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as a pair of the regiment's old colours are in the to obtain any further information respecting this possession of my family. Henry de Albini, or of his sister Julia, who appears to have married into the Bonham family. ALFRED T. Everitt.
PORTRAIT OF GEORGE III.-Can any of your readers kindly identify the above from the following description; as to who the artist was, or, if 8 replica, where the original can be found? A fulllength life-size, as a middle-aged man, in Hussar uniform, blue with scarlet facings, the dolman of scarlet, both jacket and dolman richly laced, blue pantaloons heavily laced on either thigh, crimson leather hessians, a broad light blue ribbon across the breast, the busby, with scarlet "jelly bag black and white feather, in left hand resting upon left thigh. The figure is standing on a bank, the face slightly inclined to the right. A coloured person in crimson livery, after Eastern fashion, is holding the charger in the bottom of right-hand
POWELL OF CAER HOWELL.
written by the Hon. Wm. Dummer-Powell, Chief Justice of Upper Canada, born 1755, he mentions the above place, near Montgomery, as the ancestral seat of his family, and states that his grandfather, John Powell, who married the heiress of the Dummers, was a younger son of a good Salopian family which had formerly possessed this estate. Mr. Justice Powell bore "Per fesse or and ar., a lion rampt. gu."; crest, a sun rising from the clouds; motto, "Aude." Is anything now known of such a family? L. MURRAY OGILVY.
COL. RICHARD TOWNESEND.-Carte, the biographer of the Duke of Ormonde, is spoken of by Mr. Richard and Miss Dorothea Townshend, in their interesting' Account of the Life and Times of Colonel Richard Townesend,' as a Romanist and a Jacobite," p. 78. That he was a Jacobite is well known; but is there any evidence of his being a member of the Roman Catholic Church? If such exists it has escaped our notice.
N. M. & A.
DE ALBINIACO ALBINI FAMILY.-There is to be found in the Record Office, London, an Inquisition post mortem, taken at Southampton in the sixth year of Edward I., on the death of Henricus de Albiniaco; his sister, Claricia de Albiniaco, with Mauritius de Bonham, "filius filii Julianæ de Albiniaco sororis ejusdem Henrici," were found to be his heirs. Amongst his possessions were Hale Manor, in co. Southampton, Wishford Manor, and lands in Berwick, Maddington, and Orcheston St. George, in the county of Wilts. I shall be glad if any of your readers can help me
High Street, Portsmouth.
SKIRT.-In section 15 of the Commons Act, 1876 (39 & 40 Vict. c. 56), provision is made for the enactment of by-laws for a regulated pasture by "the majority in value of the owners of skirts or rights of pasture" therein. Is not "skirts" a misprint for stints? and, if not, what is the derivation and exact meaning of the word? Q. V.
THE DRAMA AND THE ARCHANGEL GABRIEL. —Mr. Barry, in his 'Studies in Corsica: Sylvan and Social, 1893, mentions that the theatre at Ajaccio "is dedicated to the Archangel Gabriel." Is not this kind of dedication somewhat unusual? WILLIAM GEORGE BLACK. Glasgow.
JOHN GODDARD.-John Goddard, of Brodforth, Wimborne Minster, will proved October, 1564; children, John, Walter, Richard, Edmond, Alice, and Jane; brothers, Edmond and Richard. Any information respecting this family, but particularly as to the ancestry of John Goddard, and his connexion, if any, with the Goddards of Poole, will be gratefully received. Please reply direct.
Oxford Union Club.
H. S. CRAYTON.
THE COMMONPLACE-BOOK OF JOSEPH HINde. A manuscript of 458 pages is in my possession, inscribed on the first fly-leaf "Leiber Josephi Hinde. July, 1706." The work is a commonplace-book, in which some English clergyman copied in a beautiful hand extracts from whatever authors he had read with interest. Most excerpts are English, but those in Latin and even Greek are numerous. Nor are original observations by Mr. Hinde himself lacking. This commonplacebook is arranged according to what John Locke calls "a new method," which he had translated out of the French in 1686, twenty years before Mr. Hinde's book was penned. Will some reader of 'N. & Q.' tell me through its columns something about Joseph Hinde,-at what university he studied, when born and died, where he preached, &c.? JAMES D. Butler.
