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justly apprehensive of her influence over him, had taken the precaution of removing him, betimes, to another part of the palace.
Prince Frederick king, but their first step was to corridor to the king's apartment. She even forced influence Christian VII., who, from early dissipa- her way into it by violence; but her enemies, tion, was become weak in mind, to sign a war-aware that she might try to gain admittance, and rant for the arrest of Count Struensee, and of the queen, and then, it was said, to have them both put to death. They endeavored to persuade the Exhausted by the agitation of her mind, and by king that there was a plot against his person and such exertions of body, the queen attempted no dignity, at the head of which were Struensee and further resistance. She returned to her own chamhis wife; but though taken by surprise, and feeble ber, where she was aided to dress herself, and inin understanding, Christian refused to sign the formed that she must instantly quit Copenhagen. document, and it was only on false representations his gouty feet, Rantzau had the insolence to say to her, alluding to "Vous voyez, madame, que mes urged by the queen dowager and Prince Fred-piès me manquent; mais, mes bras sont libres, et erick, that he gave at length a reluctant consent. j'en offrirai un à votre majesté, pour l'aides à The order once given, was immediately carried monter en voiture." She was then put into a into execution. It was long past midnight. Struensee was found in bed, and awakened from a deep sleep to the horrors of his condition. The queen had for some time retired to her own apartment, and was also asleep.
coach, which waited for her at the door, near the chapel of the palace. Two ladies, a maid-servant, the little princess her daughter, and a major in the They took the road to Cronenburg, a distance of Danish service, got into the carriage with her. about twenty-four miles, which, as they drove at a great rate, they soon reached, and in which fortress the queen was confined.
"There was immured," writes a cotemporary author, " in the gloomy mansions of guilt and horror, a queen, whose personal charms and mental accomplishments would have melted into compassion the heart of a ruffian. In this inhospitable fortress she had not even been permitted to have the necessary clothes to prepare herself against the severity of the weather in this frozen region; nor was she indulged with more conveniences in her apartments than those granted to criminals of the lowest station, but treated with the greatest indignity by her unfeeling keepers and an insolent soldiery."—Vol. i., pp. 244 to 247.
It was about five o'clock in the morning, when she was awakened by a Danish female attendant, who always lay in the adjoining room. Holding a candle in one hand, she held out a paper to the queen in the other, which, with marks of agitation, she requested of her majesty to peruse. It contained a request, rather than an order, couched in very concise but respectful terms, stating that the "King of Denmark, for reasons of a private nature, wished her to remove to one of the royal palaces in the country for a few days." The queen, in her first surprise, had imagined that the note which she saw in the woman's hand, came from the Baron de Bulow, her master of the horse, and that its purport was to inquire whether it was her pleasure to hunt on that day. But no sooner had she cast her eye over the paper and read its contents, The charges against the queen were two; first, with a royal signature annexed, than she instantly that of adultery with Struensee, and next, a decomprehended the nature and extent of her misfor-sign to poison the king. Although they were tune. Conscious that if she could only gain access altogether unsupported by evidence, the populace to the king, she could in a moment overturn the received them as if they were already proved; and plans of her enemies, she sprung out of bed, and this bad feeling was stimulated by wretches who without waiting to put on anything except a petticoat and shoes, she rushed into the ante-chamber. There the first object which she met was Count Rantzau, seated quietly in a chair. Recollecting then her dishevelled state, she cried out," Eloignez vous, Monsieur Le Comte, pour l'amour de Dieu, car je ne suis pas présentable." She immediately ran back to her chamber, and hastily threw on some clothes, assisted by her women. On attempting a second time to leave her room, she found that Rantzau had withdrawn himself, but had stationed an officer in the doorway, who opposed her further passage. Rendered almost frantic by this insult, added to her distress, she seized him by the hair, demanding to see Count Struensee or the king. "Madam," said he, "I only do my duty, and obey orders. There is no Count Struensee now, nor can your majesty see the king." Having pushed him aside, she advanced to the door of the ante- con Cox, who, after having twice visited Den chamber, where two soldiers had crossed their fire- mark, and carefully inquired into the matter, exlocks in order to stop her progress. The queen commanded them to let her pass, and added promises of reward if they obeyed. Both the soldiers fell on their knees, and one of them said in Danish, "It is a sad duty, but we must perform it. Our heads are answerable if we allow your majesty to pass." As no man, however, dared to lay hands upon the queen, she stepped over the muskets, which were crossed, and ran, half wild, along the
were paid to cry out, "Justice against Matilda !" "Vivat Regina Juliana." The queen dowager ruled the king and the kingdom, Prince Frederick was given the significant title of The Hereditary Prince, and the council, now composed of the enemies of the queen, pronounced her, without even the form of a trial, guilty of adultery, and of having been privy to poison being administered to
There appears to be no doubt that the intention of the conspirators was to put her to death. They perfectly well knew the influence which she possessed with her weak and wavering husband, and that so long as she lived, her return to power would be, at any time, probable. This view is corroborated by the authority of Archdea
pressed himself as well assured that the queen was "not only uncertain of the fate that awaited her, but had reason to apprehend that the party who arrested her meditated still more violent measures." It was under such circumstances that
