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"PRACTICAL POLITICS."-This expression, which is one of Mr. Gladstone's recent inventions, occurs in the Report of a Committee of the House of Commons upon Temporary Laws, Expired or Expiring, presented May 12, 1796. On p. 38, note, the Committee says:

"With a view to such a knowledge of practical Politics as may be derived from the History of our experimental Legislation the train of enquiry might be usefully pursued by the investigation of other classes of Statutes," &c.

The sense is not that in which the phrase is at present understood. R. B. P.

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WORKS OF KING ALFRED.-In "Alfred le Grand, par Guillaume Guizot" (Paris, 1856), it is said that a thousand years after his birth, on October 25, 1849, a jubilee was celebrated at Wantage, where he was born, two thousand people being assembled, when it was resolved than an edition of his works should be undertaken immediately, and that, in fact, it had been commenced. Will some one kindly say if that resolution has been thoroughly fulfilled; and, if so, when and where the edition was published; and whether "the works of King Alfred," which one readily finds under that head, are the self-same and -one may presume-complete edition ?

AD LIBRAM.

EPIPHANY OFFERING.-How long has it been the custom for our sovereigns to present the Epiphany offerings of gold, frankincense, and myrrh; and what is the explanation of this commemoration by them of the offerings of the Magi ? Is there any book which gives this information?

CECIL H. SP. PERCEVAL.

'THE CONFEDERATION OF KILKENNY.'-Can any of your correspondents give any particulars as to this book? It does not seem traceable, without more information, in the Catalogue of the British Museum-even if it is there. T. H. 'DICTES AND SAYINGS OF THE PHILOSOPHERS,' -I shall be glad to obtain any information con

cerning translations (into English) of this work. I am acquainted with Caxton's Dictes,' and also Stephen Scrope's translation in 1450 (Harl. MS., 2266). PAUL BIERLEY.

HERALDIC CASTLE.-What is the best and truest

form of heraldic castle? It seems to be represented sometimes with three towers, sometimes as a single tower. I am told it does not matter, and this by heralds. Surely it is possible to say that one mode is better heraldry than the other! I incline to three towers, because a single tower more truly represents a tower. Would not old heralds depict it with three towers ? H. M. LL.

ENGLAND AS DESCRIBED BY FOREIGNERS.-A complete list of French, German, or other foreign authors in whose writings descriptions of England and Scotland are to be found will be of great utility to me, and I shall be very grateful for any information I may obtain on the subject through this paper. Are Taine's Notes sur l'Angleterre' and De Sorbière's journey to England in 1663, the latter reviewed in the July number of the Nineteenth Century last year, interesting books; and where can they be procured in the original French?

51, Sale Street, Derby.

·

CHARLES BURION.

DUEL.-Where can I find an account of the duel between George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham, and Frances Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, on March 16, 1667? A. L. H.

ENFIELD AND EDMONTON.-Can any of your readers tell me of an authentic history of Enfield and Edmonton (Middlesex)? I have lately taken a house here, known to the country people as Salisbury House, situated in Bury Street, Edmonton. The house is said to have been at one time the country seat of the Earl of Salisbury, and I have also heard that the infamous Judge Jefferies resided in it at one period. The house is in a fair state of preservation, and possesses several rooms wainscoted in old oak and carved. In the library is an old iron plate at the back of the fireplace, showing the royal arms of England, with emblems of the rose, thistle, fleur-de-lys, and leek, but it is otherwise undated. Can any information be obtained as to the owner of the house, or its history?

Edmonton.

A. D.

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a Lord Robert Douglas, who is stated to have died a violent death some two hundred years ago or more? J. E. L. NowERS.

OLD COPPER SEAL.-Can any person say what has become of an old copper seal (thirteenth or fourteenth century) bearing the arms of Richard Parcevale (on a chief indented, three cross patées), with the inscription round it "Sigillu Ricardi Parcevale"? An impression of it is figured in Anderson's 'House of Yvery' (vol. i. p. 39). About 1692 it was in the possession of Anne Perceval (daughter and heiress of Thomas Perseval) the wife of Thomas Salisbury, of Bachagraige, co. Flint. His representative, the Rev. G. A. Salusbury, of whom I recently inquired about it, knows nothing of it. Possibly it may have found its way into some museum or be in private hands; and perhaps some reader of this query may be able to give information as to its whereabouts.

