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[Many other replies are acknowledged.]

THE OPENING SONG IN THE TWO NOBLE KINSMEN' (8th S. ii. 165, 192).-It is evident that C. C. B. is not a botanist, or he would at once have rejected harebells as an impossible reading. The flowers in the song are those of early spring, whereas the harebell, Campanula rotundifolia, belongs to the late summer and autumn. Shakespeare and his fellows are seldom or never at fault in their flower-lore. Would that the same could be said of more than one of the commentators ! G. E. DARTNELL.

INSCRIPTION ON TABLET WANTED (8th S. ii. 188). -A. J. M. gives this inscription from a copy by himself in 'N. & Q.,' 6th S. vi. 406.


PERFORATION OF POSTAGE STAMPS (8th S. ii. 127, 197).—MR. A. W. TUER is rather severe on the "sober fact" that the late Mr. Archer received 4,000l., on the " recommendation of a Select Committee of the House of Commons," for his perforating machine for stamps, which was not "a happy thought," but the work of a good machinist and of indomitable energy in getting his invention into use. The invention was literally forced on the Post Office by the late G. F. Muntz, M.P., as a pamphlet and Hansard would show. ESTE.

Seeing at the above references accounts of the perforated stamp sheet, I thought the right saddle should be on the right horse. When a boy, some seventy years ago, I was taught "Palmam qui meruit ferat," hence my impudence in sending this, copied from the Daily Press, March 14, 1881 :"At a modest dwelling in this town [Great Yarmouth] expired early this week Chas. Crawshay Wilkinson, the inventor of perforated stamp sheets. The Government offered a very handsome reward for a contrivance by which postage and other stamps might be most easily separated. Mr. Wilkinson, then only a working man in the service of a distinguished firm, exercised the considerable technical knowledge and natural cleverness he possessed, and constructed a perforating machine similar to those now in use, and his success was made known to his employers, who presented him a sum for the invention, but obtained the credit for it and also the large reward offered. The inventor gained a competency by his industry, came to Yarmouth, and lived happily in retirement. With the exception of intimate friends, very few knew him as the real originator of a device which had benefited countless millions of people."


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GEORGE WASHINGTON'S ENGLISH ANCESTRY (8th S. ii. 167, 214).-The expression in Mr. T. Frost's article on the Washington Family' in Byegone Northamptonshire' runs as follows:"Mr. Penderel-Brodhurst, while contending that 'it is from Laurence Washington and Margaret Butler that the illustrious first President of the United States was descended,' pronounces it ascertained, after much research,' that John Washington, great-grandfather of the American hero, and his brother Laurence were the sons of the Rev. Laurence Washington, Rector of Putleigh, in Essex, but ejected from his living under the Commonwealth."

I am sorry I have been led by this to attach MR. PENDEREL-BRODHURST's authority to a statement which I quite agree with him in thinking nobody is competent to assert positively. ALBERT HARTSHORNE.

the Washington and Brodhurst connexion, as Some months ago I had my attention called to given in an American newspaper, but I had no idea it had already appeared in print in England. I also do not know if it has helped Washington specialists, but judging from the wills and deeds which I have connected with Shropshire and Staffordshire, and more or less with Washington, I should think it likely to do so. In one of my Staffordshire wills occurs the peculiar Christian name of Amphillis, shown to be that of Mrs. Washington, of Tring. There can be no doubt that, had Col. Chester lived to carry on his researches, he would have found the deeds I have, and with them and his previous knowledge have easily settled this much vexed question.



SHAKSPEARIAN PICTURE (8th S. ii. 188).—A drawing similar to that described by H. E. H. M. came within the observation of the undersigned some few years since, during the preparation of a paper, Some Portraits of Sarah Siddons,' that appeared in the Magazine of Art, I think in 1886. I cannot say for certain whether the drawing is mentioned therein, as I have no printed copy of the article for immediate reference. The drawing I saw was by Richard Westall, and certainly not by Benjamin West. The characters, moreover, were all ad vivum portraits of the following members of the Kemble family: Roger, the father, as King, the Siddons as Ophelia, and Charles as Hamlet (not Horatio). It had belonged to Lady Waldegrave, and was a gift to the then owner (a relative of her first husband). If I saw the drawing I might possibly tell H. E. H. M. something about its authorship; but I would suggest that he ask the Editor of N. & Q.' to courteously allow it to be sent to his office for my inspection there. E. BARRINGTON NASH. Chelsea.

