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ALICE FITZ-ALAN (8th S. ii. 248, 314, 457).Whoever was the mother, Cardinal Beaufort undoubtedly had a daughter Jane, married in 1411 to Sir Edw. Stradling of St. Donat's. All the pedigrees are agreed, and for once are supported by evidence, cogent if not conclusive: one (Harl., 1434, fo. 58) is careful to add "begotten before he was priest." By his will the cardinal leaves her a considerable legacy in valuables, and one hun-I dred pounds in gold, besides a legacy in the codicil to Sir Edward. In 1429 her husband grants the manor of Lanfey to Cardinal Beaufort and other trustees, and in 1441 suffer a recovery, when his wife Jane and the cardinal are again mentioned. Her marriage portion was the manor of Halsway, which seems to have belonged to her father the cardinal.

As to her mother, all the pedigrees call her Alice Fitz-Alan, some adding "daughter of Richard, Earl of Arundel," and another "widow of the Earl of Kent." May she not have been a daughter of the twelfth Earl of Arundel, and not of the eleventh? This would remove the difficulty raised by HERMENTRUDE in regard to the dates; but I have always regarded it a strange social incident that no marriage should have taken place between persons of such high birth and position. If the elder Alice be the mother in question, the great disparity of age might perhaps be a sufficient reason, and so the first difficulty explain the





tion. It is very possible that Charles Lamb knew her while she was living with her father at Winchester; but her family have no proof that they ever were in love with each other.

The verses in question may have been written for her tombstone, which still exists in good preservation, but they certainly were never cut on it. I have two or three variations of the lines, which shall be happy to copy for any one who would care to see them, if they will write for them. Can any one tell me if the manuscript mentioned by Mr. Collier still exists? G. E. DRUITT.

8, Strathmore Gardens, Kensington, W.

ARCHBISHOP TENISON'S ARMS (8th S. ii. 148, 216). I thank Mr. Arthur VICARS for his note on this subject. The arms in question were undoubtedly used by the archbishop-they appear at the foot of a contemporary portrait; but my inquiry is, How did he come to use them? The grant to Dr. Philip Tenison, the Archdeacon of Norfolk, was in 1660, at the Restoration; and the arms granted are totally different from those used by the archbishop. The archbishop was son of the Rev. John Tenison (elder brother of Dr. Philip, the archdeacon), and grandson of the 1596-1644. Was the latter entitled to arms; or Rev. John Tenison, Rector of Downham, Ely, is there any evidence that he or his son John bore those used by the archbishop?

Hobart, Tasmania,


SIR THOMAS BENNETT (8th S. ii. 407, 457).— MOTHER OF THOMAS BECKET (8th S. ii. 389). The date of his death was Feb. 16, 1626/7; he was -I would refer HERMENTRUDE to Dr. Hook's buried in Mercers' Chapel. His eldest son was 'Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury' for an Ambrose Bennet, who died unmarried, March 22, answer to her question: 66 What is the authority 1629/30, leaving large sums to divers charities. for the statement made by some modern writers Sir Simon Bennet, Bart., was the second son. that the name of Becket's mother was Robese ?" fall account of Sir Thomas and his family, as also Dr. Hook commences the chapter in which he of most of the Lord Mayors and Sheriffs during treats of the life of Becket with these words: the reign of James I. (i. e., those from 1603 to Thomas, the son of Gilbert Becket and of his 1618) is given in the London and Middlesex Note-wife Roesa or Matilda, was born on December 21, Book (Stock, 1892). 1118, in his father's house at Cheapside, London." And then he adds, in a note:

G. E. C.

AUTHOR OF EPIGRAM (8th S. ii. 427).—If MR. CROWDY will take the trouble to refer to 5th S. ii. 259 he will find that a better version was quoted by counsel in a trial in 1831, and that a worse one-having, however, the advantage of being the original one so far as is known-appeared in the Humourists' Miscellany, 1804, author unknown.