Madison, Wis., U.S.
THE SOLAR ECLIPSE OF AUGUST 14, B.C. 394. The great value, as a work of chronological reference, of 'L'Art de Vérifier les Dates' makes it desirable to point out some errors therein à propos of the above eclipse, which it says took place "au tems que Conon vainquit les Perses dans un combat naval, près de Gnide, ville de l'île de Chypre.' Cnidus, off which the battle was fought, was not in Cyprus, but a peninsula in Caria. Conon was fighting not against the Persians, but in alliance with them against the Lacedæmonians. And the eclipse occurred not at the time of the battle, which was probably in July, but when Agesilaus heard of it, about a month afterwards, the news reaching him just as he was entering Boeotia, and inducing him to force on the battle of Coroneia before his opponents had heard of the naval engage
ment off Cnidus.
LINES BY TENNYSON. shall I find the following?—
W. T. LYNN.
Where in Tennyson
CORNELIUS JANSSEN.-I am anxious to ascer
tain the whereabouts of this portrait-painter in A.D. 1622-3-4. He was practising in London in 1618, dwelling in Blackfriars. In 1636 he resided with Sir Arnold Braems, a Dutch merchant, at Bridge, near Canterbury. I have some pencil miniatures attributed to him, dating from 1622 to 1624; and as the little volume containing them includes also a sketch of the Market Place, Maidstone, in 1622, the portraits may be those of some of the nobility residing in the vicinity at that time. F. JAMES.
SILVER IN BELLS.
(8th S. iii. 105, 175.)
The account of the experiments carried out on bells more than fifty years ago, mentioned by E. L. G., would astonish modern metallurgists. It is well known among the members of the craft how dangerous it is to draw conclusions as to the influence of a certain metal on the properties of alloys from data derived from experiments made on the pure metal itself, or even from results obtained with alloys containing a different proportion of the same metal.
It is an established fact that between certain well-defined limits carbon, wolfram, manganese, and chrome will improve the quality of steel, for instance; but no one would have ever dreamed to experiment on charcoal, &c., pure and simple, to prove the point one way or another. If, therefore, the experimenters in question have arrived at the truth, they have done so more by sheer luck than good management.
The " "superstition of trying to improve the sound of bells by adding silver to the alloy is more than a thousand years old. It is mentioned by the anonymous monk of St. Gallen who wrote the life of Charlemagne. He relates how a colleague of his, Tanco or Danco by name, having cast a bell the tone of which pleased Charlemagne very much, a certain opifex, well versed in the making of all kinds of works in glass or metal, approached the emperor and asked him:—
"Domine Imperator, jube mihi cuprum multum afferri, quantum opus est, de argento dari, saltim centum libras, ut excoquam illud ad purum, et in vice stagni fac mihi, et fundo tibi tale campanum, ut istud in ejus compara
tione sit mutum."
The emperor gave orders that the requisite BASQUE PROVINCES. - Will any reader be so weight of copper and hundred pounds of silver kind as to let me know where to procure a pam- should be handed over to the opifex. But the phlet on the Basque Provinces by Col. Hill-wily artificer appropriated the silver to his own James? I saw the pamphlet on the library table of a club, and read a notice appended thereto that the proceeds of the sale were to be devoted to a charity. But I do not know who published the pamphlet. W. R. LLUELlyn.
AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED. — I'll call down fairies from the moon, To please her with their gambols. "We shall not know the Winter from the except by the green leaves."