Keith, the English minister, forced his way into the council, and stood forward as the defender of the queen; he refuted the statements made against
her, vindicated her innocence, denounced the ven- | remotest of the frozen regions of Jutland. The geance of her nation, and threatened the bombard-case, as got up against the queen, was before her ment of Copenhagen, if justice were not done to trial sent over to London, and submitted to the most her; and, by his energy and firm demeanor, pre- distinguished civilians of that day, who, though vented them from passing a sentence which would their opinions were taken separately, all agreed have been, no doubt, promptly carried into effect. that so far from affording grounds for conviction, He then despatched a messenger to England, and it did not sanction a presumption of her guilt. The locked himself and his household up until the an- unhappy King of Denmark, during all this time, swer should arrive. Four tedious weeks elapsed, never once accused his queen of infidelity. He, on and the messenger returned, bearing his despatches the contrary, repeatedly avowed that she was worin a large, square packet. Keith, not without thy of a better husband, and that his excesses and emotion, cut the strings, and the Order of the Bath irregularities justified the indifference she had fell at his feet. The insignia had been enclosed long exhibited towards him. The queen dowager, by the hands of George III. himself, who directed however, counted so surely on his weakness that him to invest himself, and appear forthwith at the she hoped, at least, to get him divorced from his Danish court. His majesty had, with great deli- wife. Had she succeeded, it would have been, cacy, desired Lord Suffolk, the secretary of state as Walpole remarks, "the unique instance of a for foreign affairs, to inform Colonel, now Sir divorce passed without the consent of either parRobert Murray Keith, that he chose the time pre- ty." In this, as in her other perils, Keith was vious to the issue of the negotiations relative to the real defender and sole champion of the queen. the Queen of Denmark on purpose to distinguish It is true that he knew he was supported by the his merit, independent of his success, and the dis- English government, and that he was enabled with tinction was more signal, as there was, at that perfect earnestness, to threaten all Denmark with time, no stall vacant. It is right also to observe the vengeance of England. But it is also true that the Order of the Bath, which has been since that it was his judgment, energy, and firm deextended, was then confined to twenty-five knights, meanor, which made these threats effective before and only given to persons of the highest grades in an English fleet appeared, too late perhaps to save the public services. Matilda. When we consider the daring and amTo return to the principal characters of our bitious character of the queen dowager, and her tragedy; Struensee was, during his imprisonment, ascendency at the moment, we are disposed to chained so closely that he could hardly sit upright wonder that she did not incur all other hazards on the side of his bed, and he suffered the barbar- rather than that which was to her the greatestous punishment of having first his right hand and the letting her victim live. She knew that the then his head cut off. The dismal story of his king retained an affection for his queen, and that closing days derives a deeper interest from the her restoration to influence, which would, of circumstance that amidst his misfortunes the early course, be followed by her ruin, and that of her teaching of a pious father came back upon him, friends, was, while she lived, at any time probaand that, aided by these, and by the instructions ble. The dangers of the alternative, of putting and prayers of the chaplain, a holy man, there is Matilda to death, might easily have appeared to reason to believe that he died a Christian. The her to be less. There was the hope that the Engcase of the queen will move the reader's pity, as lish government, however much it might threaten, it once did the indignation of all England. Her would not, when the Queen of Denmark was no trial, which proceeded slowly, was held in secret; more, make her case the cause of a national war; and the queen dowager, who appeared to have and there were again the chances of Russian and regained all her ascendency, assigned her, with French interference, aided by the fact that the ostentatious impartiality, the most celebrated ad- leading men of the revolution in Denmark were, vocate in Denmark. This, like all her acts, had and had long been, much in the interest of these a double motive. The public, she hoped, would powers. These views may enable us to apprecisay, that if he could not show her to be innocent ate, in some degree, the difficulties with which she must be guilty; and as he was the ablest man Keith had to contend in his endeavors towards of her party, and the one on whom she could most saving the life of the young queen, and obtaining rely, she hoped to arrange with him so to conduct her liberty. He at length compelled the governthe cause of his client as that he might indirectly ment of Denmark to deliver her up into his hands, injure it. She understood the character of her to consent to her residing in the electorate of Hanfriend, and the demon artifice was successful. over, and to allow her a pension of £5,000 a year; The name of this individual was Uhhldahl; we and on the 27th of May, 1772, he had the heartgive it, as it would be wrong to deprive him of felt happiness of escorting her through the gothic the infamy he deserves. After all, the trial was gates of Hamlet's castle, so long her prison, and a failure; the public, who had time to reflect, of embarking with her on board an English frigate disbelieved the charges, and the queen dowager, at Elsinore. Even the hour of her escape from whose original purpose was to have Matilda pun- Denmark was rendered in the highest degree ished with death, and her children declared ille- distressing-she was obliged to give up her gitimate, felt herself compelled to change the infant child, whom she had until then nursed hersentence to that of perpetual imprisonment in the self.
