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session." This duchess is the main support of the volume, and her letters-those especially to her son, Sir Augustus John Foster, Minister Plenipotentiary in Washington in 1811 and elsewhere, and his letters to her-constitute the staple of the book. Other letters are from her father, the Earl of Bristol and Bishop of Derry, Lord and Lady Byron, the Earl of Aberdeen, Canova, Gibbon, Napoleon Bonaparte, Wellington, and very many others.

The Herveys were great letter-writers. No long time has elapsed since the 'Diary' and the 'LetterBooks' of John Hervey, first Earl of Bristol, enriched the world with some correspondence of great interest (see 'N. & Q.,' 8th S. vii. 259). To these volumes the present work is practically supplemental. Its author we must assume to be the grandson of the second duchess and third son of Sir Augustus, whose birth in Copenhagen is announced to the duchess by her son on 27 April, 1819. As sidelights on history the correspondence has great value. Comparatively little correspondence takes place during the days of the French Revolution, though the movements of various Herveys and Fosters who were at that time on the Continent were impeded by the difficulties of travel. Of the consternation shown at the successive victories of Napoleon over the Austrians and Prussians a most animated account is given, the official position occupied by Sir Augustus rendering the family very sensitive on the point. On 31 May Sir Augustus receives from the Baron d'Engelstrom, the Swedish Minister of Foreign Affairs, a short order to depart from Stockholm, which he dockets, "Ordered out of Sweden by Napoleon's directions." The war in Spain inspires the most active interest, and the action at Corunna and the death of Sir John Moore are mentioned with very mingled sentiments. The death of Pitt produces, naturally, a profound sensation. That, however, of Nelson after the victory of Trafalgar causes the most outcry. The most interesting letter, historically, in the collection is that in which Lady Elizabeth describes to her son the mingled pride and consternation at the news; the illuminations begin, but discontinue, the people being unable to rejoice. Lady Elizabeth says, "Nelson was the only person I ever saw who excited real enthusiasm in the English." From the domestic standpoint the correspondence is no less interesting. After the Bishop of Derry comes into the earldom of Bristol his character becomes sadly tarnished. His attempt to persuade his grandson to espouse the Comtesse de la Marche, the illegitimate daughter of William II. of Prussia, would be comic if it were not despicable. A very animated account of the excitement caused by the appearance of the Infant Roscius is furnished. Lady Elizabeth goes into raptures over his graces and perfections. The portraits which adorn the volume constitute a a great attraction, though the famous stolen portrait is, of course, missing. Mr. Vere Foster has executed his task admirably, and his volume has abundant value and interest. It is never dull, and our only doubt is whether his accessories are in every case to be commended.

Alien Immigrants to England. By W. Cunning-
ham, D.D. (Swan Sonnenschein & Co.)
In his very scholarly and profoundly interesting
work on alien immigrants Dr. Cunningham elects to
start from the reign of Edward the Confessor, and to
treat the Norman invasion as the first great wave of
"alien immigration into England." Much may be

urged in favour of this starting-point, and some thing against it. Did space permit of our treating his work at the length it demands, we might challenge an arrangement that, while accepting Saxon, Roman, and Dane as forming an integral portion of our nation, regards as aliens the Normans, who came with a pretence of legality, and sought to some extent to maintain existing institutions. Dr. Cunningham's difficulty is, however, kindred with our own-want of space. His purpose is not to deal with the establishment of the English race and constitution, but to write a short, pregnant volume for the "Social England Series," and show the effects of successive waves of immigration. This purpose he has accomplished, and we have no right and no disposition to ask more. A curious hybrid growth is your Englishman. "Saxon and Norman and Dane are we," says the great Laureate, and we have the admixture of a score or a hundred races more, without going into the region of myth in search of a remote ancestry. What helps us is that, from our Saxon or Danish invaders to the victims of religious or democratic mania in France, every country has sent us its noblest, bravest, and wisest, until, in our braggart mood, we may claim to be, like Miranda in the description of Ferdinand, "created of every creature's best." Dr. Cunningham's aim- -an aim splendidly carried out is to show the influences, social, political, economic, and other, of the immigration to which our shores have been perpetually subject. Materials are, naturally, abundant, since there are few aspects of our life which have not thus been influenced. Visitors to our shores, except in the case of Norsemen, can scarcely have come in search of sunshine, nor are they likely to have sought us out on account of our general lovableness and affability to strangers. Persecution, as a rule, sent hither the Frenchman and the Fleming. Some came, however, for the sake of the exceptional privileges accorded to traders as in the case of dwellers in Aquitaineor artificers, manufacturers, and artists. In our Walhalla we thus count a Vandyke, a Handel, a Garrick, a Jean Cavalier-we know not how many more, if we include descendants, such as Grotes, Romillys, Brunels, and the like. We are giving our readers, on purpose, the reflections suggested by Dr. Cunningham's book, instead of seeking to explain its method or scheme. For it is a book to be bought, studied, and kept at hand, not one to be obtained from a library, read, and dismissed. But this much will we say, that successive chapters deal with the Norman invasion, the later Middle Ages, the Reformation and religious refugees, intercourse with the Dutch, and later immigrations, under which are included the Huguenots, the Palatines, and the Emigrés. The section on the Palatines uncloses an almost forgotten book, and is full of practical suggestions for the times that are. For, indeed, Dr. Cunningham's book has an actual as well as an historical interest, and its study may be as strongly commended to the so-called statesman as to the antiquary. Quite needless is it to dwell upon the antiquarian subjects, such as guilds, church briefs, and the scores of others on which light is cast. Very numerous references to Flemish immigrants will be found in the Acts of the Privy Council. These have necessarily been studied by Dr. Cunningham. See, for instance, what is said under date 13 July, 1576, concerning "the straingers dwelling in the towne of Colchester," and granting permission for them to settle "in the towne of

