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chant captain of Portsmouth, by whom she had one son and six daughters (Ralph de Lalo, Elizabeth, Susanna, Mary, Hannah, Keturah, and Sarah). James married (on 10 January, 1701) Mary Seager. She died in July, 1702, and her husband's decease occurred some two years later, in June, 1704. ALF. T. EVERITT.

High Street, Portsmouth.

ROMAN ENGLAND (8th S. xii. 448).-There is a useful little book Roman Britain,' by the late Rev. H. M. Scarth (S.P.C.K.).


Hastings. BUTTER CHARM (8th S. xii. 387).--Brand (ed. 1888), p. 750, quotes as follows from Ady's Candle in the Dark' (1655):

"Another old Woman came into an House at a

time when as the maid was churning of Butter, and having laboured long and could not make her Butter come, the old Woman told the Maid what was wont to be done when she was a maid, and also in her mother's young time, that if it happened their butter would not come readily, they used a Charm to be said over it, whilst yet it was in beating, and it would come straightways, and that was thisCome Butter, come, Come Butter, come, Peter stands at the gate

Waiting for a butter'd Cake,

Come Butter, come.

This, said the old Woman, being said three times, will make your Butter come, for it was taught my mother by a learned Church-man in Queen Marie's Days, when as Church-men had more cunning, and could teach people many a trick, that our Ministers now a days know not."


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'MEDIEVAL OXFORD' (9th S. i. 20). — The plate which you so favourably mentioned at the above reference, and which you attributed to me, was designed and drawn by the wellknown architectural and archæological artist Mr. H. W. Brewer, who is also the author of the pamphlet. Please correct this. DOUGLAS FOURDRINIER.

SUPPORTERS (8th S. xii. 408).-Henry VII., Henry VIII., and Edward VI. used a lion or for England as the dexter supporter of the royal arms, and a dragon_gules for Wales as the sinister supporter. Mary I. and Elizabeth changed the tincture of the dragon to


A griffin was never a royal supporter. Boutell (Heraldry, Historical and Popular') and Dr. Woodward (Heraldry, British and Foreign'), among other heraldic writers, give complete lists of royal supporters.

The Close, Salisbury.


The arms of Queens Mary and Elizabeth were sometimes represented with a lion and a dragon as supporters. That is the nearest approach I can make to the "griffin" of J. S.'s query. ST. SWITHIN.

Henry VII. was the first and Elizabeth the last sovereign to use as a supporter a red griffin (the ensign of Cadwallader, the last king of the Britons), and the arms in Elizabeth's reign are always encircled by the garter. E. LEGA-WEEKES.

The lion and dragon were the royal supporters during the latter years of the reign of Henry VIII. and the reigns of Edward VI. and Elizabeth. Supporters generally are treated on in 'N. & Q.,' 1st S. ii. 136, 221; 4th S. viii. 47, 130, 188, 251, 294, 311, 385; the supporters of English sovereigns in 8th S. ix. 228, 477, as given by the various authorities, from the reign of Edward III. (1327) to James I. (1603), since which time there has been no change.


71, Brecknock Road.

WATCHMEN (8th S. xii. 408, 490).-Allow me to confirm MR. MOULE'S note with an excerpt from a privately printed volume written by my mother, who was born in 1806. She thus describes the close of an evening party at Dorchester when she was a child. One of the guests was Mrs. (. e. Miss) Elizabeth Meech, a whist-player who was, my mother says, the "veritable likeness" of Mrs. Battle:

no bones were broken, is somewhat harshly called lynch law, which means, I believe, a hasty execution without trial. But the practice described is more widely extended than N. S. S. seems to be aware. It has been a favourite expression of popular ridicule for love troubles, foolish marriages, and the like, as well as of graver displeasure at conjugal infidelity. In the sixteenth and seventeenth "As the clock struck ten Mrs. Elizabeth rose. centuries it was called a "Black Sanctus." (Though it was always long whist, they generally Thus Holland, translating Livy, v. 37, "Truci contrived to finish just before ten, but if the game cantu clamoribusque variis horrendo omnia was not quite ended, the parties being at nine each, compleverunt sono," renders "a hideous and for instance, they had to wait a little.) She ex-dissonant kind of singing, like a Black claimed, with energy: 'Dear me! there's the watchman ("Past ten o'clock, and a rainy night"); we must go. (The watchman was a great institution in those days; besides calling the hour he always informed us of the exact state of the weather-a thunder and lightning night' was duly reported.)" - Memories and Traditions,' 1895, p. 49.

