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LIVES OF THE SAINTS.
By the Rev. S. BARING-GOULD, M.A. A New Edition, with several Hundred Illustrations. Vol. XVI will contain a COMPLETE INDEX. Vol. XVII SAINTS with their EMBLEMS.
EMBLEMS OF SAINTS.
BY WHICH THEY ARE DISTINGUISHED IN WORKS
By the late Very Rev. F. C. HUSENBETH, D.D.
With numerous Corrections and Additions.
THE UNCANONICAL AND
APOCRYPHAL SCRIPTURES. Being the Additions to the Old Testament Canon which were included in the Ancient Greek and Latin Versions; the English Text of the Authorized Version, together with the Additional Matter found in the Vulgate and other Ancient Versions; Introductions to the several Books and Fragments; Marginal Notes and References; and a General Introduction to the Apocrypha.
By the Rev. W. R. CHURTON, B.D.,
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, Canon of the Cathedral of St. Alban's, and Examining Chaplain of the Bishop.
Large post 8vo. pp. 608, cloth, 78. 6d.
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beau, le plus touchant de tous les siens, et où il a porté au plus haut point d'intimité l'alliance de ces deux grandes sources d'intérêt, la solitude champêtre et la mélancolie. J'ai tâché de le traduire en vers, et même ce qui est, comme on sait, le comble de la difficulté dans notre langue, de rendre un sonnet par un sonnet. Il y a peut-être beaucoup d'imprudence à hasarder de si faibles essais, et pour faire l'imprudence toute entière, j'engagerai encore ici à relire dans l'original le sonnet de Pétrarque. Peut-être au reste quand on s'en sera rafraîchi la mémoire, appréciant mieux les difficultés de l'entreprise, en aura-t-on pour le mien plus d'indulgence.'' 4. The German translation is from 'Hundert Literature-Gemmace, 69-J. M. Morton-Siege of Rouen ausgewählte Sonette Francesco Petrarka's, übersetzt von Julius Hübner,' 1868.
REPLIES:-Archimedes, 70-Sir John Strange-" Grana
game at Irish, 78.
colphus-Bullen's Sex Quam Elegantissimæ Epistolæ 'Lang's Grass of Parnassus'-Forman's Shelley-LachSzyrma's Under other Conditions-Rae's Syrian Church
in India'-Heales's 'Architecture of the Danish Churches' -James's Curiosities of Christian History,' &c.
(See 8th S. i. 454.)
The suggestion made by QUESITOR to present a sonnet of Petrarch in several languages would be novel and interesting in N. & Q.' if the Editor could find space for carrying it out. On the chance of his being able to do so, I send the following specimens:
1. One of Petrarch's sonnets in his best style. 2. A translation from my book on the sonnet (Murray, 1874).
3. De Sade and other French writers give prose translations of some of Petrarch's sonnets. Ginguené ('Histoire Littéraire d'Italie,' 1824, tome ii. p. 508) does the same, and regards it as an act of temerity to attempt a poetical rendering. He does so, however, in the case of the sonnet before us, and prefaces his translation with some judicious remarks. He says with reference to the poet :
"Souvent......il porte ses tendres rêveries au milieu des bois, des champs, sur les montagnes, parmi les plus doux ou les plus imposants objets de la nature. Avant de parler de sa tristesse, il s'entoure des lieux qui l'entretiennent, mais qui l'adoucissent; et quand il se peint mélancolique et solitaire, il répand sur sa mélancolie le charme de sa solitude. C'est ce que l'on sent beaucoup mieux que je ne puis le dire dans un grand nombre de ses sonnets; on le sent surtout dans celui qui commence par ces mots Solo e pensoso, peut-être, selon moi, le plus
5. This is a Spanish imitation of Petrarch s Sonnet by Boscan, who, in conjunction with his friend Garcilaso, introduced the Italian style into Spain. This was early in the sixteenth century, and led to a literary feud which divided the critics into two camps, known as the Petrarchists and the anti-Petrarchists, and gave rise to many amusing squibs, among which is a droll sonnet by Lope de sented as arriving late at an inn, to which they Vega, in which Boscan and Garcilaso are repreare unable to gain admittance, and they are astonished at the high-flown poetical language addressed to them by the maid-servant from Within (the result, we may suppose, of the introduction of the Italian method), so that they cannot believe themselves to be in Castile, but rather in Biscay, where the people are said to be more than usually stupid.
6. A translation of Boscan's sonnet, from a little book of mine, published in 1881, entitled 'Sonnets, Original and Translated':
Solo e pensoso i più deserti campi
Vo misurando a passi tardi e lenti ;
Je vais seul et pensif, des champs les plus déserts,
Pour brûler d'une flamme aux mortels inconnue :
Et la plaine, et les monts, savent quelle est ma peine, Je dérobe ma vie aux regards indiscrets; Mais je ne puis trouver de route si lointaine
Où l'Amour, qui de moi ne s'éloigne jamais, Ne fasse ouïr sa voix et n'entende la mienne. 4.
