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they have less of moral capacity in them than the lowest human animals, the bushmen, for example, have more of actual reverence, more of the humaner qualities of disinterested love and devotion, in short, more civilization, though less capability of civilization. The highest range reached in the world of the lower animal life overlaps the lowest reached by man, the difference being, however, that the former is incapable of cultivation beyond a certain point, owing to the absence of any adequate means of accumulating the results of past experience, while the latter is capable of cultivation far beyond the point at which the former stops. Still, as a matter of actual attainment, as distinguished from the capacity for future development, no doubt the highest class of animals surpass the lowest tribes which de

serve the name of man.

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case the continuous existence of the town was not interrupted, and in either case an ancient Gaulish name, either of the town itself or of the tribe, remains to this day. Next, under the Roman domination a new element comes in, destined to be as lasting as the other. Christianity is preached at an early time, converts are found, persecution follows, some saintly and martyred Bishop connects his name for ever with the city. As Christianity becomes the recognised faith of the Empire, the local Church emerges from its obscurity and obtains a position which it was never destined to lose. Except when it has been tampered with by recent changes, the episcopal succession in a French city has gone on uninterruptedly since the third or fourth century; the present cathedral stands on the site of a church of those primitive times; the extent of the diocese marks the extent of the Roman civil division of which the city was the head. Then came the Teutonic inroads, those of the Franks in the north, those of the Goths and Burgundians in the south. The connexion with the seat of Empire, with Rome Old or New, first became nominal and then was wiped out altogether, till the day when the Roman diadem was set on the brow of a Frankish King. But the Gaulish hill-fortress, the Roman city, lived through the storm. It remained a seat of habitation and of dominion; it retained its name, its position as the head of a district, in the south it even retained large traces of its Roman municipal organization. Above all, it retained its character as a seat of spiritual rule, the seat of a chief church and its chief pastor. The cities of Gaul have lived on uninterruptedly from the days of Sextius and Cæsar till now. The episcopal churches of Gaul lived on uninterruptedly from the days of primitive Christendom to the great Revolution. And with most of them the great Revolution itself was only a passing eclipse. The chief towns of France, in short, are places which have been abodes of man, seats of man's industry and government such as industry and government, have been at various times, for eighteen hundred or two thousand years, and for as many more prehistoric centuries as any one chooses to add. Dynasties, governments, nations, languages, all have changed; but to this day the chief fort of each tribe overrun by Cæsar commonly remains the cathedral city of a diocese, and is often also the capital of an ancient province or a modern department.

Now this is the history, not of one or two cities only, but of a whole class. When any place of any importance deviates from

From The Saturday Review. ENGLISH AND FRENCH CITIES.

We know not how far any one's national vanity is at all troubled by the thought, which must present itself to any one who goes through any considerable part of England and France with his eyes open, that there is hardly any city in England which can trace the same unbroken historical existence which can be traced by nearly every French town that can boast of enough of early importance to have been the seat of an ancient Bishopric. The history of a great number of French towns follows a single type. The site has been a place of human habitation, and the centre of a more or less organized society, as far back as history or trustworthy tradition can take us. It was a post, most usually a fortress overlooking a river, which formed the stronghold, the capital, if we may so call it, of a Gaulish tribe. From those times till now it has never ceased to be, in one form or another, a seat of habitation and of dominion. The Gaulish hill-fort became the Roman town. It was fenced about with Roman walls, and it received a Roman municipal constitution, In the South it retained, and still retains, its original anteRoman name. Burdigala and Tolosa keep to this day, with but slight changes, the names which they have borne from the beginning of things. In the North the name of the town was most commonly forgotten; it was supplanted by the name of the tribe. Lutetia Parisiorum, the town of the tribe of the Parisii, retains, as Paris, not its own name but that of its inhabitants. In either