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It may be worth noting that, although the watch was replaced by the police in 1829, there was an instance of a member of the old body being kept on and paid by subscription raised amongst a few inhabitants and occupiers of warehouses, who, possibly, were doubtful as to the amount of protection that would be afforded by the new police force. The locality was Tooley Street, London Bridge, the man Davis, who died in the fifties. Against his wish he was compelled to call "Past twelve o'clock," and so on until "Past five o'clock." Davis was succeeded by a man named Prendergast, who only held the post for a short time. He was obliged to continue the practice, but it ceased with him. This probably is the latest date of the watch call in London. J. T. Beckenham.

TREES AND THE ETERNAL SOUL (8th S. xii. 503). MR. MACKINLAY does not give the authority for the verses he quotes about the connexion of " a certain oak" with the fortunes of Hay of Errol. Shall I be thought irreverent if I venture to suggest an uncertain oak" as a better rendering? For this reason that the mistletoe is unknown in Scotland as a wild plant (Bentham's 'British Flora), and because, although for many years I have sought for a mistletoe growing on an oak (and that in districts of England and France where oak and mistletoe are most common), I have never succeeded in hearing of a well-authenticated instance thereof.


MEDIEVAL LYNCH LAWS IN MODERN USE (8th S. xii. 465). The mock serenade, in which

Sanctus." And in Beaumont and Fletcher's
'Mad Lover' it is proposed to salute the
unhappy gentleman thus:-

Let's give him a black santis, then let's all howl
In our own beastly voices.

It is known in France by the name of chari-
vari, and as chiavari in Italy. Story, in his
'Roba di Roma,' mentions, among marriage
customs, that "when the bridegroom is an
old man they pay him still another compli-
ment in the way of a serenata alla chiavari,
howling under his window madly with an
accompaniment of pots and pans." Lastly,
under the name of "rough music," I have
myself seen and heard it some thirty years
ago in an Oxfordshire village, the thing stig-
matized being a wife's infidelity to her hus-
band. Doubtless the practice is now extinct,
as such barbarisms should be. Yet in these
days of School Board and dead level one can
find in one's heart to regret the loss of a
custom which, with all its roughness, had
something characteristic in it; and I have a
certain pleasure in remembering that I have
seen what was a link with bygone days and
a world now dead.

ders with concerts of rough music has its
The Bavarian custom of serenading offen-
counterpart in West Cornwall. At St. Ives
such performances are known as shallāls, the
derivation of which word it would be inter-
esting to know. For an account of the
medieval French illumination or carving,
shallal, see my 'History of St. Ives,' &c. A
representing a band of similar “musicians,'
will be found in Lacroix's Arts and Cus-
toms of the Middle Ages.'


Town Hall, Cardiff.

The Haberfeld treiben reminds me of the old English punishment of "riding the stang," which, I am happy to say, has not yet fallen into complete disuse. It is a form of public censure inflicted on a man when he beats his wife; the clashing of kettles, tongs, and pans,