Winter is nurse to May,
And Life is the daughter of Death.
use, and consequently, when the bell was hung in the belfry and one priest after another attempted to ring it, it would not utter a sound. So the wily bellfounder was called upon to try his hand; but no sooner had he touched the rope than the clapper dropped out of the bell, and, striking him on the head, went clean through his body, carrying sundry parts of his anatomy with it, and killing the embezzler on the spot. The silver was found, Summer and by the emperor's order distributed "inter indigentes palatinos." The miracle is fully described in the MS. chronicle, "Monachi Sangallensis de Gestis Karoli [Magni] Imperatoris Libri Duo," published by Pertz, in his 'Monumenta Germaniæ,' div. "Scriptores," vol. ii. p. 744. According to the learned editor, internal evidence shows that the chronicle was compiled between the years 884 and
Out of the window she leaned and laughed,
Anxious to know the truth about the effect of
silver on the qualities of bell metal, I followed With regard to the presence of the precious metal MR. ED. MARSHALL'S advice and dipped into Mr. in old bells, I must admit that in most cases Beckett Denison's 'Lectures on Church Building' where old bell-metal has been analyzed, the (second edition, 1856), expecting to find the pro-analysis has failed to discover traces of any silver. mised further particulars; but could only discover (Cf. Otte's Glockenkunde,' second edition, 1884). (on p. 284) the bare ex cathedra statement that Of the famous old bell called Rouvelle (it is said the common notion of the old bells having silver from rouoier=the purring of cats), in Rouen belfry, in them is a mere vulgar error. There is not the the bell dating from the thirteenth or fourteenth slightest attempt to prove the point. I expected century, local tradition always held that it was very to find an array of historical facts and numerous rich in silver until a chemist, Girardin, obtained instances of old bells having been analyzed and no permission in 1830 to take off filings in sufficient silver having been found in their composition, but quantity for an analysis, and found the alloy to was grievously disappointed. So I turned to the contain the following percentages of metals: Copseventh edition of the same author's (then Sir per, 71; tin, 26; zinc, 18; and iron, 1.2. Edmund Beckett) 'Clocks, Watches, and Bells' analysis of the sister bell, Cache-ribaud, gave in (published in 1883), and found a paragraph headed 1849 a similar negative result as regards silver. "Silver" (on p. 364), half of which is about "anti- But still the ancient custom of throwing silver mony." The learned author still maintains that coins as votive offerings into the molten metal is an the old "inveterate popular delusion" about old established historical fact. Reinwarth and Violletbells having silver in them has "not the slightest le-Duc both mention it, and the former says that foundation. Nevertheless"-continues the author- it is referred to in ancient chronicles, but unfortu"we had some experiments made for the purpose of nately he gives no references. Both authors tax being quite sure that silver was of no use, either with the old bellfounders with purloining the votive reference to sound or strength of metal; several different offerings, and Reinwarth even explains how the trick proportions were tried, beginning with sixpence in a bell was done. He states that the furnaces were built of nearly a pound weight, and it was clear that the silver rather did harm than good in both respects." on the reverberatory principle, and consequently all coins, silver and gold, thrown into the hole of the furnace, fell on the fire-grate, where they were melted in due time, and whence they dropped into the ashes without ever reaching the molten metal intended for casting the bell, but finding their way, via the ash-hole, into the bellfounders' pockets. (Cf. his article on bells, &c., in Ersch and Gruber's 'Encyclopædia,' div. i. pt. 70, p. 96.) But, on the other hand, there must have been bellfounders less deceitful, as silver has been found in old bell-metal. Thus J. Dan. Blavignac gives an instance in his book, 'La Cloche' (Genève, 1877), of a bell weighing 238 Swiss pounds, in Carouge, near Geneva, containing "18 onces d'argent à 993 millièmes." The composition of this bell was about 78 parts of copper to 22 of tin. We know also that many of the French bells were broken up during the great Revolution and made into coins. Some of these have been analyzed, and it is about these that Viollet-le-Duc remarks (cf. his 'Dict. de l'Architecture,' tom. iii. p. 282):—
If the experiments really did prove these two points, there still remains for Lord Grimthorpe to adduce evidence in support of his statement that the old bells did not contain silver. But I further question whether his lordship has given us an unbiassed account of those experiments. On referring to p. 18 of vol. xix. of the Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers,' I find that during the discussion following a lecture on 'The Raising and Hanging the Bells in the New Palace, Westminster,' the author of the paper made the following statement :
"He [Mr. Jabez James] was present on one occasion, with Mr. Denison, at the foundry of Messrs. Mears, when an experiment was made upon three small bell of different alloy. The first, which contained no silver, broke into many pieces from a smart blow of a kuife. The second, which contained silver to the extent of sixpence, broke after a certain number of blows; but the third, which contained a shilling, withstood the greatest number of blows, although it also eventually broke. He then suggested to Mr. Denison the propriety of making some alteration in the alloy of the great bell [Big Ben]. He would add, that he thought the addition of silver to the alloy did not improve the sound of the bell [Did it spoil it ?], but it gave greater toughness to the metal."
