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form of an accepted statement of prin- vidualists, as a school, are not prepared ciples or corpus of doctrine, or in any to offer any humane system as abstract shape whatever, it is possi- alternative to it. Many do little more ble that they may pass into practical than denounce the creed of Marx and Socialism sans le savoir, by a series of his successors with equal vehemence lapses, just as it is ssible that they and honesty; but mere denunciation, in may maintain an Individualistic sys- the end, strengthens a plausible case tem without recognition of that fact or by arousing interest in it and some symits consequences.

pathy for it, and invective is a weapon The drift has for some time tended which grows weaker the oftener it is towards Socialism: that is, to minor used against the same opponent. What measures of empirical Socialism which is wanted, at least for people who precommend themselves to sentiment or to fer to hold their opinions in a logical the sense of expediency. For instance, form, is a system for the amelioration there has been a strong inclination to of social conditions which will satisfy relieve the poorer parents in the com- the human conscience as it exists in munity of a part of the burden of their Western lands to-day without destroyduty to their children, and to help the ing the sound foundations of society in more indigent class generally to avoid accordance with socialistic incitements; the full results of their economic dis- in a word, construction instead of deadvantages. This, being done by a struction, or healthy evolution instead common effort of the other members of of a revolution prompted by visionaries the State, is a step within the bounds of and carried out in despair. Socialism.

It is well to admit that the Individual. Here one comes at once upon a criti- ist pur sang has failed as a social philoscism which applies to the arguments of opher and will fail, precisely because convinced Individualists, at least as to he ignores the human conscience and their practical bearing, and when fails to realize that sympathy is as nattheir practical bearing is disregarded ural and inherent a force in human nathey have only an academic value. To ture as selfishness itself; indeed, it is ask people to permit the unrestricted re- one of the basal laws of life, long ansults of Individualist methods to ope- tecedent to the appearance of man upon rate among the poorest is to ask them the earth, and one of the primary facto repudiate all the dictates of com- tors of the individual. And, in face of passion, and to deny the fundamental this fact, in order to criticise Socialism principles of the religion which most of effectively, it is expedient to give due them profess. It is absurd to teach a recognition to some of its strongest posistudent on one day of the week in a tions and not to advance against the lecture-room that Free Competition, un- whole line without making due allowbampered and unmitigated, is the es- ance for them. sential condition of the progress of the It is often urged that all progress in race and the nation, and to teach him evolution from the protozoa to man has on another day of the week, in a church been accomplished by the aid of unreor chapel, that he should love his neigh- stricted competition in the struggle for bor as himself and do to his neighbor life. And if this be granted, the Inas he would that his neighbor should dividualist says, "How will you ensure do to bim.

further progress if this mainspring of And this leads to another criticism evolution be taken away?" But the arwhich strengthens the hands of those gument is fallacious. Considering the who seek to promote Socialism. Indi- matter from the biological point of

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view, it is plain that unrestricted com- Law, from the point of view of the strict petition among the creatures lower than Individualists, is Socialism; at least,