CHARLES LAMB (8th S. ii. 424).-As a member of the family to which Mary Druitt belonged, may I observe, with regard to the note on Charles Lamb at the above reference, that when Mary Ann Druitt (to give her her full name) died, on December 15, 1801, she was in her twenty-first year, she died not of small-pox, but of consump


Norman both by extraction and descent. From the "There can be no doubt that both his parents were following statement it would appear that Gilbert Becket was a native of Rouen, and his wife Roess or Matilda a native of Caen: Ex horum numero fuit Gilbertus quidam cognomento Becchet, patria Rotomagensis. Habuit autem uxorem nomine Roesam, natione Cadomensem, &c. (Auct. Anon. Lambeth, ed. Giles, ii. 73).'"* (Amongst these was a certain Gilbert, surnamed Becchet, a native of Rouen. Moreover he had a wife named Roesa, a native of Caen.)

It would appear from what follows in the quotation that this Roesa was of citizen rank, that she was graceful in person and yet more so in manners, and that she was a worthy mistress of her house and a faithful servant of God.

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It seems formerly to have been thought that
the mother of Thomas Becket was a Saracen.
Upon this Dr. Hook says:—

"As regards the legendary statements which convert
the honest citizen into the gay crusader, and the London
matron into a Saracen lady who wandered through
Europe, calling for her true love Gilbert' until she
found him at last in Cheapside, I do not think it neces-
sary to do more than advert to them in a note; for
although they lingered till late years in the pages of
some modern historians, they are now universally ex-

The authority for the name Roese or (with the
mediæval epenthesis of h) Rohese is the Lam-
beth writer called "Auctor Anonymus II." in
vol. iv. of the 'Materials for the Life,' who, ac-
cording to the 'Anglia Sacra,' i. 111, wrote his
account two years after the murder of the arch-
bishop. His statement is that Gilbert Becket had
a wife named Roese, a native of Caen ("habuit
uxorem nomine Roesam, natione Cadomensem,"
Materials,' iv. 81; or Migne's 'Patrol. Lat.,'
cxc. 278). On this subject E. Etienne observes :-
"Elle est appelée ordinairement Mathilde, nom que
le souvenir récent de la femme du Conquérant avait mis
à la mode. L'anonyme de Lambeth prétend qu'elle
s'appelait Rose; mais n'avait-elle pas plusieurs noms?"-
'La Vie Saint Thomas......composé par Garnier de Pont-
Sainte-Maxence: étude historique,' &c., Paris, 1883,
p. 18, note.

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In the index to the Materials' she is noticed Matilda (also called Roesa)," and the editor (vol. iv. p. xiv, note) observes: "The name in the Lambeth probably the same with Rohesia, the name borne by one of her daughters." The following are early thirteenth century forms, apparently of one and the same Christian name, occurring in the Selden Society's publications: Rohaissa and Rohesia (same person), Rosa, Roysa, Roisia.


HEDGE-ROW TIMBER (8th S. ii. 264, 310, 374).
-Let me thank several correspondents for their
interesting additions to my note, which I may be
allowed to supplement myself.
Dacre of the South leased for twenty-one years to
In 1579 Lord
Anthony Millington, of Furnival's Inn, gent., his
house and lands at Mappleton, in Holderness, the
tenant covenanting to plant in every year of the
said term six trees of oak, ash, or elm, and to
defend them from hurt of cattle. So much for
planting; now for felling. In 1720 Edward Nel-
thorpe, of Queen Square, St. Andrew's, Holborn,
merchant, sold to John Cogdell, of Beverley,
grocer, all the oak trees growing in the east wood,
the little wood, and adjoining grounds, 260 acres
in all, at Walkington, in the East Riding of the
county of York. Cogdell was to pay 600l., and
was to remove them within six years (from original
deeds). In a Midland newspaper, November 19,
1892, there are advertised for sale by auction

320 oak, ash, elm, and poplar trees, standing on
farms in three parishes in Warwickshire and Ox-
W. C. B.