This statement was made on Nov. 8, 1859. As Lord Grimthorpe, in 1883, still maintains that silver is useless for bells, we may assume that he did not accept Mr. James's suggestion about the alteration in the alloy, and hence it rests with his lordship to prove that the two great bells, the present Big Ben and its predecessor, would not have cracked if they had had a little silver in them.
à la fin du dernier siècle, avec les débris de ces instru......nos sous, dits de métal de cloches, et façonnés, ments, ne contiennent qu'une très faible partie d'argent; cependant il s'y en trouve."
There is very little silver in them; but still there is some. The italics are mine.
L. L. K.
There having been a settlement of the scientific question, let me mention that the Man of Ross, on the renovation of his church, presented a great bell, which was cast in his presence at Gloucester, when he threw into the crucible his own large silver tankard. ED. MARSHALL.
"OASTS" (8th S. iii. 107, 134, 173).—An Act of Henry IV., in his fifth year (1403-4), cap. 9, appoints "hosts" to receive foreign merchants in England :
"And also it is ordained and stablished, that in every
citie, Towne, and port of the sea in England, where the said marchaunts aliens or straungers bee or shalbee repairing, sufficie't hostes shalbe assigned to ye same marchauntes by the Maire Shyrifes or Bailifes of the said cities, Townes, and portes of the sea. And that the sayed marchaunts aliens and straungers shall dwell in none other place, but wyth their sayd hostes so to be assygned, and that the same hostes so [to] bee assygned shall take for their trauaile in y manner as was accustomed in old tyme. An, 5 H. 4, ca. 9."-Rastall's 'Statutes,' 1579, p. 312.
By a transposition, the origin of which is not very clear, the merchant stranger who came to Newcastle-upon-Tyne to buy coals was denominated the "hoast," "host," or "oast," and the local vendor of coals, to whom he came, was called the "hoastman "} or "hostman." A fraternity of 66 hoastmen " existed in that town, as a branch of the Merchants' Company, in the early part of the reign of Henry VIII., and has continued in a more or less flourishing condition ever since. Its seal represents a hoastman" grasping the hand of a foreign merchant, and greeting him with "Welcome, mine oaste!" Queen Elizabeth, in 1600, granting to the burgesses of Newcastle a new charter, specially incorporated the "hoastmen " in the following terms:
"And whereas the town is an ancient town, and the Mayor and burgesses, time out of mind, have had a certain guild or fraternity commonly called the Hoastmen, for the loading and better disposing of sea-coals and pitcoals, grindstones, rubstones, and whetstones, in and upon the river and port of Tyne, which guild or fraternity is not granted or established by letters patent; whereupon the Mayor and burgesses have humbly supplicated the Queen that, in supply of the said defects, she would vouchsafe to create the said guild into a body corporate and politic. The Queen therefore ordains, appoints, and grants that [names of members follow] shall be a body corporate ......and shall have and enjoy all such liberties, privileges,......concerning the loading and unloading of stonecoala, pit-coals, grindstones, rubstones, and whetstones, and the loading and unloading in or out of any ships, keels, or vessels, pit coals and stones within the river and harbour of Tyne, between Newcastle and the Sparhawk, as the fraternity have at any time used," &c.
