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County of Huntington, did, with joint consent, submit themselves to the arbitration of Sr William Armyn, Knight, High Sheriff of the County of Huntington, and Ralph Brownridg, Doctr in Divinity, John Layer of Shepred in the County of Cambridge, Esq., and M Palmer, Councellor at Law, for the ending of divers Controversys."
And now that the inflexible will of the Dowager Countess was not there to oppose him, Mr. Salmon gained the day; and it was agreed by the arbitrators that an annuity of 251. should be paid to the Vicar of Stanground.
THE RED BOOK OF THORNEY.-In connection with the foregoing subject, I may mention that an ancient register book of the Monastery of Thorney, known as "The Red Book of Thorney," was in the possession of John Earl of Westmorland, at Apthorpe, 1778. It contained various charters by different monarchs relating to the abbey rights at Stanground, Farcet, Yaxley, and elsewhere, as well as the rights of pasturage and common, and of fisheries in Whittlesea-mere. A closely-written manuscript book of extracts from this Red Book of Thorney, containing the various particulars relating to Stanground, Farcet, and their adjacent fens, has been left by some careful successor of Mr. Salmon in the past century, and is still possessed by the present vicar, the Rev. R. Cory, who has kindly allowed me to make a copy of it. The particulars, however, would be interesting but to a very few readers, and could only be given in an extended history of the parishes mentioned. Meanwhile, I here designate the book's existence for the use of anyone who might be in search of the information that it contains. CUTHBERT BEDE.
This lady, Jean Cochran, was daughter of William Lord Cochran, first Earl of Dundonald. Her mother was Lady Catherine Kennedy, second daughter of John, sixth Earl of Cassilis, and she was the widow of Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount of Dundee. She lost her life in Holland by the falling in of her lodgings, and her child was killed at the same time, together with a con
siderable number of noble exiles then assembled in the same room. Her marriage ring was found some years ago, I believe, at Kilsythe with this motto, "Yours ever and allways." During Claverhouse's life she resided at Dudhope Castle.
"The wound which Lady Kilsyth [Livingstone was the family name] received was on the right temple. The child seems simply to have been smothered in her arms. Their bodies, after being embalmed, were deposited in a leaden coffin, enclosed within a wooden one, and transported to Scotland, where they were interred with great splendour in the family vault beneath the parish church
the last of the Kilsyths ever destined to repose there. This was in 1717."*
The bodies remained undisturbed until the year 1795, when the decay of the wooden coffin exposed the leaden one to view. Some young men, students at the Glasgow University, went to visit the vault, and observing the mouldering state of the coffin, thoughtlessly removed the leaden covering. Underneath was a board of fir; this falling off, disclosed to view the bodies of Lady Kilsyth and her infant son, as entire as on the day they were placed in their tomb. An eye-witness thus describes them:
"Every limb and every feature were perfect; the shroud as pure, and the ribbons adorning her splendid attire as bright as when they were consigned to their sepulchre. The body of her son and only child, the natural heir of the title and estate of Kilsyth, lay at her feet, his features as composed as though he were asleep; his colour as fresh, and his flesh as full as if he were in the glow of perfect health. The body of the lady was equally well preserved, and it would not be easy for a stranger to distinguish whether she were dead or asleep. The wound which occasioned her death was plainly visible on her right temple."
In the vault was found a ring with the initials J. C.-Jean Cochran- the last Lady Kilsyth. Letters relative to this melancholy occurrence have been lately found among papers relating to Kilsyth in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. Would some one communicate these to "N. & Q."? In the Letters of Viscount Dundee is given a portrait of this noble lady.
