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Speech......in the House of Commons, May 16, 1873, on Mr. Miall's motion for the disestablishment and disendowment of the Church. London, Church Defence Institution, 1873.-8vo. B.M. 4109 b. 1 (2).

*Letter on evolution.-Contemporary Review, December, 1873, pp. 162-3.

a speech at the Hawarden Literary Institution, Sept. 14, 1875.

*Italy and her Church.-Church Quarterly Review, October, 1875, pp. 1-35.

This is the opening article of the first number of the Church Quarterly. It is reprinted in Glean

Address delivered at the distribution of prizes in the Liverpool Collegiate Institution...... With an introducings,' 1879, vi. 193-244. tion, &c. London, John Murray, 1873.-8vo. B.M. 8364 c. 1.

The address was delivered on December 21, 1872.

1874.

*The shield of Achilles.-Contemporary, February, 1874, pp. 329-44.

The article concludes with a translation of 'Iliad,' xviii. 468-608.

*The reply of Achilles to the envoys of Agamemnon. -Contemporary, May, 1874, pp. 841-55.

This concludes with a translation, 'The Reply of Achilles,' consisting of 222 lines.

*Homer's place in history.-Contemporary, June, 1874, pp. 1-22.

*The place of Homer in history and in Egyptian chronology.-Contemporary, July, 1874, pp. 175-200. Speech......on the second reading of the Church Patronage (Scotland) Bill, in the House of Commons, 6th July, 1874......Revised by the author. Edinburgh, 1874.-8vo. B.M. 4175 bb. 1 (8).

Ritualism and ritual.-Contemporary, October, 1874, pp. 663-81.

See 1876.

Life of Bishop Patteson.-Quarterly, October, 1874, pp. 458-92.

This review of Miss Yonge's 'Life of John Coleridge Patteson' is reprinted in 'Gleanings,' 1879, ii. 213-63.

Homer's place in history.-8vo. pp. 22, London, 1874. B.M. 11312 1. 31 (1).

Reprinted from the Contemporary for June, but does not contain the continuation in the July number.

The Vatican decrees in their bearing on civil allegiance: a political expostulation. (Sixteenth thousand.) Lendon, John Murray, 1874.-8vo. B.M. 3939 f.

A copy of the hundred and tenth thousand, 1874, 12mo., is in the B.M., 3939 aaa. See 1875.

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*Hymnus responsorius. — Contemporary, December. 1875, pp. 160-2.

A Latin translation, in seven stanzas, of “Art thou weary, art thou languid?" Dr. Neale's wellknown hymn, taken from the Greek of St. Stephen the Sabaite.

*The Vatican decrees. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1875.-B.M. 5016 bb.

See 1874. The volume also contains "A History of the Vatican Council; together with the Latin and English Text of the Papal Syllabus and the Vatican Decrees. By the Rev. Philip Schaff, D.D., from his forthcoming' History of the Creeds of Christendom.'”

Les décrets du Vatican considérés dans leur influence sur la loyauté civile......Traduit......par V. Oger. Bruxelles, 1875.-8vo. B.M. 3939 f.

Los decretos del Vaticano en relacion con los deberes B. M. 5017 aaa, 15. civiles. Madrid, 1875.-8vo. Dedfrydau Llys y Pab yn eu heffaith ar deyrngarwch gwladol: ymresymiad gwleidyddol......Wedi ei gyfieitha ..gan R. J. Pryse. Wrexham.-870. B.M. 3940 de. 2 (6). *Vaticanism: an answer to replies and reproofs London, John Murray, 1875.-8vo. pp. 128. 3939 f.

B.M.

The B.M. Catalogue by mistake gives 1873 ss the date of publication.

Faticaniaeth; atteb i geryddon ac attebion......Wedi ei gyfieithu......gan R. J. Pryse. Wrexham. 8vo. B.M. 3940 de. 2 (7).

I decreti del Vaticano, e i doveri del cittadino. Rimestranza politica. Il Vaticanismo. Risposta ai contradittori della rimostranza......Traduzione di C. GuerrieriGonzaga. Firenze, 1875.-8vo. B.M. 3940 aaa. 5.

*Rome and the newest fashions in religion. Three tracts. The Vatican decrees.-Vaticanism.-Speeches of the Pope. Collected edition, with a preface. Lotdon, John Murray, 1875.-8vo. B.M. 3939 f. 3.