and the blowing of horns form part of the prince was naturally averse from war," to ritual. There is some account of this old which the author appends the note, "Averse custom in my 'Manley and Corringham and aversion require to after them rather than Glossary.' See also the late Sir Charles from; but both are used, and sometimes even Anderson's 'Lincoln Pocket Guide,' p. 17; by the same author." Now, the student who Marshall's 'East Yorkshire Words,' vol. i. uses this book-evidently an authoritative p. 39; Elworthy's 'West Somerset Word-guide if numerous editions have a meaning Book,' p. 674; Dawson's History of Skipton,' will conclude that "averse to" is correct and p. 295; and N. & Q.,' 7th S. iii. 367. proper, and "averse from" an aberration, if not a blunder. Yet, in the face of this, an upholder of "the generally accepted rules of grammar" warns his readers against "averse to," which he unhesitatingly pillories as one of three glaring absurdities in syntax. This state of matters must be painfully disconcerting to the "thoughtful and conscientious reader" who has already figured in this discussion. It may comfort him to learn from the Encyclopaedic Dictionary,' with appropriate examples, that Mr. Lennie-conis historically defensible. sciously or notWhile etymology would demand from, modern practice prefers to. And so an end. THOMAS BAYNE. Helensburgh, N.B.

"REST, BUT DO NOT LOITER" (8th S. xii. 244, 318, 332).—As a sort of parallel to the above, I may, perhaps, quote the injunction to persons availing themselves of a drinking fountain attached to the General Post Office in New York-at least, I copied it from there in the blazing sun of July, 1880:

"Keep cool and good-natured,
Take your turn,

The line forms this way."
This legend impressed me the more because
some of my American friends had scoffed at
our railway-station "cautions" and "warn-
ings," as only suitable for babes and sucklings.

CONSTRUCTION WITH A PARTITIVE (8th S. xii. 206, 312, 411, 477, 517).—But for an assured dictum at the last reference, this subject might now have been let alone as quite sufficiently discussed. On the question, however, as to whether the humble inquirer is to be guided by the practice of distinguished writers or the rules of grammar-books, we now learn that the proper course is "to follow the generally accepted rules of grammar as closely as possible." Then comes this philosophical distinction, with implied thoughtful caution:

"Whatever may be the case as regards the construction of sentences, we ought certainly to be careful of the meanings of words, and this of itself should guard us against such constructions as 'different to,'' averse to,' 'neither of them are."

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In averse to" we have a new item for consideration. The writer guards us against the use of it, after having dwelt on the importance of grammatical rules. Now, there is at hand a grammar, by William Lennie, on which many learners must have been reared, seeing that its title-page bears that it is in its "ninety-third edition, improved" (Oliver & Boyd, 1894). This work is entitled "The Principles of English Grammar,......with Copious Exercises in Parsing and Syntax'; and the thirty-second of its syntactical rules, given on p. 113, asserts that "certain words and phrases must be followed with appropriate prepositions; such be"-and in the appended list is " averse to." On p. 115, among sentences to be corrected, is, "This




First Steps in Anglo-Saxon. By Henry Sweet, Ph.D.
(Oxford, Clarendon Press.)
WE have reason to feel grateful when an acknow-
ledged master in any branch of knowledge con-
descends to the low estate of the tyro, and provides
leading-strings to guide his unaccustomed steps.
If the beginner in Anglo-Saxon does not soon learn
to run alone, the blame certainly does not rest with
Dr. Sweet, who now improves upon his Anglo-
Saxon Primer' by issuing a still more elementary
manual of a less concise and abstract nature. All
the more scientific considerations of mutation, gra-
dation, and the like are here allowed to stand over
for the present, and it is only the absolutely essen-
tial and practical part of the grammar that is
insisted upon. In First Steps in Anglo-Saxon'
the learner is encouraged to proceed by having a
minimum of syntactical details forced upon his
attention, and in this way he is to a large extent
enabled, in George Eliot's phrase, "to get at the
marrow of the language independently of the bones."
To supply a praxis of reading lessons Dr. Sweet has
selected certain passages from Beda's 'Astronomy,'
the Colloquy' of Elfric, and the Beowulf,' and in
order to render these more suitable for his purpose
he has submitted them to a process of normalization
and paraphrase which we do not greatly like. All
that can be said is that the end justifies the means.
Handbook to Thornton Abbey. By J. R. Boyle,
F.S.A. (Andrews.)