ENQUIRER.

CAPTAIN RUSH.-I have a round flat clock with holes on the outward rim, so that it can be screwed flat on to a table or the deck of a ship. It is evidently about a hundred years old. On its face it has "Captain Rush, Royal Charlotte," the name of the captain and his ship. Can you say who was Capt. Rush; and what service did the Royal Charlotte belong to? It has no mark showing that it either belonged to the Royal Navy or the H.E.I.C.S.

T. A. DENIS.

ONE POUND SCOTS OF 1560.-What may be accounted the present day value of one pound Scots in the year 1560? R. M.

STEPHEN STORACE.-Abraham Raimbach writes m his memoirs that he engraved the portrait of Stephen Storace from a miniature by Arland (a Swiss), painted after Storace's death, "and but very little resembling the man himself." The engraving was executed for the title-page of the music-composed by Storace-of 'Mahmoud and the Iron Chest.' Can any one inform me who now possesses the above miniature, and where I could see one of Raimbach's engravings?

CLIM.

HABLOT.-I should be much obliged if any one could tell me the derivation of the name Hablot. I have never found it, either as a surname or Christian name, in France or Belgium, though I have taken some trouble to search there.

quantity. At a recent meeting of the Great Northern Railway Company a shareholder clearly attributed this sense to the proverb when he suggested the annual saving of some small item of this interpretation, even if "mickle" were synonyexpenditure. The sentence itself hardly warrants «"little" will not make a much, though many mous with "little"; for it is obvious that every English Proverbs,' third edition, 1737, p. 131, a "littles" may. In Ray's 'Compleat Collection of different and more correct form is given, viz., made of any similar saying in his list of Scottish "Many littles make a mickle." No mention is proverbs. Mickle in Anglo-Saxon appears as mycle, and in Icelandic as mikill, both words, of article on "Mickle," remarks that in Scotland it course, signifying a quantity. Dr. Johnson, in his is pronounced "muckle." This I think is incorrect, for there are two Scottish words, one meikle and the other muckle. See 'Dictionary of the Scottish Language, containing an Explanation of the Words used by the most Celebrated Ancient and Modern Scottish Authors,' Edinburgh, 1818. HELLIER R. H. GOSSELIN.

Bengeo Hall, Hertford, [See Misquoted Proverbs,' 8th S. ii. 205, 278, 369, 391, 431.]

LIBRARY SCHOOL OF ST. MARTIN'S-IN-THE

FIELDS.-Where was this school situated, alluded to ante, p. 294, as the place of the early education of Charles Mathews, the celebrated actor, before his entrance at Merchant Taylors' School? He was born in the Strand in 1776, his father being a bookseller, and died in 1834.

JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

MAIZE. Has the native country of this cereal ever been positively ascertained? It does not appear to have been known to the ancients or to have attracted much attention (if any) until after the discovery of America; and yet its earliest European names point to an Eastern rather than a Western origin. Lyte says, in his translation of Dodonæus,

"They do nowe call this grayne Frumentum Turcicum, and Frumētum Asiaticum: in Frenche Blé de Turquie, base Almaigne Torckschoren; in Englishe Turkish or Blé Sarazin: in Highe Douche Turkie Korn: in Corne, or Indian wheate."

He also states positively-following, no doubt, his author-that "This grayne groweth in Turkie, wher as it is used in the time of dearth." He describes it as " a marvelous strange plante, nothing resem

A. S. B. "EVERY MICKLE MAKES A MUCKLE. -I should like to know how this proverb has assumed its pre-bling any other kind of grayne; for it bringeth sent form. Literally it signifies "Much makes much," which, of course, is often a truism. Many people, however, make use of this saw in quite a different sense, meaning thereby to inculcate a care for little things, which will in time produce a large

forth his seede cleane contrarie from the place where as the flowers growe, which is agaynst the nature and kindes of all other plantes"; and he adds, "There is as yet no certaine experience of the natural vertues of this corne."

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HANDIE FAMILY.-Can some reader of N. & Q. give me any information about the Handy, or Handie, family, originally of Somersetshire? Towards the middle of the last century one branch of the family left England and settled on the Irish estates in King's County, near the Vale of Avoca. About the beginning of the present century the family again split, one branch removing to county Cavan and the other branch remaining in King's County. It is the genealogy of the former branch that I particularly desire to trace.

