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CHISLEHURST (near the Railway Station, and

delightfully situated opposite Bickley Park).-TO BE LET, for the residue of Lease (six years unexpired), a SUPERIOR RESIDENCE, with spacious and lofty Reception and Billiard Rooms, Nine Bed and Dressing Rooms, Stabling, Lodge Entrance, Glass Houses, &c., and all the adjuncts of a Gentleman's first-class establishment, surrounded by 14 acres of perfectly charming (though inexpensive) Pleasure Grounds. Gardens, Wilderness, and Pasture. Original rent, 360. per annum. No premium.-Detailed particulars, &c., may be had at Inglewood, Chisleburst, Kent; or from Mr. DAVID J. CHATTELL, of 29A (corner of), Lincoln's Inn-fields and Chislehurst, who strongly recommends the property.

8TH 8. No, 34.

Now ready, price Fourpence,

LESSONS in ASTRONOMY.

LYNN, B.A. F.R.A.S.

By W. T.

POEMS.

G. STONEMAN, 21, Warwick-lane, E.C.

BENNETT'S

The GOLDEN LIBRARY.-Square 16mo. cloth, 28. CONTRIBUTIONS to a BALLAD HISTORY of

ENGLAND.

Athen@um:-"These ballads are spirited and stirring: such are 'The Fall of Harald Hardrada, Old Benbow,'Marston Moor,' and 'Corporal John,' the soldier's name for the famous Duke of Marlborough, which is a specially good ballad. 'Queen Eleanor's Vengeance' is a vividly told story. Coming to more modern times, The Deeds of Wellington,' Inkerman,' and 'Balaklava' are excellently well said and sung. As a book of ballads, interesting to all who have British blood in their veins, Dr. Bennett's contribution will be welcome. Dr. Bennett's Ballads will leave a strong impression on the memory of those who read them." CHATTO & WINDUS, Piccadilly.

BRAND & CO.'S A1 SAUCE,

SOUPS, PRESERVED PROVISIONS, and
YORK and GAME PIES; also

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HOLLOWAY'S

OINTMENT

and

PILLS.

For bad legs, bad breasts, scorbutic and scrofulous sores, this is a genuir e specific The grateful and earnest gratitude of thousands who have experienced its unrivalled power over these complaints, and who have been raised from prostrate helplessness and a condition loathsome to themselves and others, renders it quite unnecessary to enlarge in this place upon its extraordinary virtues. The parts affected should be bathed with lukewarm water, and when the pores are thereby opened the Ointment should be well rubbed in, at least twice a day. It is always advisable to take Holloway's Pills in these disorders, as this much assists the Ointment's action. The Pills check the fever, purify the blood, and eject all morbid matter engendered by these diseases.

LIVES OF THE SAINTS.

By the Rev. S. BARING-GOULD, M.A. A New Edition, with several Hundred Illustrations. Vol. XVI, will contain a COMPLETE INDEX. Vol. XVII. SAINTS with their EMBLEMS.

EMBLEMS OF SAINTS.

BY WHICH THEY ARE DISTINGUISHED IN WORKS

OF ART.

By the late Very Rev. F. C. HUSENBETH, D.D.

A New Edition,

With numerous Corrections and Additions. By the Rev. AUGUSTUS JESSOPP, D.D. orming the Seventeenth and Last Volume of Mr. Baring-Gould's

'Lives of the Saints."

THE UNCANONICAL AND

APOCRYPHAL SCRIPTURES.

Being the Additions to the Old Testament Canon which were included in the Ancient Greek and Latin Versions; the English Text of the Authorized Version, together with the Additional Matter found in the Vulgate and other Ancient Versions; Introductions to the several Books and Fragments; Marginal Notes and References; and a General Introduction to the Apocrypha.

By the Rev. W. R. CHURTON, B.D.,

Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, Canon of the Cathedral of St. Alban's, and Examining Chaplain of the Bishop.

Large post 8vo. pp. 608, cloth, 7s. 6d.

Very large type, demy 8vo. cloth, 10s. 6d.

THE DAILY ROUND.