carried, or vented by any person or persons whatsoever, forth or out of the haven or river of Tyne, belonging to realm, and not transported beyond the seas, the several the foresaid town of Newcastle, to be spent within this sum of 12d. of lawful money of England," &c.
The monopoly of the "hostmen of Newcastle in the sale and exportation of coal formed the subject of innumerable petitions, remonstrances, and inquiries during the reigns of the Stuarts. In modern times the term "hoastman" has been superseded by that of "fitter" (i.e., coal-fitter), fitters" being the representatives of collieries in the ports of shipment who sell the produce, and arrange for the loading of it on board exporting vessels. RICHARD WELFORD.
ARABELLA FERMOR (8th S. iii. 128, 212).—I think I can give MR. LYNN some clue as to Arabella Fermor. In the year 1853, when I was reading with the then rector of Ufton Nervet, Berkshire, a peerage lawyer came to examine the church registers. I remember showing him the entry he sought, which was, I think, the burial of Arabella Parkyns (the "Belinda" of Pope), wife of Francis Parkyns, of Ufton Court. She was by birth a Fermor. On my return to my home at Deerhurst, in Gloucestershire, I noticed the name Fermor on a slab in the chancel, and wrote to the lawyer about it. He requested me to send him a rubbing, as it was important. This I did. The inscription is now printed in Butterworth's 'Account of Deerhurst':
For this charter the Hoastmen gave her Majesty a duty of 12d. a chaldron (fifty-three hundred-Here lyeth the body of Peter Fermor second weight) upon all coal exported coastwise:
"In regard of these gracious and most princely favours and benignities, being desirous to our uttermost powers to show ourselves thankful for the same, and not being ignorant of the great, unsupportable, and excessive charge which her Highness hath of late sustained, and likely to be at, in and for the defence of this realm, and her Highness's poor subjects, against the malice and force of the enemies of this realm, do in all humility give and grant unto her Most Excellent Majesty......for each and every chaldron of sea-coal, stone-coal or pitcoal, of the water measure of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, as at any time or times hereafter shall be sold, shipped,
sonne of Henry Fermore, Esquire, of Tusmore, in Oxfordshire: he dyed on the 16th Day of Decem. A.D. 1691." Peter Fermor's first wife was Elizabeth, daughter of John Carrill, of Tangly, Surrey; she died 1677. His second wife was Mary, daughter and heiress of Sir Anthony Morgan, Knt. Mr. Fermor's daughter (name not given) sold his estate in Deerhurst. I think that the search at Ufton was undertaken to find evidence in the De Scales peerage case (see Burke's 'Baronetage,' voce "Tempest "), and reference to
the printed proceedings might throw some light on Arabella Parkyns, or Fermor, who probably belonged to the Tusmore family. Mr. Crisp has printed the 'Catholic Register of Ufton Court. At p. 4 we find that "Mrs. Perkins, alias Arrabella Fermer, died Feb 19th 1736." John, styled "the last of the family," being her youngest son, died Dec. 30, 1769. A history of Ufton Parish and Court has lately been printed, which may contain some information-I have not yet seen it. Since writing the above I have found in Baker's "Northamptonshire,' vol. i. p. 599, and in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1827, p. 580, pedigrees of the Fermors of Tusmore, in which it is shown that Arabella, daughter of Henry Fermor, of Tusmore, married 1734 Francis Perkins. This settles the matter.