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Yet, whan he toke first his hat,

He said he knew what was what.


at absolute accuracy, any more than a modern duke speaking in the House of Lords might be expected to do.

It is a pity ALICE should use such words as “circulated" and "in use," as if the knowledge of the Bible depended on its vernacular versions. It was always circulated and in use in the Vulgate, which was far more widely read and understood than we now have any idea of. ALICE should read Dr. Maitland's 'Dark Ages.' C. F. S. WARREN, M.A.

Longford, Coventry.

"In Germany, metrical versions of the gospel are among the earliest attempts to convey the Bible to the people......A complete and literal translation of the Vulgate existed in Germany perhaps as early as the beginning of the fourteenth century......The earliest remains of Romance versions are thought to be as old as the eleventh century; but the work of translation assumed important dimensions mainly in connexion with the spirit of revolt against the Church of Rome which rose in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The study of the Bible in the vulgar tongue was a characteristic of the Cathari the vulgar tongue, put forth at the Council of Toulouse in 1229, was repeated by other councils," &c.-Mr. W. Robertson Smith, in the Encyclopædia Britannica,' s.v. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. The Brassey Institute, Hastings.


VILLAGE CROSS IN NEWPORT (8th S. ii. 205).—and the Waldenses...... The prohibition of the Bible in Several of the villages in this neighbourhood have a cross, or the remains of one, still standing. Epworth itself has only the base of its cross and the steps leading up to it. On these steps John Wesley is said to have preached. In the neighbouring village of Haxey there are two crosses, one in ruins, the other apparently complete, and when I last saw it this was painted a bright blue, picked C. C. B. out with chrome yellow.


STOCKFISH (8th S. i. 511; ii. 95, 238).-Allow me to thank MR. G. NEILSON for the kind way in which he has brought my want of politeness to my notice. I can only express my regret, with an apology to him for it. The reference to 7th S. iv. 279 shows how much I was in the wrong.


'THE GRAND MAGAZINE OF MAGAZINES' (7th S. xii. 227, 316, 456; 8th S. i. 93; ii. 217).-In answer to C. K. I have only to repeat what I wrote as to the issue of Gray's 'Elegy.' The pages of the Magazine of Magazines now "lie before me" also, with engraved date" 1751," and on pages 160 and 161 I find Stanza's [sic] written in a Country Church-yard,' introduced with the words :

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"Gentlemen, said Hilario, give me leave to sooth my own melancholy, and amuse you in a most noble manner, with a fine copy of verses by the very ingenious Mr. Gray, of Peter-house, Cambridge. They are


BIBLE (8th S. ii. 208).—It is doubtless true that English was the first European language, except Slavonic, into which the Bible was translated; but it had been translated long before into more than one Eastern language then and still spoken, and to these the Duke of Lancaster must be supposed to have alluded. No doubt his Grace did not aim

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MARTIN FOLKES (8th S. ii. 206). As an addendum to MR. DANIEL HIPWELL'S note on the marriage of this antiquary, it may be of interest to record that the bride, Lucretia BradThe event is narrated by shawe, was an actress. Dr. Doran in his usual graphic style :—

"At this period [about 1714] the stage lost a lady who was as dear to it as Queen Anne [whose death is noticed in preceding paragraph], namely Mrs. [Miss?] Bradshaw. Her departure, however, was caused by marriage, not by death; and the gentleman who carried her off, instead of being a rollicking gallant, or a worthless peer, was a staid, solemn, worthy antiquary, Martin Folkes, who rather surprised the town by wedding young Mistress The lady had been on the stage about Bradshaw. eighteen years; she had trodden it from early childhood, and always with unblemished reputation. She had her reward in an excellent, sensible, and wealthy husband, to whom her exemplary and prudent conduct endeared her; and the happiness of this couple was well established."

The writer goes on to say that she won applause as the originator of the characters of Corinna in the Conspirator,' Sylvia in the 'Double Gallant,' and Arabella Zeal in the Fair Quaker' ('Their Majesties' Servants,' vol. i. p. 311).