The original arms and crest of the family were: Argent, on a saltire gules between four lions' heads erased sable, five mullets of the field. Crest, two arms embowed upholding a battle-axe, all proper. When, for what service, and to whom were they granted? What quarterings have since been added? What is the family motto? I should also be obliged to any one who could furnish me with copies of family papers, documents, &c. A. MONTGOMERY HANDY.

New Brighton, N.Y., U.S.

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Replies.

ABBEY CHURCHES. (8th S. iii. 188, 257.)

MR. HALL'S inquiry relative to what are commonly known as "double churches," i.e., churches portion conventual or collegiate, opens a wide subone portion of which was parochial and another within the limits of N. & Q.' May I refer MR. ject too large, indeed, for adequate treatment HALL and any who wish to master the subject to the essay of the late Prof. Freeman on 'The Arundel Case,' in his volume of 'Towns and Districts.' It is there shown how frequent the division of a sacred building between two sets of holders was in medieval times-the parishioners using one portion, all but invariably the nave, for their religious services; the monks or canons the remainder, and that always the eastern limb, including, as is commonly the case, the transepts also. Arundel, I may say, in passing, is an exception, the transepts forming the chancel of the parish church, with the altar standing in the south transept. Sometimes, as at St. Albans, Dunstable, Romsey, Blyth, and some other conventual churches, a side aisle, or chapel, formed the parish church, with the parish altar against the east wall. At Sherborne, the parish church of Allhallows was attached to the west end of the abbey church, with a common entrance to the two, which gave rise to frequent squabbles between the monks and the parishioners, culminating at last in the burning of the conventual church, and the assignment of the nave to the parish. At Weybourne, near Cromer, in Norfolk, we find a curious and, I think, unique arrangement, the now ruined monastic church standing, with its one west tower, side by side with the chancel of the parish church, to the north

of it.

But although, as I have said, the rule was not without exceptions, the general rule in such double churches was that the parochial church occupied the western limb of the fabric, the church being usually, but not always, cruciform in plan (Dorchester, Fotheringhay, Monkton, Carisbrooke, occur to me as exceptions, and there are probably others), and the conventual or collegiate body the eastern limb. The parochial altar usually stood under the western arch of the lantern when the church was cruciform, or, when not, under the chancel arch, backed by a solid stone reredos wall, which was sometimes carried up to the apex of the arch, forming a complete barrier between the two churches. When what is popularly known as the Dissolution took place, and the conventual and collegiate churches were suppressed by Henry VIII., the portion of the building which, architecturally speaking, formed one church, which belonged to the abbey or college, came into the hands of the

king, for him or his grantee to deal with as he pleased. In most cases, as with those which were entirely unconnected with any parish church, they were stripped of their lead, ironwork, glass, timber, and everything which had a present marketable value, and pulled down, either entirely or piecemeal, serving as a convenient stone quarry for the vicinity; or where, as in the Yorkshire abbeys, population was scanty and building stone was not in request, left as a ruin. But the right of the parish to its own portion of the building was in no way affected. What the parishioners enjoyed before the Dissolution they continued to enjoy, and, in most instances, enjoy still. The demolition of the conventual church necessitated the building up of the open end of the parish church-usually the western tower end-but the parish altar and parish roodloft remained in their old places, and in all its internal arrangements the church of the parishioners was unaffected by the change.

As I have said, the part of the church left standing was commonly the nave, or western limb. In some few cases the rule is reversed, and the eastern limb was left standing, and became parochial, while the nave was pulled down, or dismantled and left in ruins. This is the case at Boxgrove, in Sussex, and Pershore, in Worcestershire, and a few other cases given in the annexed lists. The reason for this exceptional procedure cannot be accurately determined. Mr. Freeman supposes it to be that "the parishioners became possessed of the monastic portion of the church, and as that was often the larger and finer of the two they did not care to keep up their former parish church to the west of it."

