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NOTES:-Poetry v, Science, 41-Shakspeare and Molière, 42
-Chute-Ecclesiastical Vestments-Lincolnshire Songs, 43


just classification, and subtle analysis, abundance of wit
and eloquence, abundance of verses, and even of good
ones, but little poetry."-Essay on Milton.
And, again, the great essayist writes:-

"In proportion as men know more, and think more, they look less at individuals, and more at classes. They therefore make better theories and worse poems."-Ibid. This, I believe, is sufficiently verified.

-John Hunter-Catalogues of MSS.-Sundials-Influenza Blodium-Illustrated, 44-Long Face and High Breeding "Ease her! Stop her!"- Review of Reviews-Portrait of George III., 45-Wild Horses- Rain-seed-An Old "New Song "-Lute-Rochfort-Sampler, 46. QUERIES:-Sir Gregor McGregor-Columbus-American "But a new life of free thought followed the pubLoyalists-Welsh Quaker Records-Kent and Cant Sur- lication of the Origin of Species.' So vast and so names-Chopped Straw at Weddings-Sedilia-Fire by fundamental a difference is there between a cosmogony Rubbing Sticks-A Precocious Artist, 47-Angelo Sancy with and a cosmogony without a teleological basis, and Diamond-Drowning Superstitions-Fitzwilliam Owenso absolutely is pure literature, like everything else, Walter Robertson-Orange: Orangeman- -BalmarusaThomas Warton-French Periodicals-Rev. E. Hewit-based upon the cosmogony of the time which produces White and Black Knights-Sir Walter Raleigh, 48-"Lost it, that the phrase 'modern literature' will before many Books"-Gilmore-Captain-Lieutenant-Racoon-Authors generations are past have new meaning."Wanted, 49. Athenæum, No. 3359, p. 337. REPLIES:-"Ventre-saint-gris," 49-Atomic Theory, 50Postmasters-General-Thackeray and Arnold-Misapplied This paragraph leaves itself open to a very difProverbs-Dice in St. Ives Church-Mazard Bowls, 51-ferent construction from that intended by its Garden of the Soul'-"Double entendre"-Memorable writer. The main distinctions between the two Gravestone-Burton-Pynsent, 52-Roraima- The Nemesis of Faith'-Archery-Villa: Sims, 53-Source of Motto- cosmogonies, so far as they affect literature, is that British War Medals '-Brittany-" Durum et durum one was poetically interpreted and evolved, the Fawler Family-Hodges-Fentouns-Shelley, 54-Tennyson's Maid Marian-Mummy Wheat-Son of Queen other scientifically. The genetical literature of Elizabeth-Sculptured House Signs, 55-Scottish Clans- both Greek and Hebrew is essentially poeticClarinda-Cardinal Manning-John Lacy-"St. Alban's Tavern," 56-Junius-Churchmen in Battle "The Devil's inspired, it may be, but that inspiration was disBooks"-Clan Chattan-Soul: Soal-Anointing-American played in a rich creative, imaginative faculty, War of Independence-The Cuckoo, 57-Bishop Patrick surely the noblest gift of the gods. Under the benign affilatus of the despised cosmogony were produced the works of Homer and Eschylus, of David and Isaiah, of Virgil and Dante, of Shakespeare and Milton. So absolutely, then, is literature "based upon the cosmogony of the time which produces it," that our age, tending towards materialism, and its cosmogony scientifically evolved and interpreted, the inevitable conclusion is that its literature will be purely scientific, consequently non-poetic.

Mackintoshes-Dame-Interpretation of Records, 58—
Advertisement of Tea, 59.

NOTES ON BOOKS:-Jacobs's 'Epistolæ Ho-elianæ Gomme's Ethnology in Folk-lore'- -Wright's 'Shakespeare,' Vol. VII.-Darley's 'Sylvia.'



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In the Athenæum of March 12 (No. 3359) there is a review of William Morris's Poems by the Way.' The critic there assumes the hymeneal "To him who believes, and rightly believes, that robe, and proclaims banns of marriage between 'every flower enjoys the air it breathes,' the flower is a poetry and science. Protest against unnatural fascinating object, to be sure; but what is it to him who, union, where publicly announced, has ever been thanks to the revelation of the naturalist, can spend an invited, and I now claim opportunity to state entire morning over a single blossom, as the poet of the impediments why this centauric alliance should future will do, tracing its ancestry step by step while the surrounding floras and faunas pass before his not take place. Coleridge, in his famous 'Shake-imagination, lapping his soul in a poetic dream such as speare Notes and Lectures,' marked the distinction was withheld from Wordsworth, who so well deserved to once and for ever that the proper antithesis of enjoy it-withheld from all poets not born in this poetry is science, that poetry is opposed to wonderful time?”—Ibid., p. 336. science." The reviewer tells us that "had Coleridge lived in these days, he would have found some ingenious qualification of his axiom," his main contention is that the poet must be scientifically educated, and his hope for poetry lies in its conjunction with science. Now popular criticism offers as an only apology for the absence of great creative poets that we live in a scientific age, and that the very breath of science is deadly to poetry. As a true picture of our age with bearing on the question at issue I might quote from Lord Macaulay, whose fame is at present so far in apogee:

"In an enlightened age there will be much intelligence, much science, much philosophy, abundance of

The true poet believes that "every flower enjoys the air it breathes," and rejoices; but does the scientist? His first act is to pluck up the plant by the root, and so deprive it of the life it enjoys. To the thorough botanist this is an absolute necessity; classification of species is every day becoming more and more difficult, and for exactitude, first essential in science, he must investigate from root to stamen. The poet, with his great sympathetic, feeling heart, while "tracing its ancestry step by step," notes the shrinking stalk and the fading flowers; thinks that its bright green will never again please the eye, nor its delicious perfume scent the morning air, will mourn the ruthless deprivation of life. These thoughts will

burst into song, while the genealogical vista will be left to the cold-blooded scientist.

Wee, modest, crimson-tipped flow'r,
Thou's met me in an evil hour;
For I maun crush amang the stoure
Thy slender stem.

To spare thee now is past my pow'r
Thou bonie gem.

Burns's Address To a Mountain Daisy.' This is the poet's true attitude towards Nature. Again, the mental conditions under which science and poetry are studied and produced are widely disparate; "fine frenzy," "imagination all compact, ""dowered with the hate of hate, the scorn of scorn, the love of love," are scarcely fit qualifications of the scientist, though they are essentially those of the poet.

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Is a knowledge of science an absolutely necessary equipment of the poet; and, if so, how is it that sweeping modifications in our views of Nature have had, if anything, a deleterious influence on the muse? It is notorious that the noblest poetry in the world was written under the penumbra of erroneous ideas. In astronomy, for instance, the Ptolemaic system fostered and inspired our treasured stock of epic and dramatic poetry; the greatest epic poem was written before Aristotle, the sceptre had passed from Melpomene ere Newton threw "light" on Nature and Nature's laws," and the most exquisite ballad, lyric, sonnet, and ode were penned before 'The Origin of Species.' The question now suggests itself, If classic poets had basked in the light of nineteenth century scientific information could they have produced the works which make their names immortal? The lips part for a reluctant "No." The fabulous elements, the myths, the anthropological licences, the fanciful interpretations, have all been touched with the rationalistic spear of Ithuriel; result, the shedding of those enchanting vestments in which poetry had robed them. Wordsworth, in his Observations,' wrote:—

"If the time should ever come when what is now called science, thus familiarized to men, shall be ready to put on, as it were, a form of flesh and blood, the poet will lend his divine spirit to aid the transfiguration, and will welcome the being thus produced as a dear and genuine inmate of the household of man."

This is also the opinion of the Athenaeum reviewer. He reiterates the prophecy, and hails the approaching consummation of his hopes. In referring this interesting subject to N. & Q. I can imagine no higher or more judicial authority for a final pronouncement. Is science to dominate poetry; or is poetry, as Shelley described it, "that which comprehends all science, and that to which all science must be referred "?



SHAKSPEARE AND MOLIÈRE. Some years ago I prepared for a local literary society a paper on certain points of resemblance in the careers of these two great dramatists. As I have never seen the subject thus treated, I beg to submit the chief points to those readers of 'N. & Q.' who are better acquainted with dramatic literature than I can pretend to be.

1. The father of each was in trade, and apparently destined his son to follow his occupation.

2. The early education of both was neglected, and we know of nothing in their after training that conferred on them their perfect knowledge of good breeding and distinguished manners.

3. Neither of them was happily married. 4. Each became manager, author, actor. 5. Each produced a considerable number of authenticated dramatic works.

6. Each was careless about publishing his works; or, rather, objected to do so, lest they should be acted by rival dramatic companies.

7. The plays of each were collected by actors and first published in a complete form after the death of the authors.

8. Each touched up or produced plays that are lost or of doubtful origin.

9. Each disregarded novelty of plot, borrowing from various sources.

10. Each disliked his profession.

11. The personal character of each was gentle, kind, generous.

12. Each had a profound knowledge of human nature.

13. Each preferred the idea or matter to the comparative disregard of the manner.

14. Each had a remarkable fecundity and fertility of production.

15. Each died at the age of fifty-two.

The facility of production above referred to may have led both dramatists not only to undervalue their work, but even to dislike it, as well as the avocations connected with it, seeing the low estimation in which the actor was held at the time. Indeed, the Poquelins regarded the profession of actor as impious, and sought by various devices to get their son to abandon it. In order not to disgrace his parents, he changed his name; and, according to one out of many conjectures, assumed that of the author of a popular novel, who had also been an actor. Molière often expressed himself in such terms as these: "I cannot think how clever people take any pleasure in my pieces. Were I in their place I should take none"; and in a dedication to the king he said that while others serve, he can only amuse his Majesty. Every reader will also call to mind the sonnet of Shakspere in which he pathetically says:

Thence comes it that my name receives a brand,
And almost thence my nature is subdued
To what it works in, like the dyer's hand.