The first tract extends to p. lxxxi. The other two cover pp. 1-190. Pp. 121, 122, contain a list of replies to 'The Vatican Decrees.' For translations see 1876.

1876. *Homerology: I. Apollo.-Contemporary, March, 1876, pp. 632-49. Homerology: II. Hippos, the Horse. III. Diphros, the Chariot.-Contemporary, April, 1876, pp. 803-20. *The courses of religious thought.-Contemporary, June, 1876, pp. 1-26.

Reprinted in Gleanings,' 1879, iii. 95-136. For a Dutch translation see below.

*Letter on Newman and Wesley.- Contemporary, June, 1876, p. 168.

Homerology: IV. Athenè. V. Aiolos.-Contemporary, July, 1876, pp. 282-309.

*Lord Macaulay.-Quarterly, July, 1876, pp. 1-50. Reprinted in 'Gleanings,' 1879, ii. 265-341.

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*Memoir of Norman Macleod, D.D.-Church Quar- Corn Law repeal']. The B.M. does not seem to possess terly Review, July, 1876, pp. 490-503. a copy, nor does the Gladstone Library of the National Liberal Club."

In the reprint in 'Gleanings,' 1879, ii. 343-63,
the article is stated to have appeared originally in
the Church of England Quarterly Review. This
periodical had been dead many years.

A speech delivered at Blackheath...... September 9th,
1876; together with letters, on the Question of the East.
London, John Murray, 1876.-8vo. B.M. 8028 bb.
*Russian policy and deeds in Turkistan.- Contem-
porary, November, 1876, pp. 873-91.

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The article is founded on Schuyler's Notes of a Journey in Russian Turkistan.'

*The Hellenic factor in the Eastern problem.-Con-
temporary, December, 1876, pp. 1-27.

Reprinted in 'Gleanings,' 1879, iv. 259-304.
Pavestolen og dens nyeste Færd. Tre Afhandlingen:
Vatikan-Dekreterne; Vatikanisme; Taler af Pius IX.
.Samlet Udgave med en Fortale. Oversat after det
Engelske. Kjobenhavn, 1876.-8vo. B.M. 5017 aaa. 4.
See the last book under 1875.
Rom und die neuesten Moden in der Religion.
lingen, 1876.-8vo. 3 parts. B.M. 4018 bb. 1.
Bulgarian horrors and the question of the East.
don, John Murray, 1876.-8vo. pp. 64. B.M. 8028 b. 6.
Seventy-seven thousand copies of the cheap edi-
tion were sold.

Nörd

Lon

De gruwelen in Bulgarije en het Oostersche vraagstuk Uit het Engelsch door D. C. Nijhoff, met een voorwoord. Culemborg, 1876.-8vo. B.M. 8028 de. 14 (1). A translation into Russian, with preface by K. L. Alexander. 1876.-8vo. pp. xiii, 48. B.M. 8028 ee. 10 (1).

A translation of the article in the Contemporary

for June.

*The Church of England and Ritualism. Reprinted from the Contemporary Review, and revised...... London, Strahan & Co.-8vo. 1876. B.M. 3939 c. 4.

There is confusion here all round. Mr. Gladstone issued no such pamphlet, but his father did, and there is a copy in the British Museum Library, separately bound, and with the following titlepage :

Plain Facts intimately connected with the intended Repeal of the Corn Laws, its | probable effects on the public revenue, and the prosperity of this country, addressed to all classes, in the United Kingdom and her Colonies, | By John Gladstone, Esq. | London: | John Murray, Albemarle Street. | 1846.-B.M. 8245 d. 42. This is an octavo pamphlet of thirty-two pages, and it is dated London, Carlton Gardens, 2nd June, 1846." John Gladstone had previously published another contribution to the Corn Law controversy, with the following title-page :

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The Repeal of the Corn Laws, with its probable consequences, briefly examined and considered. | By | John Gladstone, Esq. of Liverpool. | Second Edition. | London: | J. Hatchard and Son, 187, Piccadilly. | 1839.-B.M. T 2408 (5).

This is an octavo pamphlet of twenty pages; it is dated "Carlton Gardens, London, 28th January, 1839"; and it is entirely different from that of 1846, though described in the British Museum Catalogue as Another Edition" of the later one -a fact which may account for the confusion that has arisen regarding it.