Turn to our own country, and, instead of a whole class of immemorial Gaulish cities, we shall find at most two or three which make a distant and doubtful approach to an analogous character. Many English towns stand on the site of Roman towns, but very few, if any, English towns can trace the same uninterrupted connexion with primitive times which is still plainly written on the ancient cities of France. It is by no means clear that the Roman towns in Britain so generally occupied Celtic sites as they did in Gaul; it is quite certain that few or no English towns can show the same continuous existence from Roman times which so many French towns can. A great gulf, an interval of historic darkness, a period given up to the conjectures and inferences of ingenious men, divides their latest recorded Roman existence from their earliest recorded English existence. No existing English, or even Welsh, Bishopric pretends to trace an uninterrupted episcopal succession further back than the sixth century. That any English town retains a traditional, or even an imitative, Roman constitution, is a mere dream without a shadow of proof. Nay, it is not even certain that the sites of the ancient Roman towns were continuously inhabited. Many of them are utterly forsaken, others have changed their names, of those which have kept their names several are suspected to have changed their sites. London retains its name, but very learned antiquaries doubt Again, London stands in England absowhether the oldest English London occu- lutely by itself in the retention of anything

the type, it is at once noticed as an excep- pied the site of Roman London. But, after tion. It is in no way interfered with by all, the Bishopric is generally the best the fact that many French Bishoprics have means of comparison. Of course we set been divided, and some in modern times aside the sees founded in England by Henry united. The process which is really de- the Eighth and in our own day, just as we structive of continuity, that of translation set aside the more recent Bishoprics of from one seat to another, is exceedingly France. We have no concern with the rare. And we may add that in France it is see of Manchester or with the see of Verthe old cities, the immemorial ecclesiastical sailles. We have no concern even with and civil capitals, which are, to a very great the see of Gloucester or the see of Montauextent, the seats of modern commerce and ban. Our ancient English dioceses, like manufacture. We need not speak of the those of France, represent the civil divisage of Massalia, the Hellenic common- ions which existed at the time of their wealth which braved the might of Cæsar, foundation; but then in England those civil the Free City of the Empire which braved divisions were not the districts of Roman the might of Charles of Anjou. But Lyons, cities, but were ancient English principaliRouen, Bordeaux, Amiens, Nantes, are ties. The sees were by no means necessaall examples of modern industry and com- rily placed in Roman cities. When they merce finding their homes in the abodes of were, they can trace no unbroken succession ancient Counts and Bishops. Cherbourg, from the Bishops of Roman times. LonBrest, Toulon, though not equalling the don and York had doubtless been episcopal associations of the others, are all ancient seats in earlier times, but the English Bishand historic towns. Havre alone is mod- ops of those cities were in no sense succesern, but it has lived three centuries, and sors of the Roman or British Bishops. A three centuries, in the eyes of many people, wide gap, the introduction of another peois a very respectable antiquity. ple and another language, the introduction and the overthrow of another religion, cut off the two series from one another. But in truth an English Bishopric had no such necessary connexion with a city as a continental Bishopric had. The head church, served by the Bishop's monks or clerks, was placed somewhere, but it was by no means necessarily placed in the greatest or most ancient town in the diocese. Selsey, Ramsbury, Sherborne, Wells, Lichfield, Elmham, Dunwich, were episcopal sees and little else, and all of them have, either for a time or for ever, had their episcopal rank taken from them. Dorchester- the Oxfordshire Dorchester-was a Roman site, but it had no continuous civic existence like Chartres or Angers. None of these cities have anything like the history, none of them have anything like the outward appearance, of those cities in France where the Gaulish hill-fort has gradually grown into the modern city. At Exeter and Lincoln we do see an outward appearance which may be fairly likened to that of the French type of city; but the historical analogy fails us. Lincoln and Exeter were Roman cities, but they did not become English Bishoprics till the eleventh century, when their episcopal chairs were removed to there from Dorchester and Crediton. Colchester, which, of all the towns in England, has the best claim to assert a continuous occupation since Roman times, has never become a Bishop's see at all.