There is yet a third class, where, either by the purchase of the parishioners or by the gift of some munificent individual who had bought it of the king or his grantee, the whole fabric was made over to the parish and became the parochial church. Such are Sherborne, Selby, Malvern, Brecon, and others given in the annexed list. At Dunster and Arundel, though the whole fabric was preserved, the monastic and collegiate portions were not made over to the parishioners, whose church remained, as it had ever been, confined to the western limb. That the eastern part remains standing is simply due to the will and pleasure of the grantee, who might have pulled it down had he so pleased. The partial use of the choir and transepts at Dunster by the parish is of very recent date, and entirely through the generosity of the successor of the original grantee. At Arundel, as is well known, the right of the Duke of Norfolk to the chancel of the church was successfully maintained in the celebrated suit: "Summum jus, summa injuria."

Having thus generally stated the case of these double, or divided churches, I will add lists of those still existing in England, so far as I have

been able to recall them, begging the readers of 'N. & Q.' to supply additions or corrections to what is confessedly an incomplete catalogue. The list divides itself into three classes: I., where the whole fabric is standing; II., where only the nave is standing; III., where the nave is gone and the choir remains.

Class I. (where the whole fabric stands. N.B.— Some of these, as Selby and Malvern, were abbey churches simply, not parochial before the Dissolution).-Arundel, Bath, Beverley, Brecon, Bristol (mayor's chapel), Cartmel, Christchurch Twynham, Crediton, Deeping St. James, Dorchester (Oxon), Dore (Herefordshire), Dunster, Edingdon, Holme Culham, Irtlingborough, London (St. Helen's), Malvern (Great), Manchester, Ottery St. Mary, Penmon (Anglesea), Ripon, Romsey, St. Albans, St. Bees, St. Buryan's, St. Saviour's (Southwark), Selby, Sherborne, Tattershall, Tewkesbury, Wimborne.

Class II. (where the nave alone remains).—Binham, Blyth, Bolton, Bourne, Bridlington, Bristol (St. James), Carisbrooke, Chepstow, Chester (St. John's), Crowland (only the north aisle), Davington, Dunstable, Elstow, Ewenny, Fotheringhay, Freeston, Hatfield Broad Oak, Howden, Lanercost, Leominster, London (Austin Friars), Malmesbury, Malton (Old), Malvern (Little), Monmouth, Ruthin, St. Germains, Sempringham, Shrewsbury, Steyning, Thorney, Tutbury, Usk, Waltham, Worksop, Wymondham, and, now that the dismantled choir has been restored, Monkton by Pembroke.

Class III. (eastern limb only).-Boxgrove, Hexham, London (St. Bartholomew's), Llantwit Major, Milton Abbas, Pershore, Royston, Tiltey (Essex).

To these a fourth class may be added, viz, cathedrals which contained a parish church within their walls, or, as at Ely, in one of their annexed buildings. These are Carlisle (nave), Chester (south transept), Chichester (north transept), Ely (Lady Chapel), Hereford (originally the nave, then the north transept, now the Lady Chapel), Lincoln (nave), Norwich (south-east apsidal chapel), Old St. Paul's (the crypt church of St. Faith's), Rochester (nave), and the modern cathedral of Truro (south choir aisle).

The church of Nantwich, which suggested MR. HALL's inquiry, does not come under the above heads. I cannot find any hint of its ever having been a double church. The connexion with Combermere Abbey was only the ordinary one, when, by the grant of the original portion, a monastery occupied the place of the rector, with the duty of repairing the chancel, but with no customary right of using it for worship. The occurrence of so magnificent a cruciform church, with a richly stalled chancel, in what was originally merely a chapelry of the county parish of Aston, is startling, and, so far as I know, has received no satisfactory expla

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nation. It is all pretty much of one date, in the vere. (Victor) civemque tuere." The abbey was first half of the fourteenth century. Was it the secularized under Louis XV. Formerly none but gift of one generous benefactor, like Thomas Can-natives of Marseilles could be members of the ning at St. Mary Redcliffe; or was it the work of community. After the secularization the canons the parishioners, fired with a holy zeal for the were to be chosen from Provençal families which House of God? I need not say that a chancel could produce a title of a hundred and fifty years' being stalled is no proof of its having served nobility on the paternal side. "From that time for a body of monks or canons. Such an arrange- the foundation assumed the title of the noble and ment is by no means unfrequent, though the stalls illustrious collegiate church of St. Victor.'" Soon and canopies are seldom so rich in design as at the new canons petitioned the king for a badge. Nantwich. The stalled chancels of Boston and They obtained permission to wear 66 a cross, or Lancaster are familiar examples among large town rather a star, of enamel, similar to that worn by churches, and that of Winthorp, near Skegness, in the Knights of Malta, slung round the neck with Lincolnshire, is a well-preserved example of a a deep red ribband. In the centre of the cross small village church so arranged. was represented on one side the figure of St. Victor with the dragon, and round it, 'Divi Victoris Massiliensis'; and on the other the great church of the abbey, with the words, 'Monumentis et nobilitate insignis.'