Gedankenvoll allein durch Einsamkeiten
Irr' ich mit zögernd abgemess 'nem Gange,
Dass Neugier mein Geheimniss nicht erlange,
Solo y pensoso en páramos desiertos
Y van mis sentimientos tan cargados,
Si oyo balar acaso algun ganado,
Y la voz del pastor da en mis oidos,
Y quedan espantados mis sentidos:
Alone and pensive, to some desert land
I guide my anxious weary footsteps on,
My thoughts go heavy laden every one,
Have their round haunches gored, That wounded deer are gored by others of their kind I see no reason to doubt; but it seems to me
altogether improbable that Shakspeare had this fact in view when he wrote the words in question. The evidence of the context is, I venture to think, conclusive. The wounding, with whatever instrument inflicted, is conceived of as the work of the great tyrant and usurper, man. Immediately after the mention of the gored haunches the First Lord observes:
The melancholy Jaques grieves at that;
And, in that kind, swears you do more usurp, &c. If the alleged habit of deer had been in Shakspeare's mind at the time, it seems impossible to suppose that he would not have made Jaques moralize on the fact in question, and strongly accentuate the sentiment of Venus and Adonis with regard to the baffled and exhausted hare, that misery is trodden on by many." The wounded stag is simply
Left and abandoned of his velvet friends.
Misery" merely " parts the flux of company," and does not provoke great and grievous outrage. Moreover, if the suggested interpretation were correct, it is scarcely to be imagined that we should have had
Anon, a careless herd,
Jaques, too, would have been able to say something far more "invective" than
'Tis just the fashion ; wherefore do you look Upon that poor and broken bankrupt there? The "fat and greasy citizens," moreover, as they "jumped along," would have had very good reason for looking at their distressed brother, and at the wrong they had inflicted. And what is, perhaps, of still greater importance is, that if the subject brought previously into view with the greatest prominence had been the habit of deer to wound cruelly and unjustly a suffering companion, we could not have had, as a climax, that Jaques that we
Are mere usurpers, tyrants, and what's worse,
I have received the following letter from a practical gamekeeper:
"Sir,-Having had thirteen years' experience with deer in a large park in Staffordshire, I beg to state that I have killed and seen killed a good number of deer, and I must say, from experience with same, that if a buck or a stag were to be singled from herd and wounded from gun, that such would not be allowed to return to herd
* Richardson, in his Dictionary,' has "A fork, any. thing so divided as to have two or more pointed prongs; the barbed point of an arrow." As to the verb "gore," the same dictionary may be consulted. But Richard II.,' Act. I. sc. iii., "For me, if I be gored with Mowbray's spear," is sufficient.
again; if so, it would only be to be gored to death. Therefore, as a rule, it will not join the herd, but will run till it dies of its wounds, or it will lie down in some secluded "ARTHUR SHAW, Gamekeeper." spot.
'JULIUS CÆSAR,' II. i. 14 sqq.—
F. J. F.
'ROMEO AND JULIET,' III. i.: DEATH OP MERCUTIO.-There has been some discussion as to Shakespeare's reasons for killing Mercutio. May not one be that there might be sufficient motive to bring about Romeo's banishment and the final catastrophe? As in the other plays, the turningpoint, here the death of Mercutio, is in the middle act. Romeo evidently has some power of selfrestraint, as the previous scene with Tybalt shows; but the news of Mercutio's death comes at the moment when he is troubled at this " very friend's" mortal wound, and his feelings are in a state of alternation between his duty to Juliet's kinsman on the one hand, and the insults to himself and his friend's hurt on the other. "Here comes the furious Tybalt" follows immediately on i."Mercutio's dead!" so that Shakespeare does not give him any time to obtain control of himself, but lets fire-eyed fury lead him on. "O, I am fortune's fool!" The action could not be more rapid than it is at this crisis.
It is the bright day that brings forth the adder; And that craves wary walking. Crown him?-that;And then, I grant, we put a sting in him, The elaborate punctuation-note of interrogation and all-in the second of these lines is that of the "Globe" edition. The reading of the Folios is simply "Crowne him that, And then," &c. My belief is that the original punctuation is correct. We have probably here a late use, in the oblique case, of he that, or he emphatic, of which I lately furnished several examples to N. & Q.' (8th S. 311). The phrase was no doubt obsolete in the literary language of Shakspeare's day, but it may have survived in the rustic speech of his native county. After the reference to the adder, a little emphasis in reverting to Cæsar is natural.
III. i. 263 (7th S. xii. 63, 424).—
A curse shall light upon the limbs of men. The difficulty experienced by so many with regard to limbs arises, I think, from a wrong view of the operation of the curse. Even those who would preserve the Folio reading appeal to a passage in 'Timon of Athens' (IV. i. 21 sqq.) to show that the curse is to issue in some diseased condition of limbs. In this view the limbs are regarded from their passive side, their capability as active agents of evil being ignored. What is implied by the curse may be their perversion into instruments of
Domestic fury and fierce civil strife. : Limbs working such internecine carnage as Antony pictures may not inaptly be deemed curse-smitten. The fine figure of infants quartered with the seems to point to the interpretation
hands of war "
For to every wight som goodly aventure Som tyme is shape, if he can it receiven; And if that he wol take of it no cure, Whan that it comth, but wilfully it weiven, Lo! neither cas nor fortune him deceiven, But right his verray slouthe and wrecchednesse; And swich a wight is for to blame, I gesse. Chaucer's stanza is to some extent borrowed from Boccaccio's 'Filostrato,' book ii. Mr. Rossetti thus translates the passage: "Every one has a chance in life, but not a second chance."