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While upon this question, I may note another error in the British Museum Catalogue, which De stroomingen van het godsdienstig denken...... Uit affects a Gladstone bibliography. Under the headhet Engelsch, met een inleiding door D. C. Nijhoff.ing, "Gladstone (Right Hon. William Ewart)" is Culemborg.-8vo. 1876. B.M. 4372 f. 2 (9). pamphlet, "Translated, with a preface, by Mr. a reference to "Corne (H. M. A.)," and to a Gladstone." Upon turning to pamphlet in question is stated simply to have Corne," the been "Translated, with a preface, by W. Gladstone," and that is the more accurate description, for it is a appointed by the National Assembly of France to Report of the Special Committee consider the treatment of Juvenile Offenders, presented 14th December, 1849' (B.M. 6056 b), which was printed as a pamphlet at Reigate, by William Allingham; and it has for a preface a letter to Sir George Grey, then Home Secretary, signed "Wm. Gladstone," who describes himself as Treasurer to the Philanthropic Society," and as one of the promoters of the Farm School at Redhill, and dates his communication "7, Austin Friars, London, 13th April, 1850."

This reprint contains an Advertisement of two pages, signed "W. E. G." The notes added are in brackets. The title of the first article is 'Ritual and Ritualism,' instead of 'Ritualism and Ritual,' as in the Contemporary. See October, 1874. This edition is reprinted in Gleanings,' 1879, vi.

107-91.

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*A biographical sketch [of George William, fourth Lord Lyttelton].-B.M. 4906 bbb.

Four pages appended to 'Brief Memorials of Lord Lyttelton,' Rivingtons, 1876. See 1861. Homeric synchronism: an enquiry into the time and place of Homer. London, Macmillan & Co., 1876.-8vo. pp. 284. B.M. 2282 b.

See 1877.

(To be continued.)

With regard to the Corn Law pamphlet of 1846, attributed to Mr. Gladstone, it is observed :—

"Mr. Murray states that his father published a shilling pamphlet with this title [Plain facts relative to

66

ALFRED F. ROBBINS.

A FRENCH CHRISTMAS CAROL. Although French romance is pretty well known in England, I have an impression that French poetry, at least non-dramatic poetry, is, in many cases, not much known by English people of even a literary turn, who have a notion-a most mistaken one

that French poetry is not "poetical," and consequently not much worth reading. No one who is acquainted with the sonnets and odes of Ronsard and one or two of his brother "Pleiads," with Victor Hugo's 'Orientales' and 'Feuilles d'Automne,' or with François Coppée's 'Promenades et Intérieurs,' his 'Poëmes Divers,' &c., could entertain such an opinion for a moment, unless he were a brother, or at any rate a first cousin, of the old friend of our childhood, the hero of 'Monsieur Nongtongpaw,' who

Nothing knew of French indeed,

And deemed it jabbering stuff.

The following graceful Christmas carol will, therefore, I think, be new to some, at all events, of your readers, and I am sure they will be pleased to be introduced to it just before "the clear churchbells ring in the Christmas-morn," and this, notwithstanding that it comes from the land whose people, I believe, do not treat Christmas as a social festival in the way that the English do, reserving themselves, in this respect, for "le jour de l'an." It is one of Théophile Gautier's 'Emaux et Camées': Noël.

Le ciel est noir, la terre est blanche;
-Cloches, carillonnez gaîment !-
Jésus est né ;-la Vierge penche
Sur lui son visage charmant.
Pas de couronnes festonnées
Pour préserver l'enfant du froid;
Rien que les toiles d'araignées
Qui pendent des poutres du toit.
Il tremble sur la paille fraîche,
Ce cher petit enfant Jésus,
Et pour l'échauffer dans sa crèche
L'âne et le boeuf soufflent dessus.

La neige au chaume coud ses franges,
Mais sur le toit s'ouvre le ciel,

Et, tout en blanc, le choeur des anges Chante aux bergers: Noël! Noël! Your readers must not draw "odious comparisons" between the above little poem and Mr. William Morris's very beautiful carol, “Outlanders, whence come ye last," in The Earthly Paradise." A wild rose- "shame fall on those who gave it a dog's name "-is not to be despised because it is not equal to a garden rose.