MEDITATION, PRAISE, and PRAYER ADAPTED TO THE COURSE OF THE CHRISTIAN YEAR.

It may also be had in imperial 32mo. cloth, 38.; Persian roan, 48. 6d. ; morocco, 6s. Royal 24mo. cloth, 3s. 6d. ; morocco, 6s. 6d. Foolscap 8vo. cloth, 4s. 6d. Persian roan, 63.; morocco, 9s.; and in several other sizes.

THE GOSPEL STORY.

A PLAIN COMMENTARY ON THE FOUR HOLY GOSPELS,
Containing the Narrative of Our Blessed Lord's
Life and Ministry.

By the Rev. W. MICHELL, M.A.,

Diocesan Inspector of Schools in the Diocese of Bath and Wel's. A New Edition, Revised. 2 vols, cloth, 65.

London: J. WHITAKER, 12, Warwick-lane.

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Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate.
Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P.
Arnold, Matthew.
Allingham, William.
Aidé, Hamilton.

Anderson, Alexander.
Ashby-Sterry, J.
Austin, Alfred.
Bailey, P. J.
Buchanan, Robert.
Bennett, W. C.

Béranger, Pierre Jean de.
Bennoch, Francis.
Blackie, J. Stuart.
Burnand, F. C.
Calverley, C. R.
Carleton, Will.

Clough, Arthur Hugh.
Collins, Mortimer.

Crossland, Mr. and Mrs. Newton.
Dobson, Austin.

Doyle, Sir Francis Hastings.
Dunphie, C. J.

Ferguson, Sir Samuel.
Graves, Alfred Percival.
Harte, Bret.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell.
Ingelow, Miss Jean.
Kingsley, Rev. Charles.
Landor, Walter Savage.
Latey, John Lash.

Leigh, Henry S.

Lennard, Horace.

Locker-Lampson, Frederick.
Locker, Arthur.

Lowell, Hon. James Russell.
Lushington, Franklin.
Lytton, Earl of.
Macaulay, Lord.

Mackay, Dr. Charles.
Martin, Sir Theodore.
Meredith, George.

Marston, Dr. J. Westland.
Marston, P. Bourke.
Morris, William.
Morris, Lewis.
Norton, Hon. Mrs.

Ogilvy, Mrs. David.
Pfeiffer, Mrs. Emily.
Prowse, W. Jeffery.

Rossetti, Miss Christina.
Sawyer, William.

Scott, Clement.

Sims, George R.

Stedman, Edmund Clarence.

Stoddard, Richard Henry,

Taylor, Sir Henry.

Taylor, Bayard.

Vere, Aubrey de.
Waugh, Edwin
Whittler, J. G,
Yates, Edmund.

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LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 20, 1892.

CONTENT 8.-N° 34. NOTES:-Rush-bearing Sunday at Ambleside, 141-A Long Sentence-Sedan Chair, 142-Morant's History of Essex -"Trompette Marine" - The Parliament of 1892-Ivy -Gingerbread, 143-J. Wesley-Rents in 1713-Browne Tothill Fields Prison-Slavonic Names for Sunday-The Times' and the Saxon Chronicle'-H. Knollys, 144-Sir T. White-School Feasts-Margate, 145-Will of the Earl of Shrewsbury-Eminent Persons'-N. Kratzer-Martin Lluelyn, 146.

"

QUERIES:-Robert Lowe-Rabelais Book-plate-"A fly on
the corporal"-Crossbows-" Iron Virgin of Nuremberg'
-"Le chien de Jean de Nivelle"-Ainsworth, 147-
Penny Gleek"- Bate-Archbishop Tenison's Arms-
O'Sullivan Bere Family-Blount, Earl of Devon-"The
Grow-for-ever Aquatalis," 148-Cooper-Author of Book
Wanted-Article in Periodical Sought-Butler-Squailer
The Universal Spectator'-Nicholas Barham-Poems
in the Greek Anthology,' 149.
REPLIES:-The Atomic Theory, 150-"A wicked Italian
boke," 151-Picture of the Holy Trinity-Descendants of
Tyndale-A Famous Surgeon, 152-" Dead as a door-nail"
-Toddy, 153-Source of Anecdote-1 John v. 12-Hynings
-Buffetier-Cats Poisonous, 154-Sir Purbeck Temple-
Jap Island-Holy Wells-St. Jerome on Cannibalism, 155
-White and Black Knights-' Old Honest John Bull'-
Hussar, 156-Chatterton: Marriner - Richard Cosway-
Belladonna, 157-A Precocious Artist-Personal Names-
St. Saviour's, Southwark-Lines from Donne-Is Ireland
in Partibus Infidelium ?-Picture by Titian, 158-Matri-
culation at Cambridge, 159.