"There was not yet an end to the curious circumstances connected with Dundee's widow. The year after the discovery of the embalmed corpses in Kilsyth church, a tenant of Colzium garden, digging potatoes, found a small glittering object in a clod of earth. He soon dis
covered it to be a ring, but at first concluded it was a bauble of little value. Remembering, however, the story of Lady Dundee's ring, lost upwards of a century before, he began to think it might be that once dear pledge of affection, and soon ascertained that in all probability it was so, as within its plain hoop was inscribed a posy exactly such as the circumstances would have called for—“Zovrs onnly and Euer.' The lover and his family and name were gone-his chosen lay silent in the funeral vault; but here was the voice of affection still crying from the ground, and claiming from another generation of men the sympathy which we all feel in each other's purer emotions."
restraint in Edinburgh Castle [July 4, 1689]. There he must have waited with great anxiety for news of his friend Lord Dundee. 'After the battle of Killiecrankie, where fell the last hope of James in the Viscount Dundee, the ghost of that hero is said to have appeared to his con
fidential friend, Lord Balcarres, then confined to Edinburgh Castle. The spectre, drawing aside the curtain of the bed, looked very steadfastly upon the earl, after which it moved towards the mantle-piece, remained there for some time in a leaning posture, and then walked out of the chamber without uttering one word. Lord Balcarres, in great surprise, though not suspecting that which he saw to be an apparition, called out repeatedly to his friend to stop, but received no answer, and subsequently learned that at the very moment this shadow stood before him, Dundee had breathed his last near the field of Killiecrankie."
This account is from the Memoirs of Sir Ewen Cameron of Locheil, p. 254. Another Jacobite apparition may be cited:
"A year before the insurrection of 1745, in which Lord Kilmarnock was engaged, the family were one day startled by a violent scream, and on rushing out to inquire what had occurred, they found the servants all assembled in amazement, with the exception of one maid, who they said had gone up to the garrets to hang some linen on the lines to dry. On ascending thither, they found the girl on the floor, in a state of insensibility; and they had no sooner revived her, than on seeing Lord Kilmarnock bending over her, she screamed and fainted again. When ultimately recovered, she told them that, whilst hanging up her linen and singing, the door had burst open, and his lordship's bloody head had rolled in. I think it came twice. This event was so well known at the time that at the first rumours of the insurrection, Lord Saltoun said, 'Kilmarnock will lose his head.' It was answered, That Kilmarnock had not joined the rebels.' He will, and will be beheaded,' returned Lord Saltoun."
Of William Livingstone it may be mentioned that he survived his wife nearly forty years. In the Caledonian Mercury for February 6, 1733, is this paragraph:
"We are assured private letters are in town, giving an account that on the 12th of last month, the Right Hon. the late Viscount Kilsyth died at Rome, in an advanced age, in perfect judgment, and a Christian and exemplary resignation." W. H. C.
SIR WILLIAM BLACKSTONE'S WORKS.*
When Blackstone first delivered his lectures an attempt was made to cry him down as an innovator (Martin, Character of Lord Bacon, 1835, p. 172.) Clitherow in his Life tells us that
"Many imperfect and incorrect copies of his lectures [in MS.] having by this time got abroad, and a pirated edition of them being either published or preparing for publication in Ireland, he found himself under a necessity of printing a correct edition himself."
I should much like to know whether any printed pirated copies exist?
Mr. Foss, in his Judges of England, goes further. He says:
* Continued from 4th S. i. 528.
IX. 7th edition, Oxford, 1775. This and every subsequent edition is in royal 8vo.
X. 8th edition, Oxford, 1778. Portrait. XI. 9th edition, Lond. 1783, with the last corrections of the author continued by R. Burn. XII. 10th edition, 1787, with, &c., additions [in notes] by R. Burn, and continued. notes] by J. Williams.
