unpopular, the Danes disguise to some place of resort frequented by not liking that a foreigner-and such they counted Danish and Swedish shipmasters, and Count Holke the natives of Holstein-should have so much asked an old skipper what he thought of his king; power in the state. Struensee, while simply a and if he were not proud of the honors paid to doctor, was generally beloved, and in his new him by the English? "I think," said the sea-sphere he exhibited great industry, and consideraman, dryly," that with such counsellors as Count ble administrative talents; but he was prone to Holke, if he escapes destruction it will be by mira- rash innovation, and some of his measures were cle." "Do you know Count Holke, friend," both ill-judged and unpassable. He offended the said he, "that you thus speak of him so familiar-military by disbanding the regiments of guards, on ly?" Only by report," said the Dane; "but the ground of economy; he incurred the hostility everybody in Copenhagen pities the queen, attrib- of the nobility, by suppressing the privy council, uting the coolness which the king showed to her, and excited the indignation of the people at large as he was setting out on this voyage, to the mal- by repealing one of their ancient laws, which punice of Count Holke." "The confusion of the min-ished adultery with death. This last proceeding ion," says Gillespie Smyth, "may be conceived; was accepted as a proof of his sympathy with while the king, giving the skipper a handful of vice, and his leaning to licentiousness. It was not ducats, bade him speak the truth and shame the enough attended to that he was the first minister devil.'" The moment the king spoke in Danish, of an absolute monarch who abolished torture, the old man knew him, and looking at him with that he did much toward the emancipation of the love and reverence, said in a low and subdued serfs; that he encouraged agriculture, commerce, tone, "Forgive me, sire, but I cannot conceal my and manufactures; exempted from censure all litgrief to see you exposed to the temptations of this erary productions, and granted to all religious devast metropolis, under the pilotage of the most nominations the free exercise of their worship. dissolute nobleman in Denmark." This incident, The good that he did" was buried with him," we are told, led to the decline of the influence of while his errors were too bitterly remembered. Holke, and to the rise of that of a more celebrated He was deficient in the vigilance and sagacity person, the Count Struensee, who had also accom- needful for one who had to contend with numerous panied the king to England, as his physician, and enemies, and he did not possess that purity of of whom, as he is a leading character in our tragic personal conduct which might have eventually set tale, it is needful for us now to speak. John Fred-him right with the people. He had the reputation erick Struensee was the son of a poor and humble of being a profligate, and this was the main cause clergyman, who was afterwards, but long before of his ruin, as well as of the fall of the innocent his son came into power, advanced to a bishopric queen. Caroline Matilda was but nineteen, and it in Holstein, and who, it was known, never ceased will not raise the wonder of any one that she to lament the elevation of his child. Struensee should with youthful warmth exhibit her gratitude was born in Holstein, in 1737, received his early to one who had restored her to influence, and education in the Orphan House of D'Franke at served her so materially. She undoubtedly conHalle, passed on at fourteen to the University, ducted herself in regard to him with extreme im

prudence, dancing with him in public, having him as her attendant in her daily rides, and permitting him, as our editor observes, to assume towards her an air of ostentatious intimacy which gave great offence. In these, as well as in some particulars of less importance, she was too indifferent to appearances. The very circumstance of her ordinary equestrian costume is said to have aided quite as much as anything else in disposing the people to believe the scandalous rumors which were circulated against her.

When Queen Matilda rode out a hunting, her

attire too much resembled a man's. Her hair was pinned up closer than usual; she wore a dove-colored beaver hat, with a gold band and tassels, a long scarlet coat, a frilled shirt, and a man's cravat, while from beneath the coat was seen to peep a more unfeminine appendage still, too much in keeping with the terminating spurs. That she made a noble figure, mounted on a majestic steed, and dashing through the woods after the chase, her cheeks flushed with health and violent exercise, may readily be conceded.

overlooked. It was as though he meant to say, "This woman would be a queen without a throne !" A higher title was conferred on his long-dead mistress by an old court chamberlain, who, looking on the picture, said" that was an angel!"