JUDITH HOWARD (8th S. ii. 8).-When the reader of N. & Q.'"posted in the Howard genealogy," to whom C. H. B. appeals, replies to the above query I venture to hope he will find it possible to throw some light at the same time on the points raised in my own query 'Howard Family' (7th S. xii. 88), to which so far no reply

has appeared. Both queries relate to a Howard family (or Howard families, for I believe they are not the same) settled in Maryland, and any one possessed of the knowledge requisite to answer one query might, perhaps, be also able to answer the other. Should C. H. B. feel inclined to communicate to me direct the pedigree of the Maryland Howards to whom he refers, I shall be happy to reciprocate by communicating to him what I know of that of the family in which I am interested. ALFRED E. HIPPISLEY.

Macao, China.

LITERARIAN (8th S. ii. 69). The obvious analogy is with antiqu-ary, -arian, millen-ary, -arian; but it is an ugly word. It was jocularly recommended to Dr. Johnson by a clever Scotch poet, who died, at. twenty-four, ten years before the lexicographer, in an amusing poem entitled 'To Dr. Samuel Johnson: Food for a new Edition of his Dictionary,' and opening thus:

Great pedagogue whose literarian lore,
With syllable on syllable conjoin'd,

To transmutate and varify, hast learn'd
The whole revolving scientific names
That in the alphabetic columns lie,

Far from the knowledge of mortalic shapes.

This quotation gives but a very faint idea of the

fun that follows.

105, Albany Road, Camberwell.


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GRESMANNI (8th S. ii. 109).-Perhaps I may refer to N. & Q.,' 7th S. xi. 272. In the 'Scottish Exchequer Rolls, vol. i. pp. 571,572, entries in the

Sheriff of Clackmannan's account for the eleven years from 1348 to 1359 credit sums for the

I never saw this monster before; but then I do fermes (de firmis) of "Gersmanncars" and "Gresnot fish in the depths of journalism.


NATIONAL FLAGS (8th S. ii. 9, 78).-LIEUT.COLONEL W. HILL JAMES will find a description of the Moorish flag in Miss Yonge's account of the Moors in Spain. The book itself is full of inaccuracies, and I cannot vouch for her statements about the flag. C. R. HAINES. Uppingham.

TRENCH FAMILY (8th S.i.393).—I have, and could lend to MR. SHILLETO, a privately printed pedigree of the descendants of Frederick Trench, of Woodlawn, born 1720, in both male and female lines. In Burke's 'Peerage,' however, are very full pedigrees (sub "Ashtown" and "Clancarty"), which scarcely need supplementing. If MR. SHILLETO has discovered the pedigrees he mentioned I should be much obliged to him for information on the subject, and will give him some in return.



SIR GREGOR MCGREGOR, CACIQUE OF POYAIS (8th S. ii. 47).-The annexed particulars of a work in the British Museum Library, having reference to Sir Gregor's request for a decree of naturalization and the official acknowledgment of his military rank, will partially tend to meet the point raised. The pamphlet bears the following

manston," but they contain no data to warrant inference as to the tenure of the actual occupants is well calculated to clear up the meaning of the of these places so interestingly named. T.'s query word. Parallel references would be of much value. GEO. NEILSON.

The word for pig in M. E. is not gres, but gris. Gres is the usual old Northern form of grass. WALTER W. Skeat.


ii. 25, 74, 154, 194).—Buffet, a sideboard, existed "BUFFETIER AS AN ENGLISH WORD (8th S. in French long before 1718, and as Henry VII. was as much French as Welsh he must have known that he should call his yeomen of the palace his the word well, and nothing can be more probable than buffeteers. That the word buffet has not yet been discovered in English till 1718 is of no great force, unless it can be shown that the French word did not exist in the time of Henry VII.

I must again insist that to call a few yeomen "eaters of beef" is simply ridiculous, unless beef as a diet was restricted to them. No doubt beef, fresh or cured, was the general diet of all the court servants, and this, I think, can be easily shown. In the present Argentine Republic beef dried, called "jerked beef," is the common diet, and it would be foolish indeed to restrict the phrase "eaters of jerked beef" to some half score waiters at the president's table. E. COBHAM BREWER.

THE GERMAN ELEMENT IN ENGLISH (8th S. ii. 125).-PROF. ATTWELL may be quite correct in contending that the word smart is not derived from the German word for pain (Schermz). If the German word means pain it may very well be the source of our word smart, which has another sense than that of personal activity, agility, or sharpness, meaning a cutting, piercing, sharp pain from a flesh wound, as distinguished from the dull or throbbing sensation, as in headaches. "It's smarting" is a frequent phrase in Scotland to designate this kind of pain. Perhaps it may be correct in a sense to say that English is no more derived from German than is Latin from Greek," but it is pretty well recognized in Scotland that words in our common speech would never have been in use had we not got them from the French or the GerTHOMAS TWEED.