NOTES ON BOOKS:-Fowler's Julius Cæsar and the
Foundation of the Roman Imperial System'-French's
Index Armorial to the Surname of French'-Bernon's
'First Steps to English' and 'Shall and Will.'
Notices to Correspondents.

Notes.

RUSH-BEARING SUNDAY AT AMBLESIDE.

No account of this ancient custom has appeared in 'N. & Q' since August, 1850, when the proceedings were briefly referred to in 1st S. ii. 197. I am therefore induced to send you particulars of the scene which occurred at St. Mary's Church on Saturday and Sunday, July 29 and 30. On Saturday the children assembled at the church room, and the rush-bearers being judiciously distributed, the procession marched round the town, a local band leading the way, and the clergy taking part therein. Arrived at St. Mary's Church, where the bells gave out a merry peal, the rush-bearings were taken inside, and placed in advantageous positions. These consisted of about two hundred crosses made of rushes and decorated with flowers, many of them being five feet in height. The Rev. C. T. Bayley, vicar, concluded the service with a short and appropriate address, referring specially to the custom of harvest, flower, and rush-bearing services. As the children left the church each received a square of gingerbread, according to custom.

On Sunday the festival was continued, the sermon being preached by the Rev. F. Byard, curate. The subject of his discourse was based upon Psalm xcv. 1 and 2, "O come, let us sing unto the Lord," &c., and his remarks dealt largely

with the custom of rush-bearing. After addressing the congregation, he said :—

"But there are, no doubt, many in our congregation this morning who are asking themselves the question, What does it all mean? What is rush-bearing? Why is the church adorned in this way with these floral emblems? And the question is a very natural one. Those of you who have lived in Ambleside all your lives, and take the annual rush-bearing as a matter of course, can hardly realize how much visitors from other parts of England and abroad are impressed with this local church festival of yours, and desire an explanation of its meaning. You will forgive me then if, for the benefit of such, I go over what is to many old and well-worn ground, and, though by no means an authority myself on the subject, try to supply those to whom a rush-bearing service is quite a new experience with a simple common-sense explanation of its origin and history, and its significance as a religious festival. Such a simple explanation is supplied to a certain extent by a hymn we sung together in church this morning:Our fathers to the house of God, As yet a building rude,

Bore offerings from the flowery ɛod,
And fragrant rushes strew'd.
May we, their children, ne'er forget
The pious lesson given,

But honour still, together met,

The Lord of earth and heaven.

It was the custom in old days in different parts of England for the primitive little churches of our forefathers to be carpeted with rushes, to protect the feet of worshippers from the cold earthen floor. These rushes, which were preferably of the sweet-scented kind, were renewed every year. And this renewing formed the occasion of a village festival, which was made to coincide when possible with the annual dedication festival of the church. As time wore on, and the churches came to be paved with stone or wood, the rush-bearing was no longer necessary. But certain parishes continued to preserve the old custom and the festival accompanying it, and though the rushes were no longer actually required to serve as a carpet, they were still brought into the church as in the old rush-bearing days, but formed into keep alive the memories of the past. The custom, with various devices, to symbolize Christian truths, and to various local modifications, still survives in some few oldfashioned parishes in England, notably at Warcop, Lancashire, at Grasmere, and at our own Ambleside. of the local history of this ancient festival the inprobable that it dates from a very early period, long formation that we possess is rather scanty. But it seems before the Norman Conquest; and it is not unlikely that even before there was a separate place of worship here the inhabitants of Ambleside took their part in the rushbearing at Grasmere, in the parish church. the last Saturday in July, which is, roughly speaking, the festival at Ambleside seems always to have been held on Saturday next after St. Anne's day, the 26th of this month. St. Anne, the mother of the Virgin, was the patron saint of Ambleside, and a tiny church existed ia her honour from very early times, to accommodate the beginning of this century a new and much larger church worshippers of what was then a mere hamlet. At the was built on the site of the old one, St. Anne's on the Hill, popularly, though hardly correctly, described as the old church. This too, in its turn, was superseded in 1854 by the handsome modern church in which we are Virgin, the daughter of St. Anne. It was soon after this worshipping to-day, dedicated very suitably to the Blessed that a great improvement was introduced into the

