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Similar influences might befall in political affairs.
longing, and no power or vigor to satisfy itself. We should be all the better for breaking this off for a season; and the urgent demands of a wartime would bring us roughly to account. Statesmen would not boggle and falter, asking for
But it is not to be denied that very considerable facilities would, for a time at least, attend the ca- At home, we have got into a very ill-conditioned reer of a war minister. The mere strength and state-a morbid appetite for reforms," with power derived from singleness of purpose would never a one ripe in public opinion, but a constant place him on inexpugnable vantage-ground. Al- pandering to the appetite by dealers in green crudithough habits of trade and the coddling of extreme ties. Every part of the nation has an unhealthy civilization have seemed to deaden the innate spirit of physical contest in the English nation, the first "silver snarling" of the war-trumpet would rouse the inborn demon, and English eyes would flash as they have not done for many a year. All peoples, especially the English, affect positive results;" 'pressure from without" to help them in buckling and the English have been rather sickened of late by very negative or indeterminate results to their statesmanship; a war minister would have positive, distinct, palpable results enough, and to spare -critical results, highly exciting to the public interests; hopeful results; "glorious" results.
Besides those adventitious attractions, it is not to be maintained that war must necessarily be in all other respects disastrous. That it would be attended with trouble and loss is most certain; nearly as certain that the evil would be anything but unmixed. Many good movements are going on sluggishly and ineptly, which the violent revulsion of a war would stir into life. Upon nations, even as upon individuals, the force of inertness, routine, and false shame, is paralyzing; it is difficult for the most powerful to take heart of grace, break off its long error, and turn over a new leaf. We shall but touch upon instances.
themselves to their duty they would soon know what reforms stand for finished ideas in the publie mind, and those would become facts accomplished without further delaying, to be got out of the way of action. Mere à priori "reforms," got up to satisfy a crotchet or make an agitation, would be brushed aside with other child's-play. Those larger reform measures which are still baking in the public mind, unmatured, would be put by for a time, to be taken up with more freshness and resolve in their turn; and probably the ultimate success of such measures would not be really hindered by present postponement. Some measures of justice and common sense might be directly hastened. The luxury of sporting with colonies would be abandoned, to do them substantial justice. The mischievous squadron on the coast of Africa
that great embodied and armed nonsense, which yearly diverts a good round sum, engages our ships, and complicates our relations with friends would be given up.
Commerce would be harshly jarred and unsettled, but not altogether unhappily, if after the disturbance it settled again in better channels. We see it to Abroad, changes not less happy might be anticibe in many cases in bad channels, but we cannot pated embarrassments arising from deference for effect the change, which might perhaps be done at many an old treaty would be swept away; Austria a jerk. At home, our railway habits of trade and Russia, and all their allies, would forfeit 1815: might not be the worse for some overwhelming England and France would be set free to negotiate deluge of other interests to break off for a time all directly with Italy, Hungary, the German nations but the quiet essential part. Abroad, we have got -ay, and with Poland-and so to bring the peoples into bad ways-as with Brazil: the attempt to once for all into the councils of Europe. Nay, force our morals upon Brazilian conscience be- there is no saying what a Turkish war might do trayed us into false diplomatic relations; our di- for the Russian nobles-those unhappy magnates plomacy borrowed its coercive power from com- whom one occasionally meets wandering about the merce, and an endless series of inconsistencies has continent, on leave," stung with a mortified landed us in a quarrel with one of our best cus- sense of degradation to see their compeers of the tomers, of such a kind that we can scarcely take a west, free and independent, travelling where they step towards reconciliation without further incon-list without reporting all their movements to a Bistencies. A war might cut that Gordian knot bureau at home. for us, oblige us to exchange refinements and entangled questions for essentials, and by forcing us into more direct courses, make us acknowledge the Bweet uses of adversity. France is unfair to us; for she does not adequately reciprocate our commercial concessions-perhaps for want of a more thorough understanding, not so much of our economical arguments, as of our sincerity. France At present, our interference is confined to prosuspects us of a cold, calculating selfishness, which tests and remonstrances; but if they are not suocares little what wrong is done so that we escape cessful, and Russia persists in attacking Turkey, the responsibilities and the consequences. Were they will be followed by acts, and the whole the two countries compelled to fight side by side power of England will be put forth to aid for justice to Europe, a better understanding could Turkey and beat back the Northern Bear. A scarcely fail to grow up, and France would learn, war between Russia and Turkey on such a out of mere good fellowship, to show a better faith pretext would be followed by a war between in consulting mutual interests. Russia and England, and probably between
No a war in 1850 would not tend altogether in favor of absolutism. Perhaps, for that very reason, Russia may not go so far as to bring the generosity of France and England to the test.