In the state of Maine there are forty banks issuing notes, the whole of which are marked at discounts varying fromto 10 per cent.
She fondly pressed for some minutes the babe to | ing from to 30 discount-the greater number, her bosom, and bedewed it with a shower of tears; however, do not exceed § discount. she then attempted to tear herself away; but the voice, the smiles, the endearing, emotions of the infant were claims that irresistibly drew her back. At last she called up all her resolution, took her once more in her arms, with the impetuous ardor of distracted love, imprinted on the lips of the babe the farewell kiss, and returning it to the attendant, exclaimed, Away, away, I now possess nothing
This guiltless and more than widowed queen, resided for five years at Zell, in Hanover, where she was beloved, and where, her health having been impaired by her misfortunes, she closed her painful life, on the 10th of May, 1774, at the early age of twenty-four.
We have been led to give this outline of the story of Caroline Matilda, because the narrative of her life fills, as we have already said, a great portion of these volumes, and is of the deepest interest. The part which Keith took as her defender, was the great achievement of his life, and justly established his influence and his fame. He was soon afterwards appointed ambassador at Vienna, and held that high office until a few years before his death, which took place at his residence near London, on the 7th of July, 1795. His memoirs and letters, now collected, form the best monument to his honorable name, and they are illustrated with a very remarkable industry, and great happiness of research.
From the Economist, 8 Sept. UNITED STATES BANK-NOTE CIRCULATION.
WE have lying before us a remarkable document in relation to the monetary system of the United States. It is a list of all the banks of the Union which issue notes, with the value of each at New York at the sailing of the last mail. Of these banks there are no fewer than six hundred and ninety-eight, of which the notes of only fifty-three were at par, leaving those of no less than six hundred and forty-five at various rates of discount. No doubt, in a great majority of these cases, the discount has reference rather to the cost of exchange than to a depreciation of the note, or a doubt as to its value. On the other hand, in very many cases, the large discounts marked against these notes show that in New York, at least, they are greatly depreciated, and in every case the discount betokens a very imperfect system of internal exchange. In the city of New York there are twenty-eight banking establishments, which issue their own The whole of these are marked at par. In this city alone, therefore, we find 28 out of the entire number of 53 banks in the Union in that position.
In the state of New York there are no fewer than one hundred and sixty-seven banks, of which only twenty-four are marked at par, and the remaining one hundred and twenty-three are at discounts vary-]
In New Hampshire there are twenty-five banks issuing notes, which are all marked at discount. In Vermont there are twenty-two banks, all of which are marked at discounts varying from 4 to 1
In Massachusetts, the great manufacturing portion of the Union, there are one hundred and twentythree banks issuing notes. The whole are marked at discount. In Rhode Island there are sixty-two banks, all of which are marked at discount, except one, which is marked at 60 discount.
In Connecticut there are thirty-seven banks, all of which are marked at discount.
In New Jersey there are twenty-six banks, all of which are marked at to discount, except one, which is marked 80 discount.
In Pennsylvania there are fifty-four banks issuing notes, only one of which is marked at par, and fiftythree are marked at discounts varying from 1, 1, 14, 2, 3, to 10 discount, and one is even as low as 50
In Delaware there are six banks, all of which are marked at discount.
In Maryland there are twenty-three banks, all of which are marked at discounts varying from §, 1, 3, and up to 10 discount.