The

festival, and the rush-bearings were ornamented with real flowers instead of the paper ones and ribbons with which they had formerly been adorned; and ever since the rush-bearing has been observed without intermission in much the same way, and invokes an increasing amount of interest from residents and visitors alike. Such, then, is a very brief outline of the history of this old rush bearing festival in which we are joining once again today. It is a beautiful old custom, and we cannot fail to take a lively interest in it......Old customs have a use which new ones cannot possibly possess. They serve as a reminder of our connexion with the past. Old English customs remind us that we are English, with a noble line of ancestors to be proud of and to imitate. Old Church customs remind us that we belong to the same divine institutions as our fathers did, and have a character to keep up as such. And this rush-bearing anniversary is both. It is distinctly English and it is distinctly Church. And so it is a standing witness and pledge of the antiquity and historical continuity of that grand old Church of England to which we have the unspeakable privilege to belong.'

71, Brecknock Road.

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EVERARD HOME COLEMAN.

ment un contre dix; l'horreur des champs de bataille, la nuit, après ces journées de carnage; les campagnes désolées où, visibles sous la lumière blafarde de la lune étendus rigides sur le sol, gisaient çà et là, autour des canons encloués et parmi des débris de fourgons, hussards, artilleurs, lanciers, zouaves, chasseurs, lignards, dragons, soldats de toutes armes, fantassins et cavaliers fauchés en masse par le shrapnel; les plaintes des blessés appelant des secours qui ne devaient point venir; l'angoisse et le râle affreux des agonisants; le regard invariable et courroucé des morts qui semblaient vivre encore, même accuser quelqu'un; les lacs de sang et les amas de cadavres auprès desquels hurlaient des chiens en peine et s'effaraient des chevaux, bennissant, tout échevelés; ensuite la déroute! les difficultés presque insurmontables de la retraite; les rivières passées gué, les fleuves traversés à la nage, les rampes labourées et les plaines marécageuses où les piétons s'enlizaient jusqu'aux aisselles, les chevaux jusqu'au poitrail, et les canons jusqu'à la gueule, les montagnes escaladées sac au dos, et fusil aux dents, les forêts épaisses où par l'incendie on se frayait passage, les ravins étroits où l'on s'écrasait en fuyant; le siège des villes fortes, où s'étaient réfugiés les débris des armées écrasées en rase campagne; les jours de famine horrible; les heures sinistres de l'assaut; celles du bombardement, où palais, églises, maisons, éventrés par les obus, s'écroulaient avec un fracas infernal en engloutissant sous leurs ruines fumantes hommes, dis-femmes, enfants; celles encore plus cruelles du sac et du viol; la démoralisation des généraux, qui parlaient constamment de plier, et la ténacité des soldats, qui, n'ayant plus de pain et n'ayant plus de cartouches, ne voulaient pas entendre parler de capitulation; la stupeur, le désespoir, la honte de cent soixante-dix mille hommes citadelle imprenable, boulevard du pays, et de se rendre d'élite, obligés par leurs capitaines d'abandonner une avec armes, bagages et drapeaux, au Prussien, qu'ils auraient mange vif, s'ils avaient été commandés par un brave au lieu de l'être par un traître; enfin, enfin ! les hurrahs d'une multitude de Saxons, Heseois, Hanovriens, niens, Prussiens, Silésiens et autres Allemands, tandis Wurtembergeois, Badois, Bavarois, Souabes, Poméraque, escortés des cuirassiers blancs de Bismarck et des noirs hussards de la mort, le lâche des lâches, fumant flegmatiquement sa cigarette, passait en voiture sur les corps de vingt mille Français, pour aller remettre au petit roi de Prusse la grande épée de la France."