EDMUND VENABLES.

P.S.-I have read with much interest MR. COLLIER'S letter at the last reference. Without an acquaintance with the documentary history of Davington Church, which I have no present opportunity of obtaining, it would be plainly wrong to charge MR. COLLIER with error. But if, as he states, the western part of Davington Church was conventual and the eastern part parochial, it would be a unique violation of the ordinary rule, which would call for explanation; and if the parochial portion stood to the east, why was that destroyed and the nuns' church allowed to stand? Can there be a confusion between the destination of the two portions?

ST. VICTOR (8th S. iii. 129, 217).—

"St. Victor Martyr was put to Death under the Empire of Dioclesian, his body being ordered to be laid under a Mill-stone that crush'd it to pieces: this happened in built a Monastery upon the tomb of the Saint, which is now that famous Abbey of St. Victor of Marseille of St. Bennet's Order. Colomesius has printed the Passion of this Saint, reviewed and corrected, at the end of Dr. Cave's Chartophylax,' Lond., 1685."-See The Great Historical......Dictionary,' by Jer. Collier, second edit., revised, &c., to 1688, pub, 1701.

302. John Cassian so famous for his Collationes Patrum,

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The abbey was destroyed, or nearly so, in the Revolution. The most beautiful of the remains taken from the ruins were deposited in the Lyceum at Marseilles. Hone quotes from Miss Plumptre. ROBERT PIErpoint. St. Austin's, Warrington.

iii. 227).-J. H. Parker, in the 'Glossary of OCTAGONAL FONTS, WHEN INTRODUCED (8th S. Architecture,' s.v. "Fonts," has:

"Towards the end of the Norman style they were frequently octagonal, a form which was also very common in the Early English, and it is sometimes difficult to decide to which of these styles a font belongs, espe cially when devoid of ornament." For the reason of the octagonal form Dr. Pusey has, "Churches and fonts were built octagonally, App. ad Paulin., 'Op.,' p. 65, in memory of the resurrection" ("Tracts for the Times,' vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 311, note 2).

In Muratori's edition of St. Paulinus ('Opp.," col. 908 A, Veron., 1736) there is:

"Inter monumenta Christiana in Thesauro Inscriptionum apud Gruterum, p. 1166, n. 8, habes carmen Ambrosii Mediolani in Templo S. Theclae ad Fontem:

Octachorum sanctos templum surrexit in usus,
Octagonus fons est munere dignus eo.
Hoc numero decuit sacri baptismatis aulam
Surgere, quo populis vera salus rediit.
Luce resurgentis Christi, qui claustra resolvit
Mortis, et e tumulis suscitat exanimes.

Ubi vides in mysterium octavi diei, videlicet Resur-
rectionis, Christo et templum octachorum et fontem
octogonem [sic] excitatum. Rosv."

St. Victor's day is July 21. There is little about the saint, and a good deal about the abbey, the festival, and procession, called "La Triomphale," formerly held in his honour at Marseilles, in Hone's 'Every-day Book,' vol. ii. col. 998. It is there stated that 66 we are informed by Butler that this saint was a martyr under the Emperor Maximian," by whose order his foot was said to have been cut off for having kicked down a statue of Jupiter when required to sacrifice to it. Afterwards his head was cut off. According to a tradition in the S. xii. 127, where there is this remark: "The last The lines, as above, also occur at 'N. & Q.,' 1st archives of the abbey, he went out armed cap-à-lines explain the appearance of Christ's resurrecpie and slew a dragon in an adjoining wood. The tion on fonts (Gruter, p. 1166; Ciampini, pl. ii. carving representing the saint fighting the dragon remains over the church porch "to this day," "p. 22)." "though somewhat defaced." "It is the exact COL. FISHWICK has opened an interesting subcounterpart of the English St. George and the ject. I believe there is no sure evidence of Saxon dragon. Underneath is inscribed, Massiliam fonts existing in this country; but Norman fonts

ED. MARSHALL.

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