"La neige au chaume" must be considered a poetic hyperbole, introduced to make the carol accord with our northern ideas, as snow, I imagine, is unknown in Syria except on the highest mountains. Gautier is, however, kept in countenance by Milton, in his 'Ode on the Morning of Christ's Nativity

Only with speeches fair

She woos the gentle air

To hide her guilty front with innocent snow. JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

A GIPSY CAROL.

Some years ago a gipsy woman and child came to my door singing carols. The woman's voice had

a plaintive sweetness in it, the air was quaint and wild, and the words strange to me, so I asked be to repeat them, and wrote them down as she did so; and here they are:

Christ made a trance [sic] one Sunday noon
All with his own dear hand,

He made the sun clear, and the moon,
The water, and dry land.

To save us from our sin, dear man,
Christ died upon the Cross;
What must we do for him, dear man,
Who has done so much for us?

Teach your children well, dear man,
Teach them while they're young;

The better it shall be for your soul, dear man,
When you are dead and gone.

To-day you might be rich, dear man,
With many a hundred pound;
To-morrow you might be dead, dear man,
And clothed with the ground.

With a green turf at your head, dear man,
Another at your feet,

A good example for us all

Before the Lord to meet.

There are six days in all the week
For the poor labouring man,

And the seventh to serve the Father God,
Likewise the Lord his son.

Hell is deep, Hell is dark,

Hell is filled with faults;

May the Lord give us grace in every place
For to journey to our life's end.

I put these verses away, amongst other odds and ends, till the other day, looking over the third part of Miss C. S. Burne's 'Shropshire Folk-lore,' I came upon this same carol, but with certain differences so marked that it may be worth while to note them. The first line of the first verse in the 'Folk-lore' copy is as follows:

Christ made a trance one Sunday view [sic also of yore]
the second line the same as in my variant, the
third is also the same, but the fourth reads,-
Like the water on dry land.

(All for the saving of our souls)
Christ died upon the cross;
What shall we do for our Saviour
Like He has done for us?

O teach your children well, dear man,
And teach them while they 're young,
For better 'twill be for your soul, dear man,
When you are dead and gone.

To-day, dear man, you might be alive
With many thousand pound,

And to-morrow, dear man, you may be dead,
And your corpse laid in the ground.
With a turf all at your head, dear man,

And another at your feet,

Your good deeds and your bad ones all
Before the Lord shall meet.

There are six days in the week, dear man,
For this poor labouring man,

And the seventh day to serve the Lord,
Both Father and the Son.

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Hell is deep, and Hell is dark,
And Hall is full with faults;
May the Lord give us grace in every place,
And to pray to our ending day.

Are any other variants of this carol known to
C. A. WHITE.

the readers of 'N. & Q.'?

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CHRISTMAS.

(See 6th S. vi. 506; viii. 491; x. 492; xii. 489; 7th S. ii. 502; iii. 152; iv. 502; vi. 483; x. 502; xií. 483.) Coleridge, 8. T. Zapolya: a Christmas Tale. edition, 1817. 8vo.

First

With illus

Doudney, Sarah. Christmas Angels.
trations by F. C. Price. 1892, booklet.
Fyfe, W. W. Christmas: its Customs and Carols.
Square 12mo. Frontispiece.

Gilbert, Davies (Editor). Christmas Carols, as they were formerly sung in the West of England. With Music. 1822. 8vo.

Maurice, F. D. Christmas Day and other Sermons. 1843, 8vo.; 1892, crown 8vo. (London, Macmillan & Co.)

4to.

R., J. F. Christmas and Christmas Carols. wrappers. Illustrated. (London, T. B. Sharpe.) Sinnett, Mrs. Percy. A Story about Christmas in the Seventeenth Century. 1846. Square 12mo., coloured plates.

Sylvester, Joshua (Editor). A Garland of Christmas Carols, Ancient and Modern. 1861. Post 8vo.

Christmas comes but once a year, showing what Mr. Brown did, thought, and intended to do, during that festive season. Illustrated by Luke Limner. 1850, Square 16mo. (London, Tegg.)

Christmas Tyde: a series of sacred songs and poetical pieces, suited to the season. 1849. Crown 8vo. (London, Pickering.)

Coming, The, of Father Christmas.