388).-The inhabitants of sequestered Borrowdale,
in Cumberland, were at one time credited with
being exceedingly primitive.
ideas said to have been entertained by these inno-
Writing on the
cent people, Harriet Martineau, in her 'Guide to
the English Lakes,' among other stories of their
credulity, relates the following:-

"Spring being very charming in Borrowdale, and the
sound of the cuckoo gladsome, the people determined to
last for ever.
build a wall to keep in the cuckoo, and make the spring
So they built a wall across the entrance
according to the popular belief from generation to genera-
at Grange. The plan did not answer; but that was,
tion, because the wall was not built one course higher.
It is simply for want of a top course in that wall that
eternal spring does not reign in Borrowdale."—P. 27.
J. F. MANSergh.

Merry Tales of the Wise Men of Gotham,' said The following forms the third tale in 'The to have been collected by Andrew Borde in the reign of Henry VIII.:

"On a time the men of Gotham fain would have pinned in the cuckow, whereby she should sing all the year; and in the midst of the town they had a hedge put her into it, and said, 'Sing here, and you shall lack made, round in compass, and they had got a cuckow, and neither meat nor drink all the year.' The cuckow when she perceived herself encompassed within the hedge, she flew away: A vengeance on her,' said the wise men, 'we made not our hedge high enough.'

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These tales were formed into a chap-book, and continued to be printed until the end of the last century. The cuckoo tale is the most widely known, and is told of many villages in various parts of England. The idea seems to have been not to credit the inhabitants with a desire for eternal spring, but to attribute to them a love for the note of the cuckoo because of the peculiar opprobrium which attached to it in the Middle Ages.

The "foles of Gotham" are mentioned in the "Towneley. Mysteries' (c. 1450). E. S. A.

Miss Martineau in her 'Guide to the Lake DisThis story of walling in the cuckoo is told by trict,' the scene of the project being Borrowdale. Another variant exists in this county (Shropshire), where it is said that the people of Madelyon-Severn attempted to detain the bird not by building a wall, but by encircling him with their uplifted arms.


of a small market town in North Norfolk put Many years ago, as is said, the inhabitants an owl into the pound, and to their dismay found that it had flown away in the morning, From this natural history experience they have

been dubbed "knowing Holt." The name would make one infer that they were in a wood (Holtz). Is not this similar to the bulls ascribed to the Boeotians and Irish, and was it not a species of fun which entertained Arcadia before its simplicity was lost by the democratic influences of steam, telegraph, and newspapers? LITTLE JINKS.


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(8th S. ii. 325, 417).—I agree with DR. BREWER that we may not say "I met Westminster Abbey last week," "I met a house," "I met York Minster." But I cannot accept his monition that "in all such cases we must say I met with.'" Such a phrase as "In my walk this morning I met with St. James's Park, Westminster Abbey, and the National Gallery" has a ring of eccentricity, if not of " English as she is spoke." Nor can I give an affirmative answer to the question, 'Is not reciprocity included in the verb meet?" Persons meet each other whether they will or no, oftentimes when anxiously endeavour ing to keep out of each other's way. The expression "I met the phrase twice" may be tested by its convertibility into the passive construction. If we may not say, "A few days ago the phrase was met by me twice in the Morning Post," DR. BREWER'S objection must be pronounced valid.

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ITALIAN IDIOM (8th S. ii. 445).—I have too slight an acquaintance with the Italian language to venture an opinion as to the correctness of the idiom which is the foundation of DR. CHANCE'S interesting note. But I cannot help expressing some surprise at his concluding remarks, wherein he states, incidentally, that voi is always used in addressing a king, and that "whenever it is wished to show much respect and voi is used," &c. I stop short, because I have no reason to suppose that the conclusion is incorrect. But I have always been informed that in Tuscany, the fount of pure Italian, lei-i.e., the third person-is invariably used among people of equal rank, and particularly when it is wished to show respect to the person addressed, and that under those circumstances voi would never be heard. And I should have thought that to have addressed a king as voi, so far from being correct, would have ensured the speaker being shown the door. I am aware that oi and lei are used indiscriminately in Southern

Italy, and that the custom of using the third far the second person is on the decline; but the process is very gradual, and I shall be glad to stand corrected if my preconceived ideas on this subject are shown to be erroneous. HOLCOMBE INGLEBY.

