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to be valued and consulted. The circle of readers will,
however, probably be small. Mr. Armstrong has some
curious whims. Next to the state documents, which have
been assiduously studied, the chief source of information
concerning Elizabeth Farnese is Saint-Simon. This
worthy is invariably called "S. Simon."

Colchester Worthies: a Biographical Index of Colchester.
By Charles E. Benham. (Colchester, Forster; London,
Simpkin, Marshall & Co.)

THIS is a useful book of reference. The notices are, for
the most part, accurate and not too long. In a work of
this kind it is not wise to give extended biographies.
This error has been carefully avoided. There is a great

difficulty which hampers every one who has employed his leisure in making compilations of this kind. Where are the lines of inclusion and exclusion to be drawn? If we only admit those who have been born in the county, city, or town in which we are interested, we exclude many of those who have the strongest claims for admission. The accident of birth has in many cases but little to do with the life's activities. A man surely belongs to that place where his activities have been exercised. On the other hand, there seems little reason for admitting an eminent person because on one occasion he may have visited the place and done something memorable therein. Mr. Benham inserts in bis catalogue Queen Katherine of Arragon, on the ground that she once visited the place on her way to worship at the shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham. If she have a claim to a place in the list we do not see how any eminent archaeologist who has ever run down to Colchester for the sake of examining the castle can be excluded.

memory serves us right, little more than two years since
this charming volume first made its appearance. The
wide circulation which it is having is a proof that
when history is properly dealt with it is not unattrac-
tive, even to those whose reading is commonly confined
to light literature. It would be out of place to offer
criticism on a book so well known and highly appre-
ciated. To our thinking, the two papers on the Black
Death are the most important part of the volume. From
their pages many persons first learnt the terrible nature
of that great pestilence. The article Village Life in
Norfolk Six Hundred Years Ago' must have opened
out new vistas of thought to many of its readers.

UNDER the curious title How to be Married in all

Ways and Everywhere, Mr. Thomas Moore, M.A., has

issued full details as to the marriage service at home and
abroad. Its use is not confined to those about to plunge
into matrimony.

IN L'Art et l'Idée, for August 20, M. Octave Uzanne writes on 'Le Malaise Actuel de l'Édition et de la Libraire,' pointing out the causes that have led to the crisis which has been reached in respect of the purchase of books. Not wholly consoling are the explanations M. Uzanne gives, nor the conclusions he draws. What is said, however, by him and by M. Jean Roubet, a letter from whom supplies the text of his discourse, is well worthy of study. M. Uzanne's contribution has, moreover, the brightness of style and variety of illustration that make him one of the most delightful of bibliographical writers. M. Pierre Valin utters some vaticinations with regard to the writers of to-morrow and M. G. de SaintHeraye writes on 'L'Avenir des Livres Contemporains.' A picture of M. C. Seller, Dilettantisme Littéraire,' is Comprehensive Guide to the County of Durham. By J. R. reproduced, and M. B. H. Gausseron supplies the cusBoyle. (Scott.) tomary causerie on books.

THIS is an excellent guide-book. The characteristic which marks it off from many other books of a similar character is the introductory portion, wherein the general features of the county are described in a highly condensed but very satisfactory manner. Durham has many great industries, though outsiders sometimes remember its coal mines only. Durham, too, was the mother county of railways. Seventy years have not gone by since the first railway came into being. There are probably old men yet alive who saw the first passenger carriage steal slowly along carried forward by George Stephenson's locomotive. English people are apt to forget the origin of railways. On this matter our American kinsmen have better memories. We have been told that the Stockton and Darlington Railway is an object of pilgrimage to many of our American visitors. We cannot give better advice to such persons than that they should take a copy of Mr. Boyle's book with them.

The antiquarian part of this guide is well done. It is quite sufficiently copious. In fact, we think the account of the cathedral somewhat over-done for a book of this

kind.

One feature we are glad to see is that in many cases the inscriptions on the church bells are given. In one case at least we find the legend on a bell that has been destroyed. There was at Gainford a bell with the motto "Help Mary qwod Roger of Kyrkeby." This Roger was a former vicar of Gainford. We have been told that his bell has been broken up in very recent days. If this be so, it is not easy to find words too strong in which to express our reprobation, for not only was it an object of great local interest, but, as all students of belllore know, English inscriptions of pre-Reformation date are of great rarity.

We have received the fifth edition of Dr. Jessopp's Coming of the Friars (Fisher Unwin). It is, if our

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ÉCOSSAIS.-Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon (not Crébillion) holds a high position among dramatists of the classical school. His 'Rhadamiste et Zénobie,' January 23, 1711, is regarded as one of the masterpieces of the French stage. For further information consult either of the biographies générales.

I. E. C. ("Teetotal").-This has nothing to do with tea. It is an emphatic reduplication of total. Those who signed an early and less rigid pledge are said to have been entered as "O. P." (old pledge). The more rigorous were entered as " T.," hence T-total-teetotal.

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