A LONG SENTENCE.-The recent death of Léon Cladel has recalled attention to the literary quality of his work. One of his peculiarities was the like of the paragraph; he preferred the solid page without a break, and showing none of the white spaces so dear to the mere bookmaker. Another was a passion for long sentences. The Figaro has reprinted from a book of Cladel's, only published in 1885, but already become rare, one of exceptional prolongation. This sentence is a literary curiosity, and is as remarkable for its clearness and vigour as for its extent. It gives the story of the campaign of 1870-71 in a single sentence-a veritable tour de force :

cited.

Manchester.

"Historiens fidèles de cette campagne si malheureuse pour nos armes, ils dirent les troupes imprudemment éparpillées au long de la frontière de l'Est; les corps d'armée placés à de telles distances les uns des autres qu'il leur était impossible de se secourir réciproquement, The longest sentence in English that is known les marches et contre-marches inutiles des divisions à to me is one in Sir Thomas Urquhart's 'Discovery travers une contrée appartenant à la France et dont personne cependant, pas même les officiers de l'état- of a Jewel,' but it is not now at hand for commajor, ne connaissait les routes ni les cours d'eau, comparison with the fine but long-winded passage just ment, sans vivres, sans souliers, parfois sans munitions, WILLIAM E. A. AXON. artillerie, cavalerie, infanterie, on allait pêle-mêle, tous ensemble, au hasard, tantôt demi-morts de soif sous un soleil de plomb, tantôt affamés et transis sous une pluie SEDAN-CHAIR.-Mr. Sala, as I read him in battante; le désarroi des chefs et le calme des soldats en présence de l'ennemi frappant toujours à l'improviste; a recent Echo, is exercised in his mind as la bravoure incomparable des Pantalons Rouges, to why a sedan-chair was so called, marchant à découvert, au chant des clairons, au roule- siders the received theory, that the thing was ment des tambours, sur le Prussien sournois, taciturne, so called because it was invented or manufactured rusé, qui, n'affrontant jamais la décharge à bout portant at Sedan, not good enough. He propounds et se dérobant sans cesse à la baïonnette, démasquait another theory: a sedan-chair was so called betout à coup d'effroyables batteries sous le feu desquelles nos généraux imbéciles précipitaient escadrons et batail-cause it was upholstered in “sedan" cloth. lons, régiments et brigades; la fureur et la rage des he asks to have this theory confuted, "if practinoirs turcos, attendant en vain du renfort, tombant, cable," in 'N. & Q.' Now to confute Mr. Sala's fusillés de loin, sur les mitrailleuses prussiennes par eux or any theory, there must needs be authority of conquises à l'arme blanche; la magnifique assurance des And French authorities are singularly grands cuirassiers chargeant au galop de leurs étalons some sort. enormes sous une averse de mitraille, et mourant tous wanting in this matter. We are told that chaisesjusqu'au dernier pour le salut de l'armée engagée folle-à-porteurs, known over here as sedan-chairs, were

He con

And

"imported" into France in 1617. As Sedan was not an integral portion of France till 1642, they might correctly be said to be "imported " thence. But the omniscient Larousse says nothing about their being manufactured there. On the contrary, one is given to understand that they were made in Paris itself. The first James's Buckingham is said to have used a sedan in London. In 1634 they were common in this capital. But there is nothing to show that "sedan cloth was familiar in the mouth here then-or ever. The Draper's Dictionary' knows not the stuff. And further, it was not till Maréchal Fabert had annexed Sedan in 1642 that money-his own included-came into the place, and that the cloth manufactory was started on any large scale. Pro tanto, this makes against Mr. Sala's theory. W. F. WALLER.