E. F. Manning. 1892. 4to. (London, F. Warne & Co.)
Illustrated by
Mistletoe, The, a German Tale of Christmas. First
edition, 1847. Post 8vo. (London, Allman.)
J. CUTHBERT WELCH, F.C.S.

The Brewery, Reading.

CHRISTMAS PROCESSIONS.-The following com. munication occurs in the Sporting Magazine for December, 1807. It is signed "J. J. B." would be well to reproduce it in 'N. & Q.'

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Bart., of Aston, near Birmingham. On this day, as soon as supper is over, a table is set in the hall; on it is placed a brown loaf, with twenty silver threepences stuck on the top of it, tankards of ale, with pipes and tobacco; and the two eldest servants have chaira behind

it, to sit as judges if they please. The steward brings the servant, both men and women, by one at a time, covered with a winnow-sheet, and lays their right hand on the loaf, exposing no other part of their body. The naming a name; then the younger judge; and lastly, oldest of the two judges guesses at the person, by the oldest again. If they hit upon the right name, the steward leads the person back again; but if they do not, he takes off the winnow-sheet, and the person receives a threepence, makes low obeisance to the judges, but the younger guesses first and third, and this they do speaks not a word. When the second servant is brought, servant has not slept in the house the preceding night alternately till all the money is given away. Whatever forfeits his right to the money. When the money is gone the servants have full liberty to drink, dance, sing, and go to bed when they please.

"At Bromley-Pagets, near Tutbury, is a remarkable sport on New Year's Day and Twelfth Day, called the Hobby-horse dance, from a person who rides upon the image of a horse, with a bow and arrow in his hands, with which he makes a noise, and keeps time with the music, which six men make, who have the representation of rein-deer heads on their shoulders. To this Hobby-horse belongs a pot, which the Reeves of the town fill with cakes and ale, and toward which the spectators contribute for the entertainment of the poor." ΑΝΟΝ.

LETTISH FOLKLORE OF CHRISTMAS. - The

recent work of F. A. Wolter on the Ethnography of the Letts,' besides containing many of their Christmas songs, describes how, on Christmas Eve, the wolves, by which means they thought that the Letts were in the habit of sacrificing a goat toduring the ensuing year they would prevent the wolf from doing harm to their cattle (quoting Einhorn). See the Academy, Dec. 12, 1891.

W. C. B.

RURAL CHRISTMAS FESTIVITIES IN THE FIFTIES. It-Perhaps a brief account of our mode of keeping Christmas in a Nottinghamshire farmhouse in the middle of the century may be acceptable at this season. may serve to show the decay, if not the survival, There is not much to tell, but the note of many old customs.

At Ramsgate they begin the festivities of Christmas by a curious procession: a party of young people procure the head of a dead horse, which is affixed to a pole about four feet in length; a string is affixed to the lower jaw, a horse-cloth is also attached to the whole, under which one of the party gets, and, by frequently pulling the string, keeps up a loud snapping noise, and is accompanied by the rest of the party, grotesquely habited, with hand-bells: they thus proceed from house to house, ringing their bells, and singing carols and songs; they are commonly gratified with beer and cake, or perhaps with money. This is called, provincially, a Hodening, and the figure above described a Hoden or Woden Horse. Is the above a relick of a festival to commemorate our Saxon ancestors landing in Thanet, as the term Woden seems to imply? Perhaps some of your readers can clear this up. It is, I find, general on the Isle of Thanet on Christmas Eve, and, as far as I can learn, no where else.

"The following whimsical custom takes place annually, on the 24th of December, at the house of Sir J. Holt,

The first sign of approaching Christmas was the killing of the pigs. family; and as the killing of all the animals at Ours was not a very large once would have embarrassed us with riches, they winter months; but it was essential that one at were usually killed one at a time during the least should be killed for Christmas, or how could in these degenerate days, mince-pies (so called) we have had any mince-pies? There are, I believe, which are innocent of pork; but no good Christian will eat them except under protest, and certainly not at Christmastide. Into the composition of the true and orthodox mincemeat the "pluck" and "lights" of the pig must enter. The pork-pies