DR. JOHN HYMERS (8th S. ii. 405, 458)-I! there is very little to say about Dr. Hymers 95 1 parish priest, the system must be blamed that sends a man without experience and of mature age into a country parish. The want of this know ledge certainly struck me forcibly when I was his guest on coming to see the living I now bold. that he was conscious of this defect, and tried to But honour to whom honour is due. I believe remedy it so far as he could. Many instances of have frequently heard my dear late vicar speak of his kindness have come to my knowledge, and I the way in which he would put himself out of the way to befriend and help on men at St. John's the clergy, and his bête noire was a rural dean. He never in my time attended any gatherings of E. L. H. TEW, M.A.

Hornsea Vicarage, East Yorks.

ST. CUTHBERT (8th S. ii. 386, 449).—Where Symeon speaks of the dedication of Durham Cathedral by Aldhune in 999 he uses the words "solenniter dedicavit," but does not mention that the church was dedicated in honour of any par ticular saint, as we know that some churches had been long before. But he often speaks of it as "ecclesia S. Cuthberti," and it was always considered to be the "Church of St. Cuthbert," by reason of the bodily presence of the saint, though it was usually styled "ecclesia Dunelmensis," probably from a feeling that it was needless to mention St. Cuthbert. That is, of course, previous to the changes in the sixteenth century. In the chapter seal of 32 Hen. VIII. (1540- I), the inscription mentions Christ and the Blessed Virgin, but not St. Cuthbert. The shrine was destroyed in 1542. "Of Christ and the Blessed Virgin" is the description still used in formal documents.

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham,

J. T. F.

CUNNINGHAM OF Glengarnock (8th S. ii. 429, 451). It may interest the inquirer about this family to know that shortly before February 3, 1540/1, Margaret Fleming, sister of Malcolm, third Lord Fleming, was contracted in marriage to John Cunnyngham, son and heir apparent of William Cannyngham of Glengarnock. Lord Fleming, assisted by another brother, Malcolm Fleming, Prior of Whithern, agreed to pay their sister a "tocher" of 1,700 marks. I have seen the original "band" among the old Fleming papers, and mention it the rather because, in an historical work published a year or two since, the author dogmatically comments on what I believe

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is the same document, thus: "How two brothers
alive could bear the same Christian name has yet
to be solved. We have seen the charter. It must
have been miswritten." This remark shows the
very limited range of his medieval knowledge.
Prior Malcolm, who it is likely knew his own
name, signed the document by it, and the "mis-
writing" exists only in the critic's imagination.

J. B.

A tolerable pedigree of this family is given in Paterson's History of Ayrshire' (vol. ii. p. 117). The William who married a Montgomerie was the ninth laird (1470). John, the fifteenth laird, married, in 1548, Margaret, daughter of Malcolm, third Lord Fleming, and left twelve sons and five daughters. One of the latter was Jean, Lady Greenock. William, the fourteenth laird, who was killed at Pinkie, married Elizabeth, a daughter of Lord St. Clair, and had a daughter Elizabeth, married to Alexander Shaw of "Sauchguy."


Woodside, Beith, N.B.



Guy Mannering; or, the Astrologer. By Sir Walter
Scott, Bart. With Introductory Essay and Notes by
Andrew Lang. 2 vols. (Nimmo.)

THAT this will be the favourite edition of the "Waverley
Novels " becomes more evident as the series progresses.
No lover of Scott but must feel a preference for the
forty-eight volume form in which nine out of ten readers
of the present generation have made acquaintance with
them. In the case of the "Border" edition, the shape
of the volume, the typography, &c., are everything that
can be desired, and the ten etchings are full of beauty
and spirit. Mr. Lang's opening essay is, it is needless to
say, a model, and his notes supplement admirably those
of the author. They abound with quaint and curious
information, and throw light on many matters which
Scott, ignorant of what would be of interest to future
times, left obscure. For a really admirable antiquarian
note see that, vol. i. p. 280, on "Names of Astrologers."
To reread these immortal novels in this attractive guise
is a treat of the highest order.