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Toi donc, qui vois les maux où ma muse s'abîme, De grace, enseigne-moi l'art de trouver la rime: Ou, puisqu'enfin tes soins y seraient superflus, Molière, enseigne-moi l'art de ne rimer plus. Molière was so careless of his productions that many of them are lost, the titles only remaining; but at length he was led to consent to the printing of his separate plays by an odd circumstance. M. de Neufvillenaine witnessed the performance of Sganarelle' so often that he got it by heart, wrote it out, and published it with a dedication to Molière. It contained a number of mistakes,

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which Molière did not take the trouble to correct. The admirers of Molière are, however, fortunate in having a tolerably correct edition of his plays, namely, that by M. Aimé Martin (six vols., Paris, 1845). In this work the most correct text known, that of 1682, was adopted, in addition to which advantage was taken of a copy of Molière's works in which were found a number of passages that had been erased by the censor. This book bore the arms of La Reyne, who was Lieutenant-General of Police in 1682, and it was the only volume that was known to contain the original text of the author. It was bought in 1833 for 75 francs, and resold for 800 francs, when it passed into the hands of M. Bertin, the proprietor of Le Journal des Débats, who lent it to M. Aimé Martin.

Highgate, N.


CHUTE, OF THE VINE.-On May 30 died at The Vine, near Basingstoke, Hants, Chaloner William Chute, who was at Balliol when Swinburne wore a Taylorian Scholar's gown there, and who was afterwards Fellow of Magdalen, and in other ways distinguished. The Vine is an historic house. Built by Henry VIII.'s Lord Sandys, it has been in the possession of a Chute since 1653. The original Chaloner was the Speaker of Richard Cromwell's Parliament. From him the property descended to his grandson Anthony, who died in 1754, and was succeeded in his estate by his brother John. John was "the last of the male

line "-Mr. Walpole means, of course, the direct line-and he was Mr. Walpole's Mr. Chute. To him was addressed the series of letters begun at Houghton, August 20, 1743, and continued for so many years. He was the writer's guide, philosopher, and friend-nay, his half-self, to whom Walpole could speak "as confidentially as to one's own soul." For "truth, integrity, honour, spirit, and abhorrence of all dirt" the world held not his equal. It held him till he was seventy-three, or, perhaps, seventy-five, and he had been a martyr to gout since he was twenty. He died, however, according to his own and Walpole's idea, of "something in the nature of a polypus" in his side, though that dose they gave him of a hundred drops of laudanum and asafoetida would have sufficed for most people. On Sunday, May 26, 1776, the master of Strawberry, walking in his garden after breakfast, heard the bell ring at the gate, and wondered who should come to him so early. It was the bringer of the news. The receiver quite broke down under it. "Half of myself is gone," he wrote next day to Mann, in a letter full of quite unusual, but quite uupumped, pathos; "the other remains solitary...... His loss is engraven on my soul." W. F. WALLER.



VALENCIA.-It may be well to note in your pages ENGLISH ECCLESIASTICAL VESTMENTS that Mr. St. George Mivart tells us, in his "Notes on Spain" in Essays and Criticisms,' vol. i. P. 231, that in the cathedral of Valencia there are some altar hangings and vestments which once belonged to old St. Paul's, London. At the time of the Reformation they were purchased by two merchants of that city, Andrea and Pedro de Medina. They are embroidered with scenes from ANON. the life of our Blessed Lord.

LINCOLNSHIRE SONGS.-The three following songs have lately been sent me from Stixwould, a village in Lincolnshire, not far from Horncastle. They were repeated to my brother, the vicar of Stixwould, by one of the oldest women in his parish. I do not know whether they have appeared anywhere in print, but they seem to me worthy of preservation.

1. A song sung by his nurse to a Lincolnshire gentleman, now over sixty years of age.

The Jew's Daughter.

You toss your ball so high,
You toss your ball so low,

You toss your ball into the Jew's garden,
Where the pretty flowers grow.

Out came one of the Jew's daughters,
Dressed all in green;

"Come hither, pretty little dear,

And fetch your ball again."

She showed him a rosy cheeked apple,
She showed him a gay gold ring;
She showed him a cherry as red as blood,
And that enticed him in.

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