From the Economist.
Russia and France.
Austria must be involved in | cause as this justifies the employment of our armed it on the side of Russia, by whose arrogance force in foreign contests. This, too, has suddenly
Europe is threatened with a far worse war than that which Russia sent its forces into Hungary to quell.
There can be no doubt whatever that the conduct of Russia, in arrogantly making such a demand, and in threatening to support it by force of arms, violates the laws of nations. She aspires, then, to make a new code of national laws, and be the sole legislator for Europe. This cannot be allowed. No one of the great powers is so weak in such a contest as Russia. She can have no efficient allies. Austria is too much involved in Italy and Hungary to be able to render her any material assistance. Italy would probably be invaded by the French, and under their auspices would again rise, most probably with much greater success than in 1848, to chase away the Austrians. Hungary, not yet pacified, and no longer cordially united with Austria, hating Russia as the instrument of her subjugation, would probably again be urged into insurrection. All the German subjects of Austria must be opposed to measures involving the possibility of such occurrences, and must be disinclined to see Russian power predominant. A war which would set loose in Austria all the elements of disorder, would be fatal to its greatness. Austria, in such a contest, can afford Russia no efficient aid.
The finances of Russia are not in a condition to enable her to enter into a war with England and France. She has, too, a little war on her hands with the Circassians, which might become a great internal war embracing the bulk of her Mahometan population, were she to engage in a contest with Turkey, England, and France. trust, therefore, that a true sense of his own position, and the language used by our government, will be sufficient to make the Emperor of Russia sensible that he has taken a wrong step. He will, probably, listen to reason and the remonstrances of England and France.
We hope there will be no war. The people of Europe want peace. For nothing did they hate political change so much as that it disturbed peace, and they will not pardon in the Emperor of Russia that which they have loudly and fiercely condemned in all the demagogues and revolutionists of the age.
Should the emperor fancy that his honor is concerned, and that he cannot retreat-should his success over the Hungarians inspire him with a notion that he can succeed in whatever he undertakes-there is but one course for England. She cannot suffer the autocrat to dictate the laws of Europe. She is pledged to uphold the Turkish empire, and she cannot allow the czar to dismember it at his pleasure. She has her Indian empire to look to, and cannot allow Turkey to be incorporated with Russia. It is seldom that so good a
come on us. The armies of Russia are no doubt ready to proceed from Hungary to Turkey, and can only be stopped by a resolute action on our part. Such a case brings the arbitration theory of the universal peace party to the test. It has espoused the cause of Hungary; it would like to see the Hungarian and Polish refugees protected from the wrath of the emperor; but England, in such a case, relying on arbitration, and disarmed, would be constrained to see the rights of hospitality and the laws of nations violated. She would then be a consenting party to inflicting a great outrage on humanity, and giving the last blow to the independence of Hungary and Poland.
THE DYING BOY.
[We do not know to whom to credit the following lines.] OH, I long to lie, dear mother,
On the cool and fragrant grass,
And I want the bright, bright sunshine
I will close my eyes, and God will think
Then Christ will send an Angel
To take me up to him;
He will gently, gently lay me
Close to the Saviour's side,
And I'll look among the Angels
That stand about the Throne, Till I find my sister Mary,
For I know that she is one.
And when I find her, mother,
We will go away alone,
And I will tell her how we 've mourned
Oh! I shall be delighted
To hear her speak again-
So I'll put my arms around her,
To take me back to you-
And you'll only think, dear mother,
SHORT ARTICLES.-Austrian Perfidy, 303.-Cause of Ineffectual Preaching, 322. POETRY.-The Shut-up One, (with an Illustration); St. Peter's Tears; Reasons for Risibility 318. The Dying Boy, 335.
PROSPECTUS. This work is conducted in the spirit of Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favorably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is twice as large, and appears so often, we not only give spirit and freshness to it by many things which were excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to satisfy the wants of the American reader.
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WASHINGTON, 27 DEC., 1845.
Or all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this has appeared to me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the English language, but this by its immense extent and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human mind in the utmost expansion of the present age. J. Q. ADAMS.
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 288.-24 NOVEMBER, 1849.
From the New Monthly Magazine.
WILD SPORTS OF THE FALKLANDS.
table matter as inflammable as tinder. The long thin leaves interlock above, and form, here and there, little cloisters from five to twenty yards
SKETCHED DURING A SURVEY OF THOSE ISLANDS. long in some places. The paths thus formed are
BY CAPTAIN MACKINNON, R. N.