MORANT'S HISTORY OF ESSEX.-It may be of service, if no notice of the circumstance has previously been given in 'N. & Q.,' to record that a large MS. collection for Morant's history is to be found in the museum at Colchester. The notes are contained in a series of covers, marked with the names of the various hundreds. I regret that I am unable to give further particulars; but my time in Colchester was limited and very fully occupied. It is probable, however, that the books contain notes which were not printed, and might be serviceable to inquirers. Perhaps some Essex antiquary, living in the neighbourhood, may be able to throw further light on this point.

W. C. W. "TROMPETTE MARINE." (See 'Boot and Saddle,' ante, p. 78.)—MR. BOUCHIER will, I think, be glad to know that the "marine trumpet" together with its bow is figured in the third volume of plates to Rees's Cyclopædia' (1820), being fig. 4 of plate xxv. in the "Miscellany" division. And an odd-looking thing it is. F. ADAMS.

8

now an ivy-covered ruin," and in the verses quoted
there are the following lines :-

And 'round thee in thy loneliness
Clings the ivy to thy wall.

I believe I am correct in stating that our British ivy (Hedera helix of Linnæus) is not a native American plant, and I have been informed that attempts to grow the ivy in America have been unsuccessful. Possibly the plant intended is the Virginian creeper, which belongs to an allied genus (Ampelopsis), although, as everybody knows, it is very dissimilar from the ivy both in habit and appearance. If not the creeper, it would be interesting to know when and under what conditions the ivy was planted. Perhaps MR. HIBGAME W. W. DAVIES. could give the information.

Glenmore, Lisburn, Ireland.

THE GLADSTONE GINGERBREAD.-In a speech delivered at Acomb, on June 30, Mr. J. Grant Lawson, Conservative candidate for the Thirsk and Malton Division of Yorkshire, thus explained the significance of this gingerbread, which stands a good chance of gaining historic immortality :"He regretted the incident at Chester, where Mr. in Ireland to make gingerbreads, and throw them for Gladstone was unfortunately injured. It was the custom luck, as we in England throw rice at marriage times; and he hoped the woman threw the gingerbread-nut at Mr. Gladstone not through anger, but for luck."-Yorkshire Herald, July 1.

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This is the first time I have heard of gingerbread-nuts being thrown for luck; but I think I have read of Lincolnshire swains at fair times tossing nuces at the ladies whom they favoured. I hope MRS. GOMME will tell us something, in her book on cakes, of the esoteric virtues of gingerbread; for I suspect its wide popularity rests on more than its intrinsic merits, though they be great and varied. It is a far cry from the crisp delight of brandy-snap to the solid satisfaction of Barney Cassel gingerbread, the best i' t' warld” THE PARLIAMENT OF 1892.-The Parliament-though it is not I who say so-and to the teeththat met on August 4 is the thirteenth of the defying Pfefferkuchen, which is offered as a seasonpresent reign. Although, as yet, not quite the able delicacy at the Jahrmarkt at Hanover, and longest among those of English sovereigns, the doubtless otherwhere. "Gingerbread husbands" reign of Queen Victoria stands unique in the were among the wares imported by the travelling annals of Parliamentary history, having broken all bazaar proprietors who in former days gathered previous records. Since the days of Henry VIII., together for the Mid-Lent Fair held at that when Parliaments of more than one session began to Capua, or Paradise of Pleasure, which was then, be usual, no sovereign has called into being thirteen and is still, called Grantham," a place which successive Parliaments. George III., in his reign prides itself on a hollow and spicy delight of its of nearly sixty years, summoned but twelve, while own (the recipe came from Newark) which has Elizabeth and George II. - the only two other never developed beyond pats. I am not sure that reigns of considerable length during the period- I ever saw the "husbands," but I believe they called and dissolved but ten and five respectively, were covered with gold leaf. Until one knows A fact so unique in Parliamentary annals is worth this, the exact force of the locution "To get the noting in 'N. & Q.' W. D. PINK. gilt off the gingerbread can scarcely be appreciated. At Mid-Lent, in Antwerp, gingerbread

IVY IN AMERICA.-In the note on 'Old Blandford Church, Virginia' (see ante, p. 104), your correspondent states that "the church itself......is

"*

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• Besant's Let Nothing you Dismay,' Christmas number of All the Year Round 1882,p. 16.

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