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and has learned how to present his wonders in a manner which, while the reader is under the spell of his imagination, makes none of his wonders seem out of place. Has he not made an astronomical slip when he speaks of the swarm of little planets which revolve between Mars and Jupiter as portions of a large planet which by some unknown force has been split into fragments? This was the current doctrine some few years ago, but we have understood that it presents insurmountable difficulties. The Syrian Church in India. By George Milne Rae. (Blackwood & Sons.)

MR. RAE seems to know India well, and has gathered many interesting facts regarding those who are called the Christians of St. Thomas. His powers of arrangement are not of a high order. It is not easy without much attention to follow the intricate narrative he has given. The author is, we believe, sincerely anxious for the welfare of this ancient body, but here and there he displays an amount of partisanship not admirable in an

historian.

The Architecture of the Churches of Denmark. By Major Alfred Heales, (Kegan Paul & Co.) VERY few Englishmen know much of the architecture of the three Scandinavian kingdoms, nor is this surprising. There are no grand cathedrals such as we find in England or France, and the parish churches, though many of them of great interest to the architect and antiquary, do not appeal to the non-studious traveller by their beauty.

There are several reasons for this. Denmark it is true became civilized at an earlier date than her sister kingdoms, but she was by comparison late; then, too, building materials are scarce. The churches, large and small, are almost all, we gather from Major Heales, built either of granite boulders or hard yellow bricks; neither of these is a fitting vehicle for conveying a sense of beauty.

Some of the larger engravings-as, for instance, those of Kallundborg and Röskilde-are very good. The figure of St. Katherine, engraved on a book-rest at Ribe, is curious, as it shows the saint as she is represented in English sculpture and stained glass, not after the continental manner.

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The work is in every respect excellent so far as it goes. The only fault we have to find with it is that it does not go far enough or enter into sufficient detail.

The curious round churches of Bornholm ought to be very fully described. There are no other such buildings in Europe. The four round churches we have in this country were built by the Templars as memorials of the Holy Sepulchre; these have no such meaning. Those who made them had in view not only the object of providing for the Catholic worship, but also securing for the inhabitants a place of refuge when attacked by the marauders who then infested the seas.

Curiosities of Christian History prior to the Reformation. By Croake James. (Methuen & Co.) THE Conception of a work of this kind is good; but we cannot commend the manner in which Mr. James has carried it out. The statement in the preface that the author has left out all the miracles shows that he can have but a narrow conception of how a work of this kind should be treated. In the Middle Ages, and, indeed, long after they had come to an end, there was but a very vague conception of natural law. When any event or series of events occurred which moved popular feeling, men saw in the most ordinary occurrences of life the direct interference of spiritual agencies, divine or diabolic. This manner of conceiving of the universe gave way very gradually. Luther seems to have been as ready to see diabolic agency in things natural as an anchorite

of the twelfth century; and in far later days than his we find Wodrowe, the Scotch Presbyterian historian, gravely recording occurrences which for wild impossibility are equal to anything in the Acta Sanctorum'; and we know that the early Methodists were in the habit of seeing the direct intervention of God where we should never dream of doing so. If we are to have anything approaching to a true picture of the fifteen centuries which preceded the birth of Protestantism, it is necessary that the miraculous should be dwelt on with sufficient detail, otherwise it is impossible to enter into the spirit of either its literature or its art.

The two most interesting chapters in the collection are those which treat of "Early Church Customs, Fasts, and Festivals," and the one called "The Monks and their Ways." The whole of the book would have been much improved had more references to authorities been given. As a book to lay on the writing-table for the use of a writer hard pressed for copy, this volume may be of service; but it will be little employed by the serious

student.

A_Mendip Valley, its Inhabitants and Surroundings. By Theodore Compton. (Stanford.) Two editions of Mr. Compton's admirable picture of Winscombe and its neighbourhood, Woodborough, Barton, Sidcot, and elsewhere, having been exhausted, the opportunity has been taken to issue it in an enlarged and illustrated form. The additions include a chapter, by Prof. C. Lloyd Morgan, on the Geological History of the Mendips. The original illustrations, by Edward Theodore Compton, are numerous and excellent, and add greatly to the attractions and value of a volume equally to the taste of the naturalist and the antiquary.

MR. ELLIOT STOCK announces for early publication "The History of Ufton Court,' of the parish of Ufton, in the county of Berkshire, and of the Perkyns family, compiled from ancient records by Miss Sharp, and illustrated with numerous drawings by the author.

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The Athenæum of July 2nd

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RECENT CARLYLE LITERATURE.
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Athen@um:-"These ballads are spirited and stirring: such are 'The Fall of Harald Hardrada,' Old Benbow,' 'Marston Moor,' and 'Corpora) John,' the soldier's name for the famous Duke of Marlborough, which is a specially good ballad. 'Queen Eleanor's Vengeance' is a vividly told story. Coming to more modern times, The Deeds of Wellington,' 'Inkerman,' and 'Balaklava' are excellently well said and sung. As a book of ballads, interesting to all who have British blood in their veins, Dr. Bennett's contribution will be welcome. Dr. Bennett's Ballads will leave a strong impression on the memory of those who read them." CHATTO & WINDUS, Piccadilly.

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CRYPHAL SCRIPTURES. Being the Additions to the Old Testament Canon which were included in the Ancient Greek and Latin Versions; the English Text of the Authorized Version, together with the Additional Matter found in the Vulgate and other Ancient Versions; Introductions to the several Books and Fragments; Marginal Notes and References; and a General Introduction to the Apocrypha. By the Rev. W. R. CHURTON, B.D., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, Canon of the Cathedral of St. Albans, and Examining Chaplain of the Bishop. Large post 8vo. pp. 608, cloth, 78. 6d.

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