Halstede in Essex, and there to use their trade of making of baies" (baize). The manufacture of bay (whence, in the plural, baize) was introduced into England by French and Netherlandish immigrants in the sixteenth century. A picture of the Bay Hall, Colchester, is among the illustrations to the work. We are sorry to quit Dr. Cunningham's admirable volume. In so doing we commend it with more than customary warmth to the consideration of our readers.

The Lives of the Saints. By the Rev. S. BaringGould, M.A. Vols. IX. and X. (Nimmo.) OF the enlarged and illustrated reissue of Mr. Baring-Gould's Lives of the Saints' two further volumes, for August and September, have now appeared. We have on the appearance of successive volumes dealt with the claim of this, the best and probably the definitive edition of a book which, so far as the immense majority of the English public is concerned, serves every purpose. For the few the Acta Sanctorum' of the Bollandists may be indispensable; for all others this learned and eminently judicious compilation will handsomely suffice. In the ninth volume the longest and, historically, the most important article is that on St. Louis, for which-in addition to the precious documents left us by Geoffroi de Beaulieu, the confessor of the king, Guillaume de Nangis, and other contemporary writers more recent documents, such as the Life by Le Nain de Tillemont, have been consulted. The illustrations to this are numerous, comprising the coronation of St. Louis at Rheims, St. Louis opening the gates of the Paris prisons, St. Louis under discipline, feeding a leper from a window in the Abbey of St. Denis, and burying the decomposed bodies of crusaders (from a mural painting at St. Sulpice), the enamelled shrine of St. Louis, and the tomb of Louis, his eldest son. In the case of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, a likeness after Cahier is given, together with the vision of St. Bernard after Filippino Lippi. In the case of St. Roch it is disappointing for those with no previous information to find how little is known, and to learn that over such records of his travels as exist the sponge has to be drawn, since the particulars are necessarily fictitious. Even more deficient in trustworthy details of interest is the life of St. Ouen, after whom is named the lovely church in Rouen. The Assumption of the Virgin on 15 August is illustrated by a frontispiece after Andrea Orcagna's bas-relief tabernacle in the church of S. Michele in Florence. There are also the 'Last Moments of the Virgin,' after Quentin Matsys, her bed of death, after Albert Dürer, and other similar scenes, after a picture by Mantegna in Madrid, one by Botticelli in Florence, and from the Vienna Missal.

The September volume reproduces an exquisite sixteenth-century altar-piece; has a view of Notre Dame, Paris, as it appeared in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; a Nativity from the Vienna Missal; a second from a fresco by Domenico del Ghirlandajo; a marriage from the same source; a St. Jerome explaining the Scriptures from a Bible written for Charles the Bald; a last Communion of St. Jerome, after a picture by Domenichino in the Vatican; a curious picture by Schraudolf of holy angels; and many other designs of no less interest and beauty, together with very numerous plates by Cahier. The attractions of the edition are fully and worthily maintained.

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WITH the February part of the Journal of the Ex-Libris Society are issued the title and preliminary matter to the seventh volume. Complete sets of this excellent publication are now scarce and precious. The present number contains No. 15 of Modern Book-plate Designers,' which the editor, Mr. W. H. K. Wright, devotes to J. Winfred Spenceley, of Boston, U.S.A., many of whose designs are reproduced. Some of these are novel and effective. An account is begun of the bookplates of the society known as the Set of Odd Volumes.

WE hear with deep regret of the death, on the 9th inst., at Southfields, Longford, near Coventry, of the Rev. C. F. S. Warren, M.A., aged fifty-three. The deceased gentleman, a zealous friend and contributor, was in constant communication up to the close. He was a son of the late Rev. Charles Warren, who for very many years held the Trinity College living of Over, Cambridge. Mr. Warren graduated from Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, in 1867, and became curate of his father's parish. Afterwards he was for a time chaplain to the Bishop of Truro and assistant librarian of Bishop Phillpotts's Diocesan Library at Truro. Latterly he has lived in retirement near Coventry, and occasionally assisted the local clergy. He began to contribute to 'N. & Q.' in 1863, in his undergraduate days, and communications from him appear in the present number.

'FULHAM, OLD AND NEW,' by Mr. Charles James Fèret, will be shortly published at the Leadenhall Press, in a very handsome form and with over 650 illustrations, at the subscription price of three guineas. Our readers cannot fail to have noticed how assiduous and indefatigable in the collection of information Mr. Fèret, whose volume is appropriately dedicated to the Bishop of London, has been. Eight years have been devoted to the collection of materials and the writing of the volume.

Notices to Correspondents.

We must call special attention to the following notices:

ON all communications must be written the name and address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith.

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. To secure insertion of communications corre spondents must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."

L. C. PRICE ("Pitt Club").-See 'N. & Q.,' 7th S. v. 137, 357; vi. 89; 8th S. viii. 108, 193.

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FEBRUARY, 1898.

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BYRD'S

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Chapters IX. to XIX.

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