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Bartlett's (Mr. J. S.) Brief History of the Christian Church from the
first century to the Reformation

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Annals of England

340

Article XXIX., considered in reference to the Three Sermons of the
Archdeacon of Taunton

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488

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Bingham's (Rev. W. P. S.) Lecture on Ecclesiastical Sculpture
Bishop of Brechin's Commentary on the Litany

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Bishop of Ross, Moray, and Argyle

Blunt's (Rev. J. H.) Sermons on the Atonement and the At-one-maker
Bode's (Mr.) Bampton Lectures

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Bonpert's (Rev. P. Conradi) Scutum Fidei, ad usus quotidianos Sacer-
dotum

582

338

488

92

Carter's (Rev. T. T.) First Five Years of the House of Mercy, Clewer
Castle Builders, the

191

96

Chamberlain's (Rev. T.) Letter to the Bishop of S. Andrew's

240

The Bible, and how to use it

Mr. Heygate's Manual

96

Receiving of the Holy Sacrament of the LORD's Supper

Gilderdale's (Mr.) Essay on Family Religion

Glossary of Military Terms

Godfray's (Rev. F.) Sermon, Les Disciples d'Emmaus

Good Fight, the

Grant's (Archdeacon) Lecture on the Crimea

Gurney's (Rev. Archer) Iphigenia at Delphi

Couper (Miss G.) On the Management of Children
Curteis's (Rev. G. H.) Four Sermons on Spiritual Progress
Denison's (Archdeacon) Sermons on the Real Presence

De Vere's (Aubrey) Heroines of Charity

Doctrine of Christian Baptism

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Dubois' (M. l'Abbé) Pratique du Zèle ecclesiastique, ou moyens infal-
libles pour tout Prêtre de rendre son Ministère fructueux
Educational Register

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Everley
Faber's (Mr. Frederick) Essay on Catholic Home Missions
Few Words about the Inmates of our Union Workhouses
Filleul's (Mr.) Sermon, The Poor made Rich by Faith
Filleul's (Mr.) Tract, Infant Baptism and Confirmation

Frazer's (Mr.) Edition of the Old Week's Preparation towards a worthy

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Jackson's (Rev. W.) Tales and Catechisings

Haskoll's (Canon) History of France

Haviland's (Rev. G. E.) Visitation Sermon, CHRIST'S Presence, the en-
couragement of His ministers in the visitation of the Sick

Heartley's (Rev. C. T.) Pamphlet, Our Cathedrals and their Mission
Henley's (The Right Hon. J. W.) Speech in the House of Commons
on Education

Hill's (Rev. Herbert) Sermons on the Christian Life

Hutchinson's (Canon) Parish Recollections

Hymns following the Course of the Christian Seasons, with Prayers for

the use of Sunday Schools

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Low's (Rev. J. L.) Lecture on the Translation of the Scriptures

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Lyttleton's (Lord) Thoughts on National Education

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Macaulay's (Miss B. E.) Day in Nismes

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Maitland's (Dr.) Remarks on the Bishop of Oxford's Charge

239

Manual of Prayer for a Christian Servant

388

Marriott's (Rev. C.) Manual of Prayer

388

Marriott's (Rev. C.) Pamphlet, The Co-operative Principle not opposed

to a true Political Economy

239

the earliest ages of Christianity

Marsden's (Rev. J. B.) History of the Christian Church and Sects from

Mary Beaver; or the Housemaid's Wedding

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239

Moberly's (Dr.) Address read to the Hampshire Church School Society 488

Monro's (Rev. E.) Leonard and Dennis

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Our Christian Calling; or Conversations with my Neighbours
Parker's Shilling Series: Mother and Son

The Railway Accident

Parochial Papers, No. 12, Confirmation

Parochial Sermons bearing on the subjects of the day
Plain Commentary on the Gospels

Polehampton's (Mr.) Two Sermons on the Method of Reforming Juve-

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Practical Sermons on the Characters of the Old Testament

Ramsay's (Dean) Manual of Catechetical Instruction

Ramsay's (Rev. Arthur) Catechiser's Manual; or the Church Catechism

illustrated and explained

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Revised Liturgy of 1689

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Salkeld's (Mr.) Tract, The Godly sincerity of the Prayer Book vindi-

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Williams' (Rev. I.) Sermons on the Epistles and Gospels (concluding

volume)

239

Women as they are

47

Woodford's (Rev. J. R.) Holy Week Lectures; forming a Commentary

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THE ECCLESIASTIC

AND

THEOLOGIAN.