The Tuscan Republics. By Bella Duffy. (Fisher

ANOTHER of the ever-growing "Story of the Nations"
series. Mistress Duffy (if we may be permitted to fall
back on the old and conveniently indefinite "addition"
when in doubt between the modern Mrs. and Miss) has
made an industrious use of the recent German writers
on the subject allotted to her, but she has not succeeded
in imparting any great continuity of interest to that
confused network of sanguinary broils and machinations
which make up the history of the Italian republics. The
fault perhaps lies in the intractable nature of the
material, as she does much better when she comes to
deal with the romantic story of Savonarola, though
there, indeed, the interest asserts itself. We should like
to have heard a little more about that remarkable Eng-
lishman Sir John Hawkwood, who as a soldier of fortune
played a conspicuous part in the petty wars of these
communes. As an historical companion to the works of
Dante some will find this book useful, and a more than

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The Perfect Gentleman. Selected by the Rev. A. Smythe
Palmer, D.D. (Cassell & Co.)

FROM the various writers who have dealt with the subject, and notably from The Institucion of a Gentleman,' Dr. closely define the character of a gentleman, a type which Smythe Palmer has selected those passages which most he holds to be peculiarly English, neither gentilhomme, gentiluomo, nor gentilhombre, from the French, Italian, embracing so many fine nuances of meaning. From inand Spanish respectively, having the same connotation or numerable sources he has gathered a great many passages descriptive of the true gentleman. From Menander down to N. & Q.' the range covered is all embracing. We have, first true gentleman that ever lived," and many fine pasof course, Dekker's bold definition of Christ as "the sages from Shakspeare, Sir Thomas Mallory, Chaucer, Defoe, Addison, Thackeray, and Kingsley. It is, indeed, difficult to find an English author of importance who has not said something on the subject. We have read through with extreme pleasure Dr. Palmer's most pleasing volume, and have received much delight from its perusal. We fail to trace Selden's definition of a gentleman, which is, perhaps, omitted as too technical. We can fancy few people reading the volume without feeling the better for it.

Buckfast Abbey. By Dom Adam Hamilton, 0.8.B. (Burns & Oates.)

BUCKFAST ABBEY was in the days of its splendour one of the noblest religious houses of the West. The date of its foundation is not known. It was certainly in being before the Norman conquest, for Canute gave the brethren lands which they continued to possess until the reign of Henry VIII. When the great monastic revival took place which is so intimately connected with the name of St. Bernard, Buckfast became Cistercian. The White Monks held it till the Reformation, and now by a strange train of circumstances the demesne has once more become the home of a monastic brotherhood, which political changes have driven from France. The pamphlet before us is by a brother of the house. It gives a most interesting sketch of the fortunes of the abbey from the days of the Danish king to those of Queen Victoria. We gather from its pages, what we have heard from other sources, that all the mediaval remains which time and the violence of man have spared are preserved with reverent care.

All's Well; or, Alice's Victory. By Emily Sarah Holt. (Shaw & Co.)

The Harvest of Yesterday. Same author and publishers. CHRISTMAS brings, as usual, with it further volumes of Miss Holt's "Tales of English Life in the Olden Time." The purpose of these stories now, as heretofore, is principally religious. What specially commends them to readers of N. & Q.,' and exempts them from the taboo under which the prose fiction of to-day rests in these columns, is the graphic force and truth and interest of the antiquarian pictures supplied. These, while rendering them specially serviceable to youth, commend them also to students of riper years. 'Alice' is a tale of "the Gospellers," laid in the epoch of Queen Mary, and concludes with the burnings at Canterbury, of which the heroine, Alice Bindon, is a victim.

The Harvest of Yesterday' is a more ambitious and more successful, as well as a more stimulating work. It is historical in basis, deals with the fortunes of Anne Brandon, the daughter of the Duke of Suffolk, and introduces a sufficiently gorgeous pageant. character is, moreover, studied with especial care, and


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Books in Chains, and other Bibliographical Papers. By the late William Blades. (Stock.) WE drew attention, on their first appearance, to the "Bibliographical Miscellanies' of the late Wm. Blades, one of the soundest and most erudite of bibliographers. A selection from these has been included in the "BookLover's Library," and constitutes one of the most attractive and valuable volumes of a well-conceived and well-executed series.

The Windsor Peerage for 1893. By Edward Walford, M.A. (Chatto & Windus.)