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however, were made before the mince-pies. These were not regarded as a distinctively Christmas dish, but they usually formed part of our Christmas cheer, pork being always to the fore at that season. The building-"raising" was the usual term-the building of them, I say, was regarded as no small art. The crust, which was compounded of fine flour and lard in the proportion of 14 lb. of the former to 4 lb. of the latter, with boiling water quant. suff, required nice handling, as our housewives would have scorned to bake the pies in moulds. Curious and elaborate in the extreme was the ornamentation of these structures, consisting of flowers and animals and fanciful figures of all sorts, cut in paste and stuck all over them, the whole being surmounted by a huge tuft of narrow strips of paste. With what eagerness we children used to watch the drawing of the pies from the oven, speculating meanwhile upon the fate of the more ornate of them under their ordeal by fire. Had they "stood" or "fallen"? That was the question. But the mince-pies, and especially the mince-pigs, were of most account at Christmas. These latter differed from the former in shape only. They were supposed to resemble a roast pig, with elongated snout and a very long curled tail. They were usually crimped along the back, and had two currants for eyes, and might be of any convenient magnitude, the bigger the better, of course; but each member of the family must have one. They were in season all through Christmastide, but Christmas Eve was the proper time for them to be eaten, and we ate them with a solemn sort of gusto, to the accompaniment of hot elderberry wine. This beverage, though it may require an educated palate, becomes upon acquaintance a truly "seductive flooid," and is by no means to be despised.

So much for Christmas "cheer," for I do not think there was anything else distinctive of the season about our fare at that time, except the regulation Christmas "plum "-pudding, the composition of which everybody knows. Other matters need not occupy much space. We decked our houses with evergreens, of course, chiefly with holly, box, yew, and ivy. Hollies with us would not grow to any great size, but of yew and box we had great plenty. Mistletoe was not to be had in the parish; the only bit that I, as a boy, ever saw growing was on an apple-tree in the garden of a relative at Upper Broughton, in Leicestershire. It was, however, usual to buy a small branch for a "kissing bush," which was always hung in the kitchen, where also we played our games on Christmas Eve. Blind man's buff and turn trencher were especial favourites at Christmas, but sometimes, when an unusual number of girls came together, games with more of kissing in them were preferred-by the girls, of course. We were supposed to play without candles,

if possible, by the light of the fire only, which wa made of the Yule log, when we could persuad the men to give us one. The absence of candle was, I suppose, due merely to the fear that we might knock them over and set ourselves on fire The log was of any kind of wood we could g timber being scarce in our neighbourhood. Chris mas Day itself was observed much like Sunday except that it was less strictly kept, with more f cheerfulness, and that we always had an anthem at church in the evening, and always the same one- "Angels from the realms of glory."

After Christmas came Plough Monday (the firs Monday after Twelfth Day); but of the rite proper thereto we were spectators only. C. C. B.

BIRDS' CHRISTMAS IN NORWAY.

"The Norwegian peasant's hospitality extends itself so far on Christmas Eve as to invite the birds to be hi guests; and therefore he hangs out at the barn-door, a pole, an unthreshed sheaf of corn, which draws the sparrows and other small birds thither, where they feas and make merry."- Pontoppidan's 'Natural History of Norway' in 'Compendium of Mod. Travels,' 1757, ii. 283 W. C. B.

A DERBYSHIRE CHRISTMAS KISSING BUNCE. -The old Derbyshire kissing bunch, or bush, hung up at Christmas time like a household god, is now almost a thing of the past. The decay began between two and three decades ago; and, except here and there in some of the more oldfashioned cottage households, the new games which have come into existence with the advent of oil lamps and the passing away of the tallow candle are in a great measure answerable for the rareness with which the kissing bunch is now built and hung from the central beam of the living room, just out of reach of the uncovered heads of the tallest of the family. How the kissing bunch was made in other counties than Derbyshire forty odd years ago does not particularly matter; but in the nearest parts of the adjoining counties of Stafford and Notts the custom and make of the Christmas kissing bunch was much the same. Two wooden hoops-sometimes three or four-passed one through the other, were the foundation of the structure; and on this frame, depending a great deal on the size of the hoops, the more or less elaborate bunch was formed. Firstly, the hoops were firmly tied at the poles of the skeleton globe, and then the bows were decked lightly with evergreen-yew, box, iry, holly, according to taste-care being taken not to crowd the bows so as to hide the inside. During the making the bunch was suspended at a convenient height in the house-place, but on no account to the hook from which it would be hung on Christmas Eve. For the week or so this particular hook was sacred to the "kissing bunch." Girls and boys, with the mothers, took part in

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