evolved at length power, one of its most important functions is thought, which overthrew the previous the use of the power of the community conditions and dominated the world of to protect those who are not strong brute force and blind contest for sur- enough to enforce their own rights. If vival. This force has its own way of it were the solemn duty of humanity to dealing with things, and the more com- adopt consistent and thorough Individpletely that is followed the greater is ualism, law should be abolished; he the success of those who follow it. No only should preserve his property, or human beings approach so nearly to even his life, who could do so by his the kind of competition that prevails own hand or cunning; widows and oramong beasts as the lowest races of phans should be a prey to those strong mankind, who are rightly called the enough to seize them. The decalogue most backward. The proposal to elimi. should be deleted. Then we should innate the results of thought in order that deed have reverted to the kind of comwe may revert to that condition of af- petition which prevails in the ocean fairs over which thought has triumphed, and the forest. But it would hardly and the belief that further progress (an mean progress. only be attained by returning to the As compared with a doctrine which, form of competition which at last pro- pushed to its logical extreme, involves duced thought as its mastering term, the disappearance of morality, the creed are illusory; in fact the suggestion is of Socialism appears, in the abstract, that we should decapitate progress, s) a most beneficent gospel. It proposes to speak, in order that advance may to use the individual for the best adcontinue. Nor is the protective p'wer vantage of the State and to organize of organized "social" life, as distinct the State for the best advantage of from the free struggle of individuals, the individual. And if practice could without example even outside human- be made to conform to theory, Socialism ity. The development of instinct gives would have a claim upon humanity that examples of it. "The phases of social could not rightly be repudiated. life exhibited by animals other than A principle enunciated in a few lines man,” said Huxley, "sometimes curi- in the late Professor W. Wallace's ously foreshadow human policy.” 1 In- "Prolegomena to the Study of Hegel's stances in the insect world are well Philosophy" mar be cited: known, and for one example among

The apprehension of a thing from one many in the case of the higher animals

side or aspect-the apprehension of one it is interesting to refer to the account

thing apart from its connections—the given from personal observation by

retention of a term or formula apart Mansfield Parkyns of the organization from its context-is what Hegel terms of baboons in their foray's on the corn- "abstract” ... To abstract is a necesfields.

sary stage in the process of knowledge. Nor, indeed, is a return to the Free

But it is equally necessary to insist on

the danger of clinging, as to an ultimate Competition, the unrestricted struggle

truth, to the pseudo-simplicity of abfor existence, as it flourishes outside

straction, which forgets altogether what humanity, practicable; but this is what

it is in certain situations desirable for the Individualist system postulates if a time to overlook. it is logical in its doctrine of progress.

In this sense, Socialism is a system 1« The Anatomy of Invertebrated Animals." 2« Life in Abyssinia."

full of the error of "abstraction." It

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S." one can almost d reader exclaim. glo-Saxon snobbishou art, and how invailest!" One can Sighing; but that is have forogtten to Dan babies. Behold less summer evening, g fathers and these others paying homperambulators. It nd, perceiving it, one this little moment. the City and the sothe tea-table have otten; that even the y have faded into a ificance. For in realall atoms of plump the lords dominant last court of appeal, spring of all its strivte it is a comforting ss them!

H. H. Bashford.

view, it is plain that unrestricted competition among the creatures lower than man evolved at length a power, thought, which overthrew the previous conditions and dominated the world of brute force and blind contest for survival. This force has its own way of dealing with things, and the more completely that is followed the greater is the success of those who follow it. No human beings approach so nearly to the kind of competition that prevails among beasts as the lowest races of mankind, who are rightly called the most backward. The proposal to eliminate the results of thought in order that we may revert to that condition of affairs over which thought has triumphed, and the belief that further progress can only be attained by returning to the form of competition which at last produced thought as its mastering term, are illusory; in fact the suggestion is that we should decapitate progress, so to speak, in order that advance may continue. Nor is the protective power of organized "social" life, as distinct from the free struggle of individuals, without example even outside humanity. The development of instinct gives examples of it. "The phases of social life exhibited by animals other than man," said Huxley, "sometimes curiously foreshadow human policy." stances in the insect world are well known, and for one example among many in the case of the higher animals it is interesting to refer to the account given from personal observation by Mansfield Parkyns of the organization of baboons in their forays on the cornfields.2

In

Nor, indeed, is a return to the Free Competition, the unrestricted struggle for existence, as it flourishes outside humanity, practicable; but this is what the Individualist system postulates if it is logical in its doctrine of progress. 1"The Anatomy of Invertebrated Animals." "Life in Abyssinia."