PLEASANT HARBOR.-The barometer fell so fast, that the surveying party did not think it prudent to leave the vessel. Every preparation was made for a heavy gale; as we knew, by experience, that the weather-glass is a faithful monitor. At noon we began to feel the breeze; and by 2, P. M., we had as hard a gale of wind, accompanied by as fierce and powerful squalls, with numerous flakes of snow, as I ever experienced. Our situation was desolate in the extreme; to leeward, a range of rocky hills covered with snow, the harbor itself (a branch of Port Fitzroy) lashed by the furious gale into one sheet of foam; and to windward, a small islet covered with tussock, the long leaves of which, bending and bowing as in despair, added to the dreariness of the prospect; while the entrance to the harbor and the head of the bay were hidden from our view by large flakes of snow driving furiously past us. To deepen the effect of this dismal picture, we were conscious of being 104° of latitude from Old England; and that, in case of need, we were several hundred miles away from the nearest assistance. In spite of all this, we were perfectly comfortable and jolly, and cared not one farthing for the gale, as we had not only full reliance on our own resources, but abundance of " creature comforts," to say nothing of the appearance of our spritsail-yard, which was not merely decorated, but positively loaded, with game of all kinds.
Towards night, as usual, the gale abated. The next morning, after divisions, it being Sunday, divine service was performed, (a ceremony omitted only on one occasion while Captain Sulivan and myself were aboard the vessel, when, during a very heavy gale of wind, we were battened down.) After the ship's company had dined, some of the crew were allowed to land for a walk; but as no fire-arms were permitted to be carried on the Sabbath, it was customary to put the men on an islet, in order to avoid any danger from the wild animals which infested the mainland. On the day in question, about twenty were landed on the little tussock | isle close to which we lay; and as certain of the officers, myself among the number, wished to go, we all went together, and soon began to amuse ourselves in the best way we could. These tussock beds are very singular places; they have been undisturbed for ages, and by the perpetual decay and renewal of the flags the whole place where they grow is covered with large lumps of vege
CCLXXXVIII. LIVING AGE. VOL. XXIII.
trodden perfectly smooth by the numerous penguins, whose holes branch off in every direction. As we were looking about us, one of our party suddenly observed that he smelt smoke. Though such a remark on an uninhabited island was of a nature to excite surprise, no one seemed to heed it till, in a few minutes, thick reeky volumes began to roll over our heads, when it struck me that some of our careless vagabonds had set fire to the weather-side. Off we started for very life, though we had only about 200 yards to go. The ground was excessively difficult, as some of the lumps above described were five feet high, and the flags on the summits many feet above our heads. The cracking of the flames was plainly heard, as if close to us, and we were nearly suffocated by the dense smoke. At length, after a desperate struggle, in which several shoes and caps were lost, we gained the beach, rushed into the boat, and pushed off. We were barely in time; for the next instant the little bank over which we had scampered was a mass of bright flame. Not a moment was lost in sending a boat round to the weather-side (the leeward being impracticable, on account of heat and smoke) to look for the rest of our men, about whom we were, of course, very anxious. The thoughtless fellows were found sitting quietly on the beach smoking their pipes, and looking with vacant pleasure on their work, not dreaming that some of their shipmates might, as the Americans say, have been “used up" by it.
The next morning, anxious to see the effects of the fire, I landed early, and having examined the ashes, ascertained that a very great number of birds had been destroyed by the conflagration. The island consists of about three hundred acres, of which, I am convinced, there are not a dozen square yards without a nest of some kind of bird containing four or five eggs, or callow brood. In the portion of land wherein the fire raged, the young birds were roasted alive, besides a few seals, whose remains we found pretty well singed. The authors of this wholesale destruction said it was quite pitiable to see the larger birds, such as geese, caranchos, &c., flying round the flames that were consuming their young, and screaming with horror. Now and then one of them would fall in, either suffocated by the smoke or scorched by the heat.