like that continuous importance which Paris | stand up for the Roman origin of English shares with many other French cities. Our municipalities, never take the trouble to greatest towns are, as a rule, neither the do. History, like philosophy, to be really seats of Roman dominion nor yet the seats philosophical, must not be conjectural, but of Old-English Bishoprics. Manchester and comparative. A comparison of Britain with Leeds bear names which connect them Gaul or Spain will teach more than ten with very early history, but they have no thousand ingenious guesses. It is written continuous greatness. Our old ports have on the face of the two countries that the mostly sunk into insignificance; some of English conquest of Britain places a comthem have ceased to exist. Southampton plete break, what we believe philosophers and Dover alone can pretend to any con- call a "solution of continuity," between tinuous life. Of our cities famous in the days before and the days after it. The the middle ages, Bristol and Norwich al- Frankish conquest of Gaul, with all the immost alone have kept up any unbroken portant changes which it brought about, importance, and of Bristol and Norwich, made no such complete break. In a word, as the modern importance is quite secon- Englishmen are Englishmen, with a certain dary, the antiquity is quite secondary also. Celtic infusion. Frenchmen, notwithstandThroughout England our connexion with ing a certain Teutonic infusion, are Celts to early times is far more strongly shown in this day. institutions than in sites or buildings. In France it is the reverse.

The contrast then is striking in every way. A French city, the seat of a Bishopric, the capital of an ancient province, can commonly show an uninterrupted existence, an uninterrupted importance, from the very beginning of civil and ecclesiastical history. The origin of the town is lost in the maze of prehistoric times, the origin of the church is lost among the early legends of saints and martyrs. The city retains either its own Celtic name, or the name of the Celtic tribe of which it was the head. In England, on the other hand, cities and churches are all of comparatively recent date. Not more than two or three can even pretend to a continuous existence from British or Roman times. Names have changed, the seats of dominion have shifted, the seats of ecclesiastical and of civil rule do not coincide, they often have never coincided. The continuous local history of our cities begins, as a rule, with the seventh century or later. The recorded continuous local history of a French city goes back to Cæsar or Sextius, and the days of Cæsar or Sextius were not its beginning. Everything in England points to a thorough uprooting of old institutions, the formation of old sites, a complete destruction in short of all organization and government, which left a new nation to make a new start. That is to say, the English Conquest of Britain was something wholly different from the Frankish, Burgundian, Gothic Conquests of Gaul. Without making this comparison, and without carrying it out into mi-able. The useful individual who provides nute details, no one can understand the a convenient channel for the outlet of litphenomena of our early history. Now this tle properties of this kind certainly deis just what our ingenious theorists, our serves an honorarium in acknowledgment genealogists who trace our pedigree up to of his amiable offices. And there will alour British ancestors, our clever men who ways be a large number of people who,

From The Pall Mall Gazette. BARTER IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. AMONG all the thousand uses to which the power of advertisement is turned, few are more curious and characteristic of the age than that which gives existence to a periodical entitled The Exchange and Mart. It seems to have occurred to some observant person that there is a fair chance of getting hold of a paying percentage of individuals dissatisfied with their own belongings and desirous to make an exchange with their neighbours. Such individuals would find, it might be presumed, a certain relief in letting themselves off in cheap advertisements, to say nothing of the hope of a successful bargain. Hundreds of thousands of people, again, have decided wants in these days of a high standard of artificial needs, who yet are in a position to barter only, not to buy. If one-half of these could be brought into contact with the other half, many a little arrangement might be effected, to the convenience of the barterers and the pecuniary profit of the kind creature who brought it all about. And, again, many persons in the position of gentlefolk find themselves in circumstances which render it desirable that they should realize by some means or other various private belongings, often tenderly cherished as memorials of friends passed away, or of bygone days of prosperity, for which no ordinary channel of sale is avail

without any special necessity or any special want, would be very glad to get a little money, or something useful, in return for possessions for which they have ceased to have any use or care.