A. W. CORNELIUS HALLEN.
BARTON (8th S. iii. 228).—William Andrew Barton is one of those mythological persons with whom the readers of Sir Bernard Burke's works are familiar. The Bartons of Dean water were not related to the Bartons of Smithells. If W. G. will write to me, care of the Editor of N. & Q.,' I shall be happy to give him any information he wishes about the Lancashire Bartons.
G. W. M.
lady's appearance in trowsers," so that he falls under his own lash. There is an account of her in W. C. B. Chambers's 'Encyclopædia,' 1861.
TENNYSON'S CAMBRIDGE CONTEMPORARIES (8th S. ii. 441; iii. 52, 171).-A reference to the 'Dictionary of National Biography,' article "William Bodham Donne," may remove all doubts as to his university, explain why he took no academical degree, and will supply other particulars as to his life and career. M. A. M. JESSOPP.
MISTAKE IN READING PRAYERS (8th S. iii. 209). This notion exists in Worcestershire, teste meipso. But I think the death is supposed to follow after three mistakes, and not after a single slip. Absit! What a mortality there should have been among the parishioners of the dear old man who always said mumpsimus! W. C. B.
SCHOLA VERLUCIANA (8th S. iii. 148).—Your correspondent's query is tantalizingly brief. Where and in what context did he meet with the name? For aught a dunce like myself can say, Verluciana may be a whimsical latinization of "Spring Grove," Isleworth, where there was a school called "The London International College," which was trans
FROM OXFORD TO ROME' (8th S. iii. 207).ferred to the British and Foreign School Society Whatever mystery there may have been about the authorship of this book, it has long since been given
vii. 369. Miss Harris died in 1862.
on Sept. 25, 1889, and occupied by the Borough Road Training College in the following spring. If, however, Verluciana be formed from Verlucio, a name mentioned in the 'Itinerarium Antonini,' it ought to mean Warminster, in Wiltshire, which still has its endowed grammar
105, Albany Road, Camberwell, S.E.
IN 1502 (8th S. iii. 101, 197). The two persons thus referred to are plainly the Dean of Salisbury and Somerset Herald. Dugdale tells us, quoting Holinshed, that Jean de Foix, son of Gaston Captal de Buch, married Margaret de la Pole, niece of William, Duke of Suffolk. I know of no confirmatory evidence of this relationship; but the duke had several younger brothers, one of whom might have been her father. Richard, Duke of Suffolk," is HERMENTRUDE. certainly a blunder. of
ANGELICA CATALANI (8th S. ii. 485; iii. 113, 211). The note of MR. EDGCUMBE on this great cantatrice is most interesting, and most probably he is correct in mentioning the Campo Sante at Pisa as the place of her burial. My authority for mentioning Paris as the place of her death was Chambers's 'Encyclopædia,' s.v. "Catalani." There is also a memoir of her, occupying more than a column and a half, in the Imperial Dictionary of Universal Biography,' in which it is stated that she died at Florence in 1849. This was written by G. A. M., i. e., George A. Macfarren, composer 'King Charles II.' and 'May Day,' one in every way qualified for the work. There is no date on the title-pages, but most likely the book was pubJOHN PICKFOrd, M.A.
lished about 1865.
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.
Byron, in his English Bards and Scotch Reviewers' (1. 597), satirizes "the nobles of our present race," who worship Catalani's pantaloons." She is dismissed in a note as an amusing vagabond, principally memorable on account of her salary, the author adding that he is "still black and blue from the squeeze on the first night of the
ORIGIN AND EXPLANATION OF PHRASE SOUGHT (8th S. iii. 168).—The "origin" I leave to others; but may I be permitted to say, by way of "explanation," that, etymologically, to convince involves the meaning of to conquer, to overcome, and that it was used by writers aforetime as we should now use con- or re- fute! We have an example of this in the heading of St. Luke xx.: "He convinceth the Sadducees that denied the resurrection"; in that of St. Mark iii.: "Convinceth the blasphemy of casting out devils by Beelzebub "; in Acts xviii. 28: "For he mightily