In the District of Columbia there are five banks, all marked at 1 discount.
In Virginia there are nine banks, all marked at discounts varying from 1 to 24.
In North Carolina there are four banks, all marked at 2 discount.
In South Carolina there are eleven banks, all marked at 14 discount.
In Georgia there are ten banks, all marked at 14 discount.
In Alabama there are two banks, the one marked at 2, the other at 6 discount.
In Louisiana there are eight banks, all marked at 2 discount.
In Ohio there are twenty-two banks, all marked at 13 discount, except three, which are marked at 40, 60, and 80 discount respectively.
In Indiana there is one bank, at 2 discount. In Kentucky there are three banks, all marked at 5 discount.
In Missouri there is one bank, marked at 2 dis
In Michigan there are three banks, all marked at 2 discount.
In Wisconsin Territory there is one bank, marked at 2 discount.
Making in all 698 banks, of which the notes of 53 are marked at par, and those of the remaining 645 at the various rates of discount indicated above.
And now, for the first time since their separa
THE next morning, at sunrise, Pavel was re-tion, the young man obtained some information tracing the road over. the Gallician frontier in about the General, and his habits of life, subsecompany with his cousin. The latter probably quent to the Countess Vanda's death. With the thought some explanation necessary, for, as he exception of occasional visits to his mines, he had entered his native territory, he said :not been seen on the estate, and had never approached the chateau. Having, a year after his bereavement, married again, he had, in right of his wife, acquired another domain, on which he chiefly resided, leaving to the care of his bailiffs his lands of Stanoiki, nor did anything seem to indicate his intention of ever again dwelling upon them.
Now, Pavel, that you are old enough fully to understand your position, it is but fair you should be put on your guard as to the dangers that will surround you on your return to the estate of your master. But first, tell me how much do you recollect of the past?"
"I recollect that a beggar woman attempted to frighten me into the belief that I was her son." "You mean poor old Jakubska? I swear to you she is your mother, as you will find by the parish register. Who should know that better than myself, who am your father's cousin? That you ever were wrongfully palmed upon the count, was the fault of my poor deceased sister, who would have gone through fire rather than see the Countess Vanda weep. She devised and conducted the whole affair. However, they all meant it for the best; and, had the countess not been seized with remorse at the last, it would have answered very well."
Pavel listened with an incredulous smile.
"Well, you will find it all true, to your cost," said the cousin, "for your name is down in the steward's book among the other serfs, and you will, by and by, be reminded of your real condition, I promise you."
"And the servants who accompanied him on the day of his departure-the coachman-the jager?" demanded Pavel.
They have never been heard of since," said the cousin. "The peasants were duly informed of Count Leon's death, said to have taken place on a tour through Russia. You may be sure the count has procured all the papers necessary to prove his version of the story; so every precaution, you see, has been taken; and after all he has done to blot out every trace of your existence, I leave you to judge if he is likely to leave unpunished any blabbing of yours. See what it will bring upon you, that's all. It is easy to silence you in such a way that you will never be tempted to meddle with his affairs again. So be prudent, and keep your own
The man knew not what to hope or what to fear from the boy's obstinate silence. He continued
suppose I can run away," said Pavel, sul- to preach him into patience and discretion until lenly, "if I don't like it ?”
"For that you will want a few things not easily come at. Who is to get you a passport? Besides, I know it for sure, that the bailiff has already asked after you, most likely by his master's orders, and certainly without the slightest notion of your having ever borne another name. Doubtless, he will keep a sharp look-out."
they arrived at Jakubska's cottage, an abode so
"But if I do not choose to remain ?" persisted years, and kept her hut in better trim too. HowPavel.
"Ay, but the law binds you. Say, however, you get off you can't apply to the count-what would you do to live? Go into service? You are as well here. You have no money that I know of to set up anything for yourself. Besides, I must tell you that your mother has been greatly tried during the last few years. All your brothers are dead. She has been bed-ridden, and, but for the pension secured to her by the count, must have starved. Now, indeed, she is better, and can hobble about the room; but she'll never be able to do much for herself so it is your duty to stay at home and work for her. She has given out that you have been with distant relations since your birth, which makes your long absence and present return seem natural enough. If you keep quiet, all may go well; and the count may in time remember you with less bitterness. You must not spoil your own chances. After all, remember you are a born vassal, and have no right whatever to anything better than your present lot."
ever, she is your mother-you must not quarrel with her little weaknesses, especially now that she has no other child left but you."