rangement into things of like which is wont to prevail in wedding presents. This particular lady may be a bride who has had two handkerchief boxes given her and little or no jewellery, and in that case she probably has at least half a dozen ornamental inkstands and electro-plate eggstands to part with in exchange for further rings. Another lady has a white Limerick lace tunic, uncleaned, cost £4. She wishes for a good turquoise ring and long gold earrings. We wish she may get them. Another, probably a young male with a desire for additional personal embellishments, writes: "I wish for rings. I have an electrical machine and apparatus, a pneumatic trough, an alarum, alphabetical safety lock, and other things, but am open to offers." A sad fall, from physical science to rings. Sealskin jackets are as much in demand as rings, and seem to have a high value in the barter market. One lady declares that a sealskin jacket is much wanted, but she is "open to offers." This, we observe, is the attitude of a large proportion of the advertisers. We do not understand it to refer in all cases to expected proceedings in a matrimonial direction. In the present case it probably means that if a handsome sealskin jacket is not forthcoming, anything that looks good and welldressed will be acceptable. However that may be, the lady makes what must be called a liberal offer, and this is what she will give:—“A Lallier album, containing 681 stamps, very rare ones indeed: fortysix graduated red carnelian beads; thirteen large ivory ones; three pretty illuminations; a set of green beetles, earring and brooch, on gilt leaf, cost nearly £2." The next lady makes an offer which to the unregenerate sense appears still more munificent, "a long dark gold chain, new pattern, handsome Italian silver card-case, and carved tortoise-shell card-stand, rare, and without flaws." Another lady says, "I much want a sealskin jacket. I offer gold signet ring, plated cruet stand, black Astrachan muff, drab ostrich feather fourteen inches, pretty handkerchief box." That plated cruet stand would just suit another advertiser, who wants such an article of table furniture, but instead of a sealskin jacket this latter person can only offer a

set of baby linen, new." One lady has set her heart upon silk aprons, and silk aprons she will have, even though she parts with a whole room full of little properties in exchange. It is perhaps worth while to see what she will give for a yard or so of piece silk, of any light colour, for aprons: patterns for point lace,


The Exchange and Mart is intended to meet these and many other such needs. It offers its columns at a low rate to advertisers wishing either to exchange or to sell anything, from a rare postage stamp to a carriage and pair and a mansion house. From the manner in which the columns especially devoted to exchange are filled, it would seem that the spirit of barter is by no means extinct in the nineteenth-century Briton. It appears, also, very evidently, that the return to a state of barter with which some bank alarmists and pseudopolitical economists threaten us would be attended with the gravest inconveniences. The young man in the novels who gets into the hands of the Jews has to be satisfied with receiving ten pounds out of a hundred in cash, taking the rest in birdcages, or barrel-organs, or something equally useful; and so it appears it might be in a state of barter. The butterman would want coals when we had nothing but a lace nightcap to spare. Thus we find two advertisements which answer each other in the most admirable manner so far as one material of the bargain is concerned: - "Dandie Dinmont terrier puppy, mustard colour, to exchange.' Wanted, a Dandie Dinmont or Scotch terrier puppy." Nothing could be better, and No. 1,332 may at once proceed to a deal with No. 505. But there is the other material yet to be thought about. On looking further, we find that 1,332 wants in exchange for the tyke "Votes of the Old Kent Asylum" for deaf and dumb boys. It is exceedingly improbable, a million to one against it, that 505 makes precisely this offer, but still he may offer something in the right direction. Accordingly we read on with some interest, to see whether he offers anything that may lead to votes. Alas, for the chance of a deal! He offers in exchange for the Dandie Dinmont "a handsome bull terrier from a prize strain." Apropos of dogs, one owner is apparently equipping himself as a Fenian, for he dates from Donegal, and offers a'red Irish setter for a Colt's revolver, and a "choice whelp ditto" for a bowieknife.