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LISTON AS PAUL PRY (8th S. ii. 107, 178).Perhaps it may be worth noting that in Madame Tussaud's exhibition there was many years ago-it may be there still—a life-like effigy of Liston as Paul Pry. He was represented as taking snuff, having a large cotton umbrella under his arm, and wearing striped cotton pantaloons with hessian boots. The popularity of this comedy was, I have beard, astonishing, and portraits of Liston as Paul Pry were in all the print-shops in town and country, and one expression of his, "I hope I don't intrude," passed into the language. John Payne Collier has, in his 'Old Man's Diary' (only twenty-five of which were printed), the following interesting notice of this comedy, under date December 22,


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SQUAILER (8th S. ii. 149, 197).—Mr. PatterSON will find a good description of a somewhat Another clumsy form of this missile in the Amateur Poacher' (ch. iii. p. 48, ed. 1889). Marlborough method of making it is to pour the melted lead into a cone composed of many folds of well wetted paper, tied round the slightly notched upper end of the cane or ground asb. In a really skilled hand its range is considerable. I have seen a mark about the size of a tea-tray hit twice out of three times at not far short of a hundred yards, but this would, of course, be quite an exceptional throw. The word is in use in both North and South Wilts, especially in the former. G. E. DARTNELL.

LONGFELLOW'S VILLAGE BLACKSMITH' (8th S. ii. 106, 198).-It may support MR. DAVIES'S wholesome doubt to note that the above poem (I assume originally) appeared in Bentley's Miscellany more than fifty years ago. It is to be found in vol. ix. of that periodical on p. 53, in the part for January, 1841. I cannot give the number with certainty, inasmuch as the bound-up volumes after the first volume do not clearly indicate the serial NEMO. divisions; but I estimate that it is No. 49.


FAULKNER, ARTIST (7th S. ix. 369, 516).—If not too late, I should like to add to the replies already given that Benjamin Rawlinson Faulkner was buried in Highgate Cemetery, where a flat stone bears, among other inscriptions, the follow:

"Poole's Paul Pry' is an excellent comedy, though bordering upon farce; and if he wrote anything before that excepting his Hamlet Travesty,' I never heard of it; his Paul Pry' was acted at the Haymarket more than forty times in succession in 1825, and again at Drurying Lane four years ago [ie., in 1829]. Mrs. Waylett, a pretty little woman, tried her hand at the male part of it of the young sailor in it, and I have seen her as the waiting-maid, originally represented by Madame Vestris and then by Mrs. Humby."-Part iv. p. 100.

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He adds that Poole "began life as clerk to a stockbroker," and that "Madam Vestris was often called upon to repeat three times the song of 'Cherry Ripe' which appears in 'Paul Pry.' JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. COLERIDGE'S VIEWS ON CHURCH DISESTABLISHMENT (8th S. ii. 209).—Coleridge's teaching, to which reference is made in Wordsworth's note to No. 18 of the 'Ecclesiastical Sonnets,' part iii., may be found in his essay On the Constitution of the Church and State, according to the Idea of each,' chaps. v.-viii., particularly on p. 87 (fourth edition, Moxon, 1852). The Ecclesiastical Sonnets' were published in 1822, the essay on Church and State

Underneath this Stone are interred
the mortal remains of
Benjamin Rawlinson Faulkner
who died the 29th of October 1849
aged 64 years

Mark the perfect man and behold the upright for the end of that man is peace.

It will be seen that the age recorded on the stone does not agree with that given in the previous replies, and consequently the year of birth is also left doubtful. I have heard from those who knew him best that B. R. Faulkner was of a most diffident and retiring disposition, and there is little doubt that the habit of keeping himself in the background was one of the causes which led to his works not being more widely known and appreciated. Some of his pictures bear a strong resemblance in their treatment to the works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, in reference to which I may state that a portrait by him in my possession was attributed by a connoisseur to Sir Joshua.