The hut stood somewhat apart from the village. Like all such tenements, it was put together of lime, sand, and wood, materials at no time very solid, but which, from the owner's neglect, showed a tendency to ruin on all sides. The solitary chimney seemed about to fall. The thatch had been blown from the roof, through which patches of sky were visible. The cottage had all the appearance of having been shaken by a recent earthquake. Pavel paused an instant before crossing the threshold.
"Is it not lucky," said his cousin, "that you were prepared for this by your long sojourn at Noah's? I don't think you would have liked it fresh from the castle."
Pavel smiled, but did not give utterance to the thought that rose in his mind at that moment; namely, that to be Jakubska's son and a serf, was a fate which, to him, no externals could either
aggravate or soften; and he resolutely entered the hut.
Jakubska lay huddled up on the bench by the stove, her person more ragged and shrunken than ever, but her eyes glittering with the same painful, piercing look that had affected him when a boy.
"How changed! how changed!" mumbled the old woman, in a rambling way to herself. "No one will take him for a count now, with that dark brow, sulky look, and loutish bearing; and yet my own handsome Pavel, I'll be bound, if I could but see his face;" but Pavel resolutely kept his face averted.
"I have been very sick," she continued, " and could not go to see you, and then God deprived me of the use of my limbs; but you never missed me, and I had then good sons to take care of me; but I-I never forgot my last-born; and though I have been pinched at times, and sorely tempted, 1 never parted, or dreamt of parting, with the only gift of my own flesh and blood, all count as he then was."
"Well, gossip," she said, addressing her cousin, may the Virgin repay you your trouble and kindness-you have brought me home at length my last, my only one; they are all dead and gone, my good boys, who loved me and whom I loved-there remains but this ungrateful one, who would not come when he knew me at death's door; but still my own Pavel, the only one left me." She put forth her arms as if to embrace him, but Pavel made no motion towards her. The woman crossed herself rapidly, muttering as she did so—“ I have been a great sinner, and this will be my punish-to her bed, which was surrounded with color prints ment."
She rose, and, with feeble steps, tottered over
of the family's patron saints; a rude crucifix of
"Pavel, Pavel! why will you come back upon that after so many long years? There is no oath so sacred but I am ready to take, to convince you that you are my own legitimate child. I will swear it on the graves of your father and brothers. Is there, then, no voice in nature to tell you so?" Pavel looked earnestly into her eyes. The woman returned his gaze with one as steady. He had encouraged the belief that Jakubska would reveal all at his urgent solicitation; he now felt" like a drowning man, between whom and the deep the last plank has given way, and, rising from his knees, he said coldly: :
Well, I shall work for you."
Jakubska made no reply. Vile as was her spirit, deeply as it was steeped in insensibility, her son had inflicted pain on her; and she felt that one dark shadow more had fallen on her cheerless life. Though in his heart he did not, would not, credit the tale of her relationship to himself, still the sincerity and solemnity of her manner had raised doubts in his mind, and somewhat startled his conscience; for Noah's house was a school where filial duty was enforced above all others. He could not, he would not, love that woman, or acknowledge her as his parent; but yet he felt it incumbent upon him to provide for her in her old age. He would not have her curse on his head in case she were his mother. He would take upon himself the cultivation of the bit of land that had fallen to his father's lot, and see what he could make of it. As these ideas flitted through his mind, he stood, with folded arms, gazing through the solitary windows upon the bleak prospect with
"These buttons are mine!" he said, with impetuosity.
"So they are," answered the old woman; take them back, Pavel, if you like."
"I will find means to give you the equivalent," said he, grasping the treasure.
Though why you should like to remember those people," she continued, " is more than I can understand. It is true I don't know much about fine writing, but it seems to me that there never was anything more touching than the petition got up by the Jew in your favor. I had it read out to me by a priest, without telling him for whom it was intended, and by whom addressed. Well, I presented it. It was one day when I knew the count had gone up to his mines-he sometimes visits them, though he never comes near the castle
the moment he saw me, he looked as black as thunder, and asked me what I wanted with himwere you dead? I thought he looked as if he wished it." Pavel clenched his hand. took the paper, cast a hasty glance at it, then throwing it in my face, rode off with a curse."
Pavel's head fell on his breast. He had cherished a secret hope that this petition had never reached the count, or that some show of tenderness had accompanied its reception. But no; spurned like a hound-how he hated that man! His emotion was too deep for utterance. "He'll get no