Who this faithful Polonius was we are not told, but we glean from another source* a still more engaging portrait of the queen, which the reader will agree with us in thinking goes quite as far towards justifying his praise. It refers to a period when the weak monarch and his worthless friend teries of Paris, or the low orgies of London: were wasting health and character amidst the mys

During the absence of her giddy lord, Matilda resided, principally, at the palace of Fredericksburg, in the neighborhood of Copenhagen, and her conduct was free from reproach. Though courted and menaced by conflicting parties, she joined with none, nor showed the least ambition for political power. She appeared to feel a truly maternal affection for her child, and, in spite of remonstrances, had the infant and nurse to sleep in her own apartment. She sometimes visited, and was visited by the queen dowager, but lived very retired. She Her love for hunting arose, it is said, from a was grown in stature and appearance much more desire to counteract, by following the chase, a ten-womanly than when she arrived in Denmark. The dency to embonpoint, and the fatal influence of her costume is another evidence that a failure in decorum is often more severely censured than a want of morals. Keith, writing home, says in reference to this ungraceful fashion:

An abominable riding-habit, with a black slouched hat, has been almost universally introduced here, which gives every woman the appearance of an awkward postilion. In all the time I have been in Denmark, I never saw the queen out in any other garb.

Mrs. Gillespie Smyth cites from a Danish writer the following description of a celebrated picture of the queen at Copenhagen :

glow of robust health was on her cheek; she often nursed her child, and a more interesting object could scarcely be conceived than this lovely and lively queen playing with her babe.

During this period of retirement she visited the houses of the farmers and peasants who resided near the palace; and though she could not converse fluently with these poor, grateful people, she gained their warm hearts by her condescension in visiting their cottages, smiling graciously on their wives and daughters, and distributing useful presents. Thus innocently Queen Matilda passed her time, during the travels of her wild and dissipated husband.

When the ambitious queen dowager conceived that her artifices were successful, that she was supOver a marble table hung a portrait in a broad ported by the military, the dissatisfied nobility, and gilt frame. It represented a lady in a dress of blu- might probably rely on the people at large, she ish satin, embroidered with gold and edged with formed a conspiracy, in which the chief agents lace; the sleeves and puffs over the full bosom being of brownish brocade. Round her neck was a were, her son, Prince Frederick, a courtier named closely-strung necklace of pearls, and similar rings Koller Banner, and Count Rantzau, a general of were in the ears. The hair was turned up and great influence, who had been much in the French powdered: it occupied a height and breadth which, and Russian interests, but of whom Keith says, agreeably to the fashion of the time, exceeded that that "had he lived within reach of Justice Fieldof the whole face, and was decorated with a gold ing, he would have furnished matter for an Old chain, enameis, and jewels, entwined with a border Bailey trial, any one year of the last twenty of of blonde, which hung down over one ear. The his life." Their object, no doubt, was to make face was oval, the forehead high and arched; the nose delicately curved, the mouth pretty large, the *Danish MS. quoted in "Brown's Northern Courts." lips red and swelling; the eyes large, and of a pe-letter of Keith's, written before the queen's attempt: + This was indicated by a circumstance mentioned in a culiarly light blue, mild, and, at the same time, A few hundreds of Norwegian sailors, who had some serious, deep, and confiding. I would describe the demands of pay, and were unable to feed themselves in entire dress, piece by piece, and the features, trait this dear capital, went three weeks ago, in a tumultuary, by trait, but in vain should I endeavor to convey an though deliberate manner, to demand justice at Hincholm idea of the peculiar expression, the amiable lofti--the king's palace near Copenhagen. Upon the first ness or lofty amiableness, which beamed from that promise of redress, they returned quietly to town, but it was easy to see what might have been effected by this youthful face, the freshness of whose color I have handful of men, if they had been led to the palace by a never seen surpassed. It needed not to cast your less pardonable impulse than hunger. The possibility of eye upon the purple mantle, bordered with ermine, such an application is now manifest, as well as its impuwhich hung carelessly on the shoulder, to discover nity; and what is very important to the fortune of in her a queen! She could be nothing of inferior Struensee, it is generally believed that his boasted intrerank. This the painter, too, had felt, for the bor-pidity forsook him upon the appearance of the sailors," The well-known novelist, at that time Divisional der of the mantle was so narrow as almost to be Magistrate of Police in London.

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