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against one another such phrases as these, in the Douay, 'the exemplars of the celestials' (Heb. ix. 23); but in ours, 'the patterns of things in the heavens.' Or suppose if instead of the words which we read at Heb. xiii. 16, namely, to do good and to communicate forget not; for with such sacrifices GOD is well pleased,' we read as follows, which are the words of the Douay, Beneficence and communication do not forget; for with such hosts GOD is premerited'? Who does not feel how great and enduring our loss would have been, how it would have searched into the whole religious life of our people, if the translation used by them had been composed in such Latin English as this?
"Let me again, however, recur to the fact that what our Reformers did in this matter, they did without exaggeration; even as they had shown the same wise moderation in higher matters. They gave to the Latin side of the language its rights, though they would not suffer it to encroach upon and usurp those of the Teutonic part of the language. It would be difficult not to believe, even if all outward signs said not the same thing, that there are great things in store for the one language of Europe, which is thus the connecting link between the north and the south, between the languages spoken by the Teutonic nations of the north, and the Romance nations of the south; which holds on to both, which partakes of both, which is as a middle term between both. It has been often thought that the English Church being in like manner double fronted, looking on the one side towards Rome, being herself truly Catholic, looking on the other towards the Protestant communions, being herself also protesting and reformed, may yet have a great part in the Providence of GOD to play for the reconciling of a divided Christendom. And if this ever should be so, if, in spite of our sins and unworthiness, so blessed a task should be in store for us, it will not be a small help and assistance thereunto, that the language in which her mediation will have to be effected, is one wherein both parties may claim their own, in which neither will feel that it is receiving the adjudication of a stranger, of one who must be an alien from its deeper thoughts and habits, because an alien from its words, but a language in which both recognise very much of that which is deepest and most precious of their own.
"Nor is this merit which I have just claimed for our English the mere dream and fancy of patriotic vanity. The scholar who in our days is most profoundly acquainted with the great group of the Gothic languages in Europe, and a passionate lover, if ever there was such, of his native German,-I mean Jacob Grimm, has expressed himself very nearly to the same effect, has given the palm over all to our English in words which you will not grudge to hear quoted, and with which I shall bring this lecture to a close. After ascribing to it a veritable power of expression, such as perhaps never stood at the command of any other language of men,' he goes on to say, 'Its highly spiritual genius, and wonderfully happy development and condition, have been the result of a surprisingly intimate union of the two noblest languages in modern Europe, the Teutonic and the Romance. It is well known in what relation these two stand to one another in the English tongue; the former supplying in far greater proportion the material ground-work,
the latter the spiritual conceptions. In truth, the English language, which by no mere accident has produced and upborne the greatest and most predominant poet of modern times, as distinguished from the ancient classical poetry (I can, of course, only mean Shakespeare), may with all right be called a world language; and, like the English people, appears destined hereafter to prevail with a sway more extensive even than its present over all the portions of the globe. For in wealth, good sense, and closeness of structure, no other of the languages at this day spoken, deserves to be compared with it,-not even our German, which is torn, even as we are torn, and must first shake off many defects, before it can enter boldly into competition with the English.' Pp. 25, 27, 28.
We fear that this remarkable passage is only calculated to raise false hopes as to the powers of our language, which the philosopher and the divine have ever, by painful experience, found to present very serious difficulties in their efforts to express deep metaphysical thought, and a clear accurate enunciation of doctrinal truth; and also as to the excellency of our translation of the Scriptures, wanting, as it is, in spite of all its beauty and sweetness, in the exact rendering of many important passages.1
We much regret to notice this habit of self-laudation. It is not at all morally, socially, or theologically, what the English require.