Law, from the point of view of the strict Individualists, is Socialism; at least, one of its most important functions is the use of the power of the community to protect those who are not strong enough to enforce their own rights. If it were the solemn duty of humanity to adopt consistent and thorough Individualism, law should be abolished; he only should preserve his property, or even his life, who could do so by his own hand or cunning; widows and orphans should be a prey to those strong enough to seize them. The decalogue should be deleted. Then we should indeed have reverted to the kind of competition which prevails in the ocean and the forest. But it would hardly mean progress.

As compared with a doctrine which, pushed to its logical extreme, involves the disappearance of morality, the creed of Socialism appears, in the abstract, a most beneficent gospel. It proposes to use the individual for the best advantage of the State and to organize the State for the best advantage of the individual. And if practice could be made to conform to theory, Socialism would have a claim upon humanity that could not rightly be repudiated.

A principle enunciated in a few lines in the late Professor W. Wallace's "Prolegomena to the Study of Hegel's Philosophy" may be cited:

The apprehension of a thing from one side or aspect-the apprehension of one thing apart from its connections-the retention of a term or formula apart from its context-is what Hegel terms "abstract" . . . To abstract is a necessary stage in the process of knowledge. But it is equally necessary to insist on the danger of clinging, as to an ultimate truth, to the pseudo-simplicity of abstraction, which forgets altogether what it is in certain situations desirable for a time to overlook.

In this sense, Socialism is a system full of the error of "abstraction." It

regards men and women as uniform but, these being provided, the family units for the construction of that State should be the very means of developing which the visionary sees completed in to the best the individual characters of his dreams. If Individualism ignores the parents. And the fruit of a man's conscience, Socialism ignores character. art, handicraft or labor should be his But the development of character with own, in order to satisfy that basal conthe consequent multiplication of the ob- cept of right in the human mind that jects to which human energy directs it- he who creates should have power to self is one of the strongest motive dispose; lacking this, how can a min forces of civilization. Diversity of have that love of his work which a lone character is necessary in a healthy, pro- prompts him to give to it his finest gressive community, and it cannot flour- energy? He may dedicate his output ish in a dead level sameness of sur- to the common use; but the gift shoull roundings. Moreover, Socialism ignores be voluntary. that love of independence which is not Though the Hegelian system has been only an incentive to work, but an ele- abandoned as an explanation of the ment in nobility of disposition. And it Universe, it remains a very valuable incondemns the good form of acquisitive- dicator of the course of the human ness as well as the bad. The abuses of mind; and one may well hope that the the desire for property are patent to movement of the twentieth century will everybody. But there is a

sense in

be neither to a creed of Individualism which a man is denied the exercise of nor to a creed of Socialism, but to a his best relations with the world if the plan which, rising above both, will right of individual possession is denied eliminate the brutality of the

one to him, In family life this is especially and the futility of the other, and manifest. A parent should not be the harmonize all that is found to be servant of the State to administer as good in he two seemingly contradicconcerns his children a system decreed tory conceptions of a right civilizaby it. There should be safeguards tion. against the abuse of parental power,

Godfrey Burchett. The Gentleman's Magazine.

THE SOUL OF OUR SUBURB.

It is with a proper reticence that one and unfledged youngling, that lolled in shrinks from the baring of a soul, with its shirt-sleeves and talked across gara certain trepidation that one sets upon den-walls, that kept poultry in its backpaper any aspects of its development. yards and lodgers in its upper chamFor the soul of our suburb is both bers. It was intensely democratic; real and very desperately in earnest; and indeed it still remains so,- across and it has almost found itself. Four the line. But then it is hardly necesyears have gone to its making, four sary to remark that, in common with pregnant years, that have called into all railway lines, this one is extremely being a thousand new emotions, a thou- unmistakable, and it is upon this side sand dauntless aspirations. Four year's of it that our suburb has really evolved. ago this suburb of ours was but the Here, from its former waste, from its merest red-brick tag, strung out along jungle of dusty grass and half-made à railway leading to place that roads, it has grown to its present high shall be nameless. It

estate. Four years ago it was not; to

Was

a

raw

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