Many of the proposed exchangers are dying for rings. A lady has a very good morocco handkerchief box, with gilt finishings, exceedingly pretty. She is " only open to offers of rings, not turquoise." The Exchange, we remark, would be a useful means of readjusting the capricious ar

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worsted and bead work, four strips of two badges for Tom Dawson's cat, Miss broad insertion for braiding, with braid in- Senhouse, Miss Charlton's fan, Mr. Milcluded, strings of white spar, red imitation bank's eccentric." A young lady, a cat, a coral and black beads, gilt band bracelets lady's fan, a gentleman's eccentric, all for with velvet run in and out, with pendants, two badges! rather one-sided barter. That a brooch and waist clasp of cut steel, pho- cat of Mr. Dawson's appears to be an anitographic scraps, monograms, a vice to mal in much request. We trust that Mr. screw on a table for fret-work, a box of Dawson's comfort does not depend on the yellow powder for the hair, with puff and possession of the cat, for somebody else many other things." This advertisement has got him. The present holder is a lady, must add something to the cost of the and for him and a few more like him she aprons, even at ten words for a penny. It expects a pair of gold earrings, which is alwould have been cheaper to do without them. most a return to the price obtained for cats Many of the advertisements record sud- when the legal barter was a heap of corn den changes of tastes and pursuits. We as high as the cat chanced to be long, tail have seen how one young person has flown and all. Hear again No. 980, how like the off from electricity to finger rings. An- the Premier's manifesto his advertisement other young person has been taking in one reads: "I have eight eccentrics, eight of Knight's serial publications; he has got illuminateds, six coronets, and two badges as far as the thirtieth part, and his taste for exchange." Illuminateds " seem to for that sort of extravagance has left him. hold an intermediate place between eccenHe would like a small revolver for the trics and coronets. În political language thirty parts of solid information in natural this would mean that the eccentrics who alhistory, but he is open to offers. One low themselves to be "educated" become thing is quite certain, and it indicates the illuminated; when illuminated, the next decided character of his desertion of lit-step is a coronet; and, the coronet once erary tastes; he subjoins to his declaration secured, further developments will bring of being open to offers, "Books refused!" in time a badge. With a persistence in a good course of reading which shines out delightfully by contrast with this misguided renegade, a young gentleman hailing from "Commoners, Winchester," asks for "Ralph the Bailiff," by Miss Braddon, in exchange for which with a due appreciation of the sterling value of that lady's works he offers two good novels in good condition. It is hard to damp youthful ardour, but we cannot refrain from suggesting that his library will certainly be a loser by the transaction. Under this head of books and pamphlets we find an advertisement which Dr. M'Neile or some of his friends should certainly look up (the number is 930, if that will be any assistance to the Dean): -"I have about 100 different, mostly free-thought, pamphlets, average price sixpence, which I would exchange for anything useful worth a guinea." We quite understand the gentleman's wish to have something useful rather than his present property, but we think his price is high for waste paper. At any rate, it is a chance for scotching whatever of snake there may be in the egg.

The Mart is less amusing as a study of human nature and modern wants than the Exchange, for it is hard cash, not barter, that is here asked for. It is twice as costly to advertise under this head, and the advertisements are accordingly of less exuberant length. We observe a chain of Italian beads, blessed by the Pope," for seven and sixpence. It is a matter of regret that the intrinsic value of the chain is not given; for if it were, a process of compound subtraction would approximate to the market value of the Papal blessing. Another advertisement in this department may safely be left to stand on its own intrinsic merits, without comment or gilding: To amateurs, or those who desire a small organ cheap. - For sale, in working order, the complete shell of an organ. Only wants pipes."


One excellent feature is observable in all the various departments of this curious product of modern civilization, there are no ambiguous advertisements. No baby farming appears, not any of those cognate proposals over which a contemporary has One group of advertisements opens up for so long thrown the ægis of its own bewildering vistas of a science which has great name. Unless we are to judge the grown up within the memory of very young columns of the Exchange and Mart on the persons. The terminology of the science principle which condemned Mr. Pickwick appears somewhat strange to the unini- as having employed tomato sauce as a symtiated. Here is a specimen: "I have twenty bol for hidden fire, there is not a single military badges, and Adam and Eve eccen- improper advertisement in the whole numtric, to exchange for others, or would give ber we have had under inspection. VOL. XI. 472


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