THOUGH the youngest of our peerages, The Windsor Peerage' has already established itself in public favour. It may be doubted, indeed, whether any work of its class supplies an equal amount of accurate information in so convenient and so handsome a form. In seven

hundred clearly printed pages we have a peerage, baronetage, and knightage, with all the miscellaneous information for which one looks in a work of the class. The introduction especially contains a mass of information of highest value and interest, and full indexes facilitate greatly the task of reference. The position of the Peerage' is now definitely established, and more ambitious works may have to look to their laurels.

WE have received the number of the Library for July-September (20, Hanover Square, W.). It is the organ of the Library Association, and contains much useful matter concerning the subjects with which that body is especially concerned. The articles are all very short. This is not, however, in itself a defect. Padding has in these days become one of the chief plagues of literature. We would direct especial attention to Mr. R. G. C. Proctor's paper on Jan van Doesbrogh, the Netherlandish printer, of whom very little has been hitherto known. The article on the Municipal Libraries of Paris' is worth attention. We gather that our French friends are at present not on a level with ourselves in providing reading for the people.-The Year-Book of the Library Association for 1892 (20, Hanover Square, W.) contains much that will be interesting to those who care for library management. The examination papers which have been issued during the last few years will give to the outside world a fair idea of what is required from a library assistant. These examinations are voluntary, but they are of great service to all who wish to enter upon a profession which as time goes on must become yearly more and more important. The list of the towns which have accepted the Public Libraries Act will be of service to many of our readers.

WE have received the eighth number of the Journal of the Cork Historical and Archæological Society. It

fully sustains the high level of the previous parts. The first paper is by Mr. Timothy Gleeson. It relates to the castles in the vicinity of Castlemartyr, and is remarkably well done. The Rev. Patrick Hurley communicate Among other matter, he gives a return, made in 1731, some notes on the past history of the diocese of Cork. the Roman Catholic priests and chapels in the variou districts. To this is added an undated seventeenth century list of the priests in many of the Irish dioceses The names show that in those days many scions of the old historic houses took orders in the Church of Rome. In running our eyes down the list we encounter such names as Talbot, Everard, Fitzedmond, Plunkett, and Verdon. Another correspondent has sent a licence of the year 1799 granted by the Protestant Bishop of Cork to some nuns in that city to open and carry on a school,

a considerable accession of new members was announced, AT the last Council meeting of the Ex-Libris Society and the Treasurer was able to report that there would be a good balance in hand at the end of the year. The annual meeting of the Society will be held in London early in February next, when a large collection of early ex-libris and scarce works on heraldry will be exhibited. This will be organized by the Secretary, Mr. W. H. K. Wright, of the Plymouth Library.

THE death, in his seventy-eighth year, at Dublin Castle, of Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster King at Arms, claims at our hands some few words. Born in London, educated at Caen, in Normandy, and called to the bar of the Middle Temple in 1839, he edited-at first with his father, then alone, and lately with the aid of his sonthe valuable 'Peerage' bearing his name. He succeeded, in 1858, Sir William Betham as Ulster King at Arms, An enthusiast in all that regarded his profession, he wrote, among other works, Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland' (afterwards published under the title of The Landed Gentry'), a 'General Armory,' Visitation of Seats,' Family Romance,' 'Anecdotes of the Aristocracy,' 'The Historic Lands of England,' 'Vicissitudes of Families,' and 'Reminiscences, Ancestral and Anecdotal.' Among other offices, he was Knight Attendant and Registrar of the Order of St. Patrick, Keeper of the State Papers of Ireland, Governor of the Irish National

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Gallery, and Trustee of the National Library.

Notices to Correspondents.

We must call special attention to the following notices: ON all communications must be written the name and address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith.

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately.

To secure insertion of communications correspondents must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."

ERRATA.-P. 466, col. 1, 1. 13 from bottom, for "naan read man; for "Kann" read kann.


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Editorial Communications should be addressed to" The Editor of Notes and Queries '"-Advertisements and Business Letters to "The Publisher "-at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C.

We beg leave to state that we decline to return communications which, for any reason, we do not print; and to this rule we can make no exception.

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