A day or two subsequently, Captain Sulivan and myself landed with our guns on an exploring excursion. After about an hour's walk round a lake, during which we jointly bagged upwards of forty teal, we saw, on turning the corner of a gully, a
huge bull half hidden among the bushes, as if fast | brute as he turned, and, though at the distance of asleep. Dropping on our knees, we crawled back fifty yards, we could clearly hear the "thud" of some distance, for the purpose of changing our the ball striking him, which it did about six inches small shot for ball. Having thrown down our behind the heart. This was a staggering blow, game and shooting-jackets, we stealthily advanced but did not prevent his running away. on all-fours, and crept up to a small bank within|(our dog) was immediately slipped, caught the fifteen yards of the brute's great head, which lay bull about three hundred yards inland, and flew at fully exposed to us; then, resting our guns, we his flank, which caused him to face about and both fired our left barrels at a concerted signal, attack the dog. Time was thus given me to get reserving the right. The beast did not move; within fifteen yards of the spot, when, lowering and, to our mortification, we found, on a nearer his head, the brute charged me. My right-hand approach, that we had valiantly been attacking a barrel, however, damped his ardor, and he turned dead animal. It was some consolation, however, half round as if to fly. My second bullet went to discover that our two bullet-holes were touch- clean through his body a few inches above the ing each other in the centre of his brain. Know-heart, and, for a moment, brought him on his ing full well that we might reckon on a speedy knees. While I drew my knife in order to ham detection of our exploit, and consequently, on be-string him, he suddenly rallied, and appeared to ing well laughed at, we determined to ward off the expected ridicule by turning the tables on our shipmates; accordingly, going on board with joyful countenances, we said (which was true enough) that we had shot a bull through the brain, and that he had not stirred afterwards. On hearing this, a party was formed, and saws, knives, and other butchering instruments were taken, for the purpose of cutting up the spoil, towards which, after receiving the necessary directions, they started in high glee; while we sat down to dinner, chuckling at our ruse, which, if it did not deceive our companions, had the desired effect in diverting the laughter from ourselves.
When we had completed the survey of Pleasant Harbor, we took the vessel some miles further up. As we advanced towards the head of the harbor, the beauties of the place opened on us. Sometimes the passage was so narrow that one might have thrown one's hat ashore on either side; and anon it spread out to a broad sheet of water. The whole scene was so desolate and dumb that, in giving the word of command, as the different windings made it necessary to shift the yards, my own voice startled me. The water-fowl, noiselessly parting on each side of our bow, as the vessel came up to them, did not appear alarmed, but stared at us with grave astonishment. At eight o'clock we came to and moored in a large sheet of water, about ten miles from the harbor's mouth. While enjoying my cigar on deck, and deriving pleasure from the soft, serene air of evening, I perceived two bulls grazing close to the shore just ahead of the vessel. The surveyors, who were engaged below laying down their work, immediately stopped business and came up. Having only one day's beef on board, we determined to attack the bulls; and, in a few minutes, four of us were pulling for the shore with well-loaded guns. Our proceedings had got wind on the lower deck, and all hands crowded up the rigging to see the battle. We landed under the bank, in such a position as not to be seen by our prey, who were quietly grazing all the time. Stealthily, like Indians, we climbed the bank, and jumped over the brow full before them. They immediately turned tail and fled. Captain Sulivan fired at the nearest
collect what strength was left him for one last desperate effort-always the most dangerous. At this moment Mr. Sulivan, jun. came up and presented his gun, but the vile Brummagem snapped without going off; and we should have been in rather an awkward predicament, had not Captain Sulivan, with his remaining barrel, within five yards, laid the bull dead at his feet, the bullet passing through the centre of the brain, and coming out at the back of his head. The moment he fell, we were greeted by three loud cheers from the people at our mast-head, and, in a few minutes, had thirty stout fellows with us. After disembowelling our prey, we attached a strong line to his horns, and, with a sailor-song from thirty hoarse throats, dragged him down to the water's edge, towed him off, and hoisted him in with a runner and tackle, not liking to trust his great weight to the yard.
As the survey detained us here several days, we had a good opportunity of exploring the immediate vicinity. Not a day passed without our seeing herds of cattle grazing around. To attack these would not be so dangerous an adventure as to encounter the outlying bulls, which, in number, are disproportionate to the cows. This, no doubt, has arisen from the great slaughter for food of the latter, whose flesh is preferable to that of the males -a slaughter committed by ships of all nations some few years ago, before the Falklands were under the English flag. I generally remarked that the outlyers were covered with gashes, received, probably, in many a hard battle; and that they labored under the disadvantage of not having their horns pointed upwards, whereas the bashaws who lived in female society had remarkable advantages in that weapon of offence. This may be a wise ordination of nature, to prevent the great number of males from injuring the breed, which would certainly ensue were not some of the bulls turned out of the herd and kept at a distance by their mone favored brethren.
Having seen that everything was in order in our little vessel, I thought a good opportunity was before me to carry out one of the orders given by the Admiralty to my commanding officer-namely, to form