The nature of Mr. Trench's Lectures consisting very much of long classifications and lists of words, has made the work of selection so very difficult, that we readily chose those passages which were cast in the most popular form. In doing so, we have only left room for one specimen of the character of those investigations which Mr. Trench has so sedulously followed out. Speaking of the way in which the names of persons have supplied names to things, he says:
"A Roman cobbler named Pasquin has given us the 'pasquil,' or 'pasquinade'; Colonel Negus, in Queen Anne's time, first mixed the beverage which goes by his name; Lord Orrery was the first for whom an orrery was made; and Lord Spencer first wore, or at least first brought into fashion, a 'spencer.' Dahl, a Swede, introduced the cultivation of the 'dahlia.' The 'tontine' was conceived by an Italian "Tonti'; and another Italian, Galvani, first noted the phenomena of galvanism... "Sometimes a word springs up here is one, not having, I suppose, any great currency, except among school-boys, yet being no invention of theirs, but a genuine English word, though of somewhat late birth in the language. I mean, to 'chouse.'
in a very
1 There are several very erroneous views respecting what are called the "doctrines of grace," which would have had far less semblance of proof in Holy Scripture, had the Greek been rendered exactly in such passages as I Cor. vi. 11, Rom. v. 1, which would then stand, "having been justified, having been sanctified," instead of being justified, being sanctified."
a singular origin. The word is, as I have mentioned already, a Turkish one, and signifies 'interpreter.' Such an interpreter, or 'chiaous,' being attached to the Turkish embassy in England, committed in the year 1609 an enormous fraud on the Turkish and Persian merchants resident in London. He succeeded in cheating them of a sum amounting to £4,000,-a sum very much greater at that day than at the present. From the vast dimensions of the fraud, and the notoriety which attended it, any one who cheated or defrauded was said to chiaous,' 'chause,' or 'chouse'; to do, that is, as this chiaous had done."-Pp. 60, 63.
GUIDES TO THE PARISH CHURCH.
1. A Guide to the Parish Church. By the Rev. HARVEY GOODWIN, M.A., late Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Minister of S. Edward's, Cambridge, and Hulsean Lecturer.
2. The Holy Eucharist the enjoined Worship of GOD in "Spirit and in Truth," and the "Pure Offering" of the Gospel Covenant. A Manual for those who remain in Church during the Celebration of the Holy Communion, but do not communicate. By a Parish Priest. London: Masters.
THE characteristic of the first of these books is good, sound, common A contemporary has indeed designated it as rather "old fashioned;" and so it is: there is nothing new to be said against indolence and irreverence in congregations, against meanness and poverty of ritualism or decoration, against worldliness and neglect in Clergy. But all these things are very well said here, and by one who by his own industry and consistency has succeeded in gaining the ear of a very important and influential section of the community.
But this is not the only ground on which Mr. Goodwin is deserving of credit. He does not, as we have said, go very far; and in some respects, as we shall have presently to point out, he has, in a way that is quite inconsistent with his general line, seemed to discourage that gradual progress which is even now doing so much for us but he is no asserter of Anglican perfection, neither does he resort to the mean and paltry device, so common with via-media writers, of feigning an attack upon Rome or "Romanizers" (so called), in order that under cover of the smoke thereby raised they may escape the animadversion which the advocacy of Church principles usually involves. His object is simply to exhibit our Services in the best light in which they present themselves to his
understanding, not to bespatter them with fulsome praise. He takes them in short as they are, and tells men how, according to his conceptions, they may best profit by them.
"I am not bound to maintain, and I am not going to attempt to prove, that in every minute circumstance the public service of the Church of England, especially as it is usually conducted, is ordered in the very best manner possible. I think that I should very much weaken my case were I to attempt to do so; and is it likely, when we consider the troublous times through which the Church of England had at and after the time of her reformation to pass, and all the obstacles which she has had to contend with since, and the extreme jealousy which is felt whenever any change is proposed,-is it likely that her service should be in every particular the very best in point of arrangement that could be devised? is it likely that a ship should weather as many gales as the Church of England has weathered, and on being examined should be found not to have lost a spar, or strained a rivet, or even have been damaged in her mere exterior appearance? I think that any one who studies the question carefully will be astonished to find how little irreparable loss she has really sustained; and many things which we might be inclined at first to condemn, we may eventually see reason to praise, and in all we shall show only a dutiful discretion if we are slow to condemn that which perhaps wiser persons than ourselves have approved. But anyhow I am not going to undertake the defence of every minute particular in the service of the English Church; or rather I am not going to attempt to prove that every thing is as near perfection as possible; and I wish that all persons would remember, that it is by no means necessary that a member of the English Church should be prepared to show the excellence of every order and practice and custom: persons may be devotedly attached to their spiritual mother without committing themselves to this."-Pp. 7, 8.