XIII. 11th edition, 1791, by the same.
With the last corrections, &c., and notes and additions by Edward Christian [who intended that this edition originally should form five volumes]. This edition was published in parts, and contains the following portraitsLord Somers, Sir John Fortescue; vol. ii. Sir Thomas Littleton, Sir Edward Coke, Lord Chief Justice Holt; vol. iii. Earl Mansfield, Lord Chief Baron Gilbert, Sir J. Comyns, Philip Earl Hardwicke; vol. iv. Sir M. Hale, Sir M. Forster, Lord Chief Justice Raymond. With regard to these portraits, the following quotations may be interesting:
"As to the fury for prints and engravings, I would observe, that the folly and rapacity for gain, in some booksellers, have degraded many works of established fame, and subjected some learned editors to unmerited ridicule. I feel for the injury and injustice which a gentleman-I mean Mr. Christian, Professor of the Laws of
England at Cambridge, and editor of Blackstone's Commentaries with valuable notes and illustrations, and who has well deserved from his profession-suffered on this occasion. It was a transaction shameful and unjustifiable."-Pursuits of Literature, 1812, 4to, p. 85.
"The late Professor Christian (than whom no one was better acquainted with the science of book-making) was aware of the public appetite for this species of decoration by portraits."-Fraser's Mag. vi. 220.
I may observe that the editor himself expressly disclaims any hand in the portraits.
XV. An American edition. Boston, 1799.
XIX. An edition after Christian. Portland (U.S.), 1807.
XX. 15th edition, 1809. The same as XIV. XXI. A new edition, 1811. Also containing analyses and epitome of the whole work, with [xxvi. charts and] notes [and some account of the life and writings], by J. F. Archbold [no portrait].
XXII. Reprinted. Philadelphia, 1826.
XXIV. An American edition. Boston, 1818.
edition. It is in Lowndes.
XXVI. A French translation of the 15th edition, after Christian, by N. M. Chompré. Paris, 1823, 6 vols. 8vo. 48 fr.
XXVII. 16th edition, 1825, with the last, &c., and with notes by J. T. Coleridge.
XXVIII. A new edition [17th].
Notes by J. Chitty [who claims great superiority over former editions, and acknowledges the obligations he is under to Mr. Steer and Messrs. H. & T. Chitty, his sons]. This edition has a marginal analysis, and the portrait is after Reynolds.
XXIX. 18th edition, 1829, with the [author's own] analysis of the work. The last corrections [and a life] of the author, and copious notes by Thomas Lee [to vols. i. and iii. only]. The halftitle bears the names also of J. E. Hovenden [vol. ii. only] and A. Ryland [vol. iv. only]. Portrait is after Gainsborough, but engraved by Phillips.
XXX. 17th edition, 1830, with the last, &c. By Christian, enlarged and continued by the editor of Warton's History of English Poetry [Richard Price]. No portraits. This editor's poetical head seems to have become confused by the numerous editions, and he has left a memento on the titlethis edition is edited. page of the way
The Pennsylvania Blackstone, by J. Reed, 3 vols. Carlisle [U. S.], 1831. See Marvin, to whom I am indebted for some American editions.
XXXII. 19th edition, 1836. 638. The same as 29th, but solely edited by J. E. Hovenden; and the Lawyer's farewell to his muse is reprinted
in the life.
Each part has a separate title-page. The first edition of the 1st vol. was in 1839. That part of the 2nd vol. which relates to real property was first published in 1837; 2nd edition including the law relating to personal property, 1840; 3rd edition, 1841. The 3rd vol. was first published in 1840, 2nd edition 1841. The 4th vol. first published in 1841, 2nd edition 1844. No portrait.
XXXIII. 20th edition, 1841, incorporating the alterations down to the present time, by James Stewart.
This expression occurs in Lear (Act IV. Sc. 6), and nowhere else to my knowledge. The context would appear to make its meaning quite plain; yet, as all the critics seem to acquiesce in Steevens' explanation of it, which is undoubtedly erroneous, I
think I am justified in inferring that it has not been as yet explained or perhaps understood. For myself, I must say that I saw at once that it could mean only one kind of horse, namely, the entire horse or stallion. But why term him soiled? Reflecting on it, my memory went back to the days of my boyhood which were spent in the country (near Punchestown, in the county of Kildare), and I recollected that my father had a
XXXI. An American edition, stereotyped. New horse of this kind who was kept in a separate York, 1832, 2 vols. 8vo. stable; and that in the last spring and early summer months, when the other horses were put to grass, or still fed on hay, his rack was every morning filled with what was called soil, that is, the fresh growing meadow-grass, which was cut for the purpose. The same would seem to have been the practice in Warwickshire in the time of Shakespeare, and hence he says "the soiled horse."