A SIMILE IN TENNYSON (8th S. ii. 166).—I have the first edition (1833) of 'The Miller's Daughter,' which contains the following stanza :

A water-rat from off the bank

Plunged in the stream. With idle care
Downlooking thro' the sedges rank,
I saw your troubled image there!

good many of the portraits painted by Faulkner Lucerna is properly a lamp, then in Fr. a light, have been engraved, chiefly in mezzotint. The window-light." F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. quotation given under the second reference, to the effect that "he was sometime organist at Irving's church, Hatton Garden," is somewhat misleading. The church, which was in Cross Street, had been Irving's, I believe, but at the time when Faulkner was the organist it was used by a branch of the New Jerusalem Church, or Swedenborgians, of which sect the painter was a most earnest and devout member. It may perhaps be interesting to note, as an instance showing how the love of art sometimes continues in a family for generations, that a son and a daughter of B. R. Faulkner were skilful portrait painters and exhibitors in the Royal Academy, and there are at the present time a grandson, a great-grandson, and three greatgrand-daughters of his, all clever professional painters, whose works may be met with in the Royal Academy or other art galleries. None of those who are now painting, however, bears the name of Faulkner.

C. M. P.

"TOM TROT, THE PENNY POST" (8th S. ii. 189). -There is, or used to be, a sweetmeat called "Tom Trot," the constituents of which were sugar, treacle, and butter. These ingredients, melted together, formed a sort of toffee, which was made

into "sticks" before it was cold. Each stick was wrapped up in a piece of paper, and was about six inches in length. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY.

This must be the passage meant by the Quarterly
reviewer, because there are no more water-rats in
the poem; but I cannot think how it could give
him any idea of the simile he names. It gives me
nothing of the kind. The sequel is :-
Upon the dark and dimpled beck


It wandered like a floating light,
A full fair form, a warm white neck,

And two white arms-how rosy white!

This shows clearly enough that there means the
stream, not, as the reviewer must have thought,
the rat. Even if it did mean the rat, I cannot see
how to read in the reviewer's idea; and if I could
I should have quite another opinion as to the
I am not abusing water-rats: I have watched them
masterly touch" and the "beautiful thought."
often, and very pretty beasts they are; but I think
I could find a better comparison for my sweetheart
or for the love in her bosom.

Longford, Coventry.
In the earlier editions of the Poet Laureate's

now reads

Then leapt a trout. In lazy mood

In my native Yorkshire village, Cleasby, in works the verse in 'The Miller's Daughter' which Richmondshire, there lived in my childhood-I am now three score years and ten-an old woman named Bella Brown, well known for her Tom Trot, a kind of toffee made of treacle. On the 5th of November the boys round their bonfire used to shout the following doggerel :

Gunpowder Plot shall ne'er be forgot
As long as Bella Brown sells Tom Trot.
G. O. W.

I watched the little circles die;

They past into the level flood,

And there a vision caught my eye-

A water-rat from off the bank
Plunged in the stream.

No doubt this is the allusion referred to by MR.
SIKES, though the simile mentioned by the Quar-
terly Review is not apparent. The present reading
is surely the better one.
S. G. H.


This "scholastic confectionery" is, as MR. BOUCHIER rightly surmises, referred to in Coningsby.' The "dull-looking little boy, with a hoarse voice," had been eating it all day, and wanted toffee. "Very nice Tom Trott, sir." "No; I want toffee." And Burnham referred him to HEBRICIAN (8th S. i. 294, 404).-T. Decker's "Barrie's on the bridge," where "the best toffeeThe Guls' Horn-booke' (1609) has this word in in the world" was to be had. W. F. WALLER. the following passage :—

"Tom Trot," in the north of England, was a sweetmeat made of treacle and butter; "toffee," of sugar and butter. E. LEATON-BLENKINSOpp.

LEUCOMB (8th S. ii. 108, 175).-This word is given in Forby's' Vocabulary of East Anglia' under the form lucam, and rightly referred by him to the Fr. lucarne. Brachet, in his 'Etymological French Dictionary, derives lucarne from "L. lucarna, found for lucerna in some late Lat. documents.

"Amongst all the wild men that run up and down in the wide forest of fools, the world, none are more superstitious than those notable Ebritians, the Jews: yet a Jew never wears his cap threadbare with putting it off; never bends in the hams with casting away a leg: never cries: God save you!' though he sees the devil at your elbow."-C. ii. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY.

LEAD HALL, SAXTON, YORKS (8th S. ii. 127 170).-Let me refer your readers to an interesting and exhaustive account of the Battle of Towton'

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