The best chapter in Mr. Goodwin's book, according to our judgment, is the one on Creeds. They are indeed recognised by him in their highest and truest sense as essential portions of Church worship, -a portion, he well remarks, which in the formation of a modern Prayer Book, would probably be altogether omitted: but their subsidiary uses are also very well enforced, and the removal of objections both against the general principle of using them, and against certain details in them, is very successfully accomplished.
The following passage, showing the value of Creeds in guarding us against changeableness, not so much in doctrine as in phases of belief, strikes us as very good:
"Consider how at different periods of the Church's history, especially in modern times, the views of large numbers of men have fluctuated concerning the nature of the faith which a Christian ought to possess ; consider how men have contended concerning the nature of justifying faith, the manner in which a sinner is justified, the connection of justification with sanctification, the ground of the divine election, the possi
bility of Christians falling away from grace received; all these and fifty other points, we have been told by various teachers or controversialists, are of the essence of the faith, are fundamental points, and I have very little doubt but that if a Creed had been composed in modern times, during the ascendancy of almost any one of the numerous schools of religious opinion, we should have found embodied in it some one or other of these doctrinal points; and what has preserved us? mainly, I believe, the form of sound words which has come down to us from early times; from the distressing heat of theological controversy we seem to find repose in that simple form of words, in which the Church teaches us in unison with holy men of all ages to profess our faith in GOD the FATHER who made us, in God the Son who redeemed us, and in GoD the HOLY SPIRIT who sanctifies us. I do not of course intend to assert that such points as those, of which I have just now given a sample, are points unworthy of discussion, points concerning which there is no truth to be discovered or established, but they belong for the most part rather to the philosophy of religion (so to speak) than to religion itself, and the advantage of the Creed is, that it leads us past all such speculations concerning CHRIST up to CHRIST Himself, it points our eyes to JESUS CHRIST born of a Virgin, betrayed, crucified, buried, risen, ascended, shows us His wounds, points to His triumph, and having assured our faith in Him as the personal LORD and SAVIOUR of mankind, leaves us on a rock which nothing in earth or in hell can shake. And so important is it for Christians to have their eyes thus rightly directed to the great object of their faith, that it is impossible to repeat too frequently the form of sound words which is appointed thus to direct them; the constant repetition tends under GOD to ensure a healthy tone of mind, and is a constant protest against false views of the faith required of Christians, which may happen to prevail in any particular era of the Church." -Pp. 94–96.
With like success Mr. Goodwin meets the popular objection to the damnatory clauses of the Athanasian Creed. The clause in question, he remarks, is
"not the only one in the Creed which speaks of persons perishing everlastingly. At the close of the Creed we find it asserted, that at the coming of CHRIST 'all men shall rise again with their bodies, and shall give account of their own works. And they that have done good shall go into life everlasting, and they that have done evil into everlasting fire.' Here then we have an assertion as clear and broad as possible, that the great judgment of GOD will be, as the Scriptures declare, a judgment according to works; and if there be any tendency in our minds to imagine that it is in accordance with this Creed to make everlasting life depend merely upon a particular form of belief, the concluding portion of the Creed should correct such a notion. The Creed does, in fact, in this respect exhibit as in a mirror the character of the Holy Scriptures themselves, in which it is hard to say whether greater stress is laid upon holding the faith, or upon the works done in the body.
"In the next place, whether we adopt the language of the Creed or no, yet we do in fact adopt its principles whenever we speak of 'saving