XXXVI. Edition, New York, 1847. Edited by J. L. Wendell from the 21st edition (No. XXXIV.) XXXVII. 22nd edition, 1849 ?
XXXVIII. The Rights of Persons, being the first book of Blackstone's Commentaries incorporating the alterations to the present time, 2nd edition. By J. Stewart, 1849. No more published? XXXIX. 23rd edition, 1854 , Stewart's 3rd edition.
XL. A new edition, adapted to the present state of the law, by R. M. Kerr, 1857 [original pagination indicated, marginal analysis. Each vol. has a separate index], 2nd edition, 185-; 3rd edition, 1862.
In 1853 Mr. Serjeant Stephen first published his "New Commentaries (partly founded on Blackstone)," which have since been quietly but certainly usurping the place of Blackstone. RALPH THOMAS.
1, Powis Place, W.C.
With regard to "Whose face between her forks," &c., in a preceding line, it gives me pleasure to be able to say that, without having had any knowledge of what had been written on it, I had understood it exactly as Edwards did. Mr. Dyce's excellent note on the subject is most satisfactory. I would only add that the poet has, perhaps designedly, expressed himself somewhat incorrectly. We should perhaps read fork in the singular, and a different preposition, within for instance, or upon, as in the passage from Timon quoted by Edwards, THOS. KEIGHTLEY.
SPERONI, TASSO, AND GUARINI.
Tasso (1544-1595) was seven years the junior of Guarini (1537-1612), both intimate friends, and said to have been in love with, and writing sonnets to, Eleanora, sister of the Duke of Ferrara of the house of Este-that from which our Queen is descended. The Aminta of Tasso was one of his minor works, and in the opinion of Speroni and Guarini inferior to his other poems.* The Pastor fido was Guarini's chief work, and elaborately finished. Both Tasso, in his Aminta, and Guarini, in his Pastor fido, imitated the Canace of Speroni; which is founded on Ovid (Heroides, Canace Macareo, epist. xi.). Comparing the two works we find the chorus, which is always understood to speak the opinion of the writer, or such as he thinks the audience ought to have, is found for sixty-eight lines in succession to terminate with the same words in both writers, as if they had been originally bouts rimés. Both these choruses
*Aminta, con Annot. d' Egidio Menagio, xvii. 202, Venezia, 1736.
are from the fourth eclogue of Virgil. I select nineteen lines as a specimen :
AMINTA OF TASSO (end of first act).
E le poma del seno acerbe, e crude;
Negando l'onde à l'amorosa sete. Tu à begli occhi insegnasti
Di starne in se ristretti,
E tener lor bellezze altrui secrete.
Tu raccogliesti in rete
Le chiome à l'aura sparte.
Tu i dolci atti lasciui
Festi ritrosi, a schiui.
A i detti il fren ponesti, à i passi l'arte.
Che furto sia quel, che fù don d' Amore."
"Virgins to the sight revealed,
And breasts unblown, that scarcely heave,
Translation by W. Grove.
"To one alone, in all their bloom arrayed,
Thou, for thy base lascivious ends,
The solemn mask assumest, and canting tone: To feign with thee is virtue's part,
Who lookest on all in life as art.
Nor carest thou-nay, thou dost applaud Love's theft, if well concealed the fraud."
Tasso's short pastoral, Aminta, was performed eleven years before Guarini's much longer one, Pastor fido. The Canace is a tragedy, the Aminta a comedy, and the Pastor fido a tragi-comedy.