IV. ii. 24. The wedding day.-In__altering the day for the wedding from the Thursday to the Wednesday, and thus making Capulet's change of mind on the impulse of the moment help to bring about the catastrophe, Shakespeare seems to be emphasizing the inevitableness of the destiny that hangs over the lovers. At the end of III. iv. Thursday is repeatedly fixed upon; but the father is so delighted at Juliet's dutiful bearing after her visit to the friar, that he changes the day to Wednesday, and to this change Juliet-either because of her eagerness to carry out the scheme, or because of her wish to prove her obedience-makes not the slightest Mantua on the Tuesday, but after being in objection. The friar's messenger is despatched to quarantine for two days he returns on the Thursday without having delivered the letter. It is clear that the messenger could have reached Mantua in a day, because the friar thinks that he has been there and back in two; so that, had the wedding been on the Thursday, as originally intended, there would still have been time to communicate with Romeo, and all might have gone well, but, as the friar acknowledges,
A greater Power than we can contradict
'TEMPEST,' IV. i. 40 (8th S. i. 371).-The use of vanity here quoted is not uncommon. Dyce's Glos.' quotes from the 'Romance of Emare' (Ritson's Anc.-Engl. Metrical Romances,' vol. ii. p. 208). The Encyclopædia Londinensis' gives quotations without references from Milton, Raleigh, and Davies. I have frequently met with it, and quite recently in Browne's Covent Garden Weeded,' Pearson's reprint, vol. ii. p. 33: "O prophane tinkling the cymbals of Satan, that tickle the ears with vanity, to lift up the mind to
ST. SAVIOUR'S, SOUTHWARK. I recently paid a visit to this ancient collegiate church (otherwise called St. Marie Overie), and was much impressed with the Ladye Chapel, in which divine service has been for some time performed during the restoration of the nave. Before entering the sacred edifice I descried a tomb against the south-east wall which is thus inscribed :
Beautified and Repaired 1878.
for many years a resident of this parish died 27th June 1856 in the 82nd year of his age and his remains are deposited in his family vault beneath. His architectural skill and appreciation of the chaste and beautiful are exemplified in the restoration of the choir and tower of this church and also in the restoration of the Ladye Chapel which was completed under his sole and gratuitous superintendence.
By Mary Ann his wife
who died 22nd May 1856 and was buried at
he had 4 sons and 6 daughters of whom
in the reigns of Edward III. Henry IV. and Richard II. Three of his Works upon which his Head rests are inscribed Vox Clamantis' (Voice of one that crieth). Confessio Amantis (Confession of a Lover). Speculum Meditantis' (Beholding oneself in a glass). The garland or band of roses round his Head signifies, that he in his life daies flourished freshely in literature and science; he also wears the collar of SS. a mark of distinction Swan Chained, the badge of Henry IV. He is styled bestowed by the Sovereign, from which is suspended a Armiger, at that time a title granted by Patent. Gower was married in this church, and was also a great benefactor to it."
Conspicuous on a column at the west end of the Ladye Chapel is a shield bearing the annexed memorial record :
Near this Place lyeth
Sir Richard How Kn. Alderman and Sheriff of the City of London Coll" of the Regiment of this Burrough of Southwark and always elected member to serve in Parliam: for the said Burrough: and here also lyeth Elizabeth the Eldest Daughter of the said S Richard How who was 52 years the wife of Thomas Lowfeild of the County of Surrey. She departed this life the 23d of Feb 1725 in the 71st year of her age. and Here also lyeth the said Thomas Lowfeild Esq' who died 29 Oct. 1732. Aged 87.
A notable tablet on an adjacent pillar records the liberal benefactions of Dame Elizabeth New
comen, by means of which a large number of parishioners provided with garments. The dedichildren are yearly clothed and educated, and poor In conclusion, I would add that as this interesting catory verses are well worthy of careful perusal. fabric (which has well been styled a cathedral) is open daily from eleven to three, many of your antiquarian contributors would be glad to inspect its treasures of past history, and they might possibly aid in the good work of restoration, which is proceeding with the sanction and support of the Bishop of Rochester and an influential committee. DANL. HARRISON.
"AERY": CURIOUS MISINTERPRETATION.-In Massinger's Maid of Honour' (I. ii.) there is a fine thought in these words:
One aiery with proportion, ne'er discloses
The editor in 1761 of Massinger's' Works,' having changed the spelling of aiery to airy, under the idea that it was an adjective, makes the following delightful comment (vol. ii. p. 385):
"This Passage is somewhat difficult. Camiola is shewing how unlikely it was, that Bertoldo should condescend to marry her, because of the Disparity of their Birth; and she says, One who is puffed up with an high Opinion of his own Birth, and the Equality there ought to be in Marriages: One airy with Proportion* will
*The italics are the editor's.