PRE-RAPHAELITISM.

Pre-Raphaelitism. By the Author of "Modern Painters." London: Smith, Elder, and Co.

1851.

Lectures on Architecture and Painting. By JOHN RUSKIN. London: Smith, Elder, and Co.

1854.

Art: its Constitution and Capacities. A Lecture. By the Rev. EDWARD YOUNG, M.A. London: Hamilton, Adams, and Co. 1854.

In a former article we criticised Mr. Ruskin's architectural principles and the manner in which he puts them forth to the world, as exhibited in the two first of his lectures at Edinburgh. We propose at present to examine the two last lectures in that volume, together with the author's former pamphlet on Pre-Raphaelitism. We have added the book which stands last on our list, as exemplifying some characteristics of Mr. Ruskin's antagonists.

The progress of Pre-Raphaelite art forms a curious chapter in the history of public opinion. Five years ago critics were divided between virulent abuse and contemptuous silence, and even those who thought they could discern powers in the new school not much inferior to the mass of artists whose works crowd the walls of our exhibition rooms, could utter no more favourable prediction than that they would soon outgrow their folly, and give no better advice, than that they should abjure, as soon as possible, both their name and their theory, and subside into common sense. Time enough has elapsed for those predictions to be realised, and that advice followed, and what is the result? Neither the name nor the theory has been surrendered, and yet no pictures command a larger share of attention and admiration than those of Millais and Hunt. They have grown indeed in artistic power, but not outgrown their principles. They have proved that the realization of those principles affords scope for the highest efforts, and has its issue in the noblest results. They have borne their full share of obloquy and VOL. XVII. JANUARY, 1855.

B

contempt, and if the foundation of a new school of English painting, and the inauguration of a new era in the history of art, be anything, they have their reward. It may be of service perhaps to some of our readers, if we state in a few words, what the principles of Pre-Raphaelitism are. They will be found developed at greater length in Mr. Ruskin's fourth lecture.

Now there is one common error which lies at the very threshold of the subject, and stands in the way of any correct estimation of the merits and position of the artists in question. They are supposed to desire the reduction of art precisely to the state in which it existed previous to the time of Raphael, and to ignore, or rather condemn, all the improvements which it has undergone since that period. And on this hypothesis it is very justly argued that art was never designed to be stationary, any more than science or politics, and that to despise progress in the one, must be just as ridiculous as it is admitted to be in the others. But unfortunately for the point and application of the argument, the Pre-Raphaelites have never denied its truth, and the most casual glance at one of their works would, one might have thought, have convinced any one that its execution evinced an advance on the great painters of early Italy, at least as marked as could be furnished by any of their cotemporaries. Art is made up of principles and practice. The latter is susceptible of constant improvement, but in the former (except by the discovery of principles always in existence, but hitherto unperceived) change is impossible. It is in this respect only that the Pre-Raphaelites desire to imitate the early schools. Up to a certain point in the history of art, marked with great precision by the middle period of Raphael's career, two leading principles pervaded its manifestations-the presence of a moral purpose and the preference of truth to beauty. The distinction between modern and medieval works, as regards the first of these, cannot be drawn out without reference to many things which do not come within the domain of art, and we refer those who wish to follow it up to the Stones of Venice. The other is of narrower compass. In all early painters there will be found rigid adherence to the truth of nature. It does not conflict with this assertion, that there is much in nature which they do not represent at all, and much in what they do represent which stops far short of the reality. Their works indeed are imperfect, but they are always true. painted what they saw around them, and where they are unable to do that fully, they give with the utmost accuracy what they can, and use a conventional formula for that which is beyond their power of execution, so that their imperfections and shortcomings shall not detract from the value of that which they do represent. Each successive generation of painters exemplified the same principle with constantly increasing power and mastery over the resources of their art, but the last step was coincident with the advent of the Renais

They

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