The high tone and pure morality of Guarinia man of high honour for the age in which he lived-is contrasted in these extracts with the sensual and in pure tone of Tasso, and the somewhat dishonourable character which he bore, but which is in part palliated by the condition of his nervous system. Montaigne (ii. 12, p. 306) says:
"J'eus plus de despit encores que de compassion, de le veoir [in Nov. 1580] à Ferrare en si piteux estat, survivant à soy mesme, mescognoissant et soy et ses ouvrages, lesquels, sans son sceu, et toutesfois à sa veue, on a mis en lumiere incorrigez et informes."
Hallam (Lit. of Europe, ii. 151) seems to have regarded Guarini with the eyes of others, and not his own; as I proved in the case of Peter Lombard ("N. & Q.," 1st S. viii. 294). The English translation of Montaigne assumes that the above passage refers to Ariosto (by Cotton, ii. 182); but Ariosto died in 1533, the year when Montaigne was born, nearly half a century before this interview took place. From the above statement it will be seen that the Biographie Universelle (xviii. 596) is correct, in stating that the "Pastor fido a été composé à l'instar de l'Aminta," that is, under like circumstances; but is not aware of the important fact (xliii. 292) confirmed by the letters of Speroni and Guarini, that the Canace was the model for both. Speroni and the Canace are not even named by Hallam. Speroni lived 1500-1588. His statue, in the grand council-chamber at Rome, was placed next to Livy's. His Canace escaped the Inquisition, but his "Dialogues" did not. Guarini's Pastor fido, in respect to the passage commencing
*The line-" Pianti, sospiri, e dimandar mercede," in the Aminta (Act I. Sc. 1), is the same in the Canace (Act IV. Sc. 2).
"Se'l peccar è sì dolce,
E'l non peccar sì necessario," (Act III. Sc. 4)
was put in the Index, the pope's bibliographical purgatory. T. J. BUCKTON. Wiltshire Road, Stockwell, S.W.
TALBOT, EARL OF SHREWSBURY.-The Times of June 6, in its historical sketch of the ancestry of the late Earl of Shrewsbury and Talbot, quotes the titles of the valiant John Talbot, created Earl of Shrewsbury for his successes in France, as given by Shakespeare in Henry VI. Part the First, Act IV. Sc. 7.:
"Valiant Lord Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury;
Created for his rare success in arms,
Great Earl of Washford, Waterford and Valence; Lord Talbot of Goodrig and Urchinfield,
Lord Strange of Blackmere, Lord Verdun of Alton,
Of all his wars within the realm of France."
It may be worth noting that Shakespeare is mistaken here. Talbot, though probably a Knight of St. Michael, was not a Knight of the Golden Fleece; at least his name is not included in Chifflet, Insignia Gentilitia Equitum Ordinis Velleris Aurei. Antverpiæ, 1632. JOHN WOODWARD. Montrose.
EDMUND BURKE.-The following cutting from Saunders's News-Letter, April 25, 1868 (more particularly in connection with the very beautiful statue of the illustrious statesman lately erected in front of the Dublin University), deserves a niche in "N. & Q.":
"We have been favoured with a copy of the resolution of the Board of Trinity College, Dublin, shortly after Edmund Burke published his Reflections on the French reply. The degree was sent, accompanied by a letter Revolution, to confer on him the degree of LL.D., also the
from the Provost. The following are the documents: 11th Dec., 1790.
"Resolution of the Board.
"That an honorary degree of LL.D. be conferred on the Right Hon. Edmund Burke, as the powerful advocate of the Constitution, as the friend of public order and virtue, and consequently of the happiness of mankind, and in testimony of the high respect entertained by the University, which had the honour of his education, for the various endowments of his mind, and for his transcendent talents and philanthropy.'
"In his reply he says:
"I feel the approbation of the University as one of the greatest honours which could be conferred upon me. The University is, indeed, highly generous in accepting with so much indulgence the produce of its own gifts. I am infinitely happy that that learned body has been pleased to recognise, in the piece it condescends to favour, the unaltered subsistence of those principles of liberty and morality, along with some faint remains of that taste of composition, which are infused, and have always been