MR. BOYLE has performed a useful and interesting
piece of work in writing this little guide-book to
one of the only two Lincolnshire abbeys (Croyland
being the other) which at all repay a pilgrimage.
It is sufficiently illustrated, and contains (besides a
history and description of the buildings of the

abbey) a succinct account of the Augustinian rule. Those who want more will find it in the admirable volume, recently edited by Mr. J. W. Clark, on Barnwell Priory. Little remains of the former beauty of the ecclesiastical buildings at Thornton; but of domestic work, the splendid gate-houseconjectured, with some reason, to be the abbot's lodging (in 1382 a licence was granted "de nova domo desuper et juxta portam Abbatiæ Kernellandâ ") is an early and fine specimen of Perpendicular brickwork. Curiously enough, the name of "college" clings to the abbey still, although its refoundation by Henry VIII. only lasted for six years. It is now in the liberal hands of the Earl of Yarborough. We hope Mr. Boyle will be encouraged in his project of publishing the chronicle of the abbey, to which he alludes in his preface.

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and lets some light upon what seem to have been his religious convictions. Under the title of "The Prisoners of the Gods,' Mr. W. B. Yeats deals with Celtic views as to ghosts. Mr. Prothero gives some very readable and suggestive pictures of The Childhood and School Life of Byron.'-Almost as interested as England has of late been in her heroes, naval and military, appear to be the Americans: the Century opens with a paper by Mr. Paul Leicester Ford concerning Portraits of General Wolfe.' Most of them, we are told, are spurious. When Wolfe sprang at a bound to reputation, the printsellers turned into portraits of Wolfe vamped-up prints of men who had lapsed into obscurity. Five portraits, including one by Gainsborough, are reproduced. Of these the most striking is a profile from the National Portrait Gallery. French Wives and Mothers' purifies FrenchIn the Fortnightly Mr. Arthur Symons deals with women from the aspersion cast on them by Parisian "The Problem of Gérard de Nerval' without aiding journalists and novelists. It has some good pictures very greatly towards its solution. There is, in of French social life. Mr. Leonard Huxley contrifact, no solution except madness. Those who read butes a description of his father's home life. Rethe stories contained in his strangely misnamed collections of Washington and his Friends' may be 'Filles du Feu,' which include his masterpiece, read with much pleasure. The Mysterious City 'Sylvie, and others on which his reputation subsists, of Honduras' will interest the antiquary.-Scribner's will find there, even, how his thoughts continually opens with what promises to be a highly interesting brood upon suicide. Nerval has, however, an in- Story of the [American] Revolution,' by Mr. Henry teresting individuality, and the story of his loves Cabot Lodge. The first instalment depicts only the and his fate would bear retelling. Mr. Gilbert first blow, and ends with the fights of Lexington Coleridge has a short and interesting paper on My and Concord. The illustrations generally are of Friend Robin,' the most of a gentleman of all birds, much interest. Curiously enough, the next article, in singing whose praise man will never weary. His of which also a portion only is given, 'Red Rock,' song constitutes at this time the charm of our deals with the next most important step in the green lanes near London, and his bright, gallant history of democracy-the beginning of the war of form may, with some observation, be descried secession. 'In the Chestnut Groves of Northern among the briar leaves which his coat exactly Italy' is profusely and well illustrated. 'A French matches in colour. Mr. Percy Osborn gives some Literary Circle' depicts the "Garret of Gongood translations from Philostratus. M. A. Filon court, and has portraits of both the Goncourts, continues his communications concerning the modern Daudet and Madame Daudet, Octave Mirbeau, the French drama, and deals with the work of M. Jules Princesse Mathilde, Flaubert, Zola, and other celeLemaître, M. Brieux, the author of the crowned brities.-The frontispiece to the Pall Mall consists play L'Evasion,' M. Henri Lavedan, and others. of an engraving of C. W. Cope's pretty if convenCacoethes Literarum' attributes to the French tional picture of 'L'Allegro.'Osterley Park,' with educational system the worship of literature which its treasures, is, with the aid of photographs, depicted is a striking feature of modern French life. From by Lady Jersey. Sir Walter Besant has begun a 1820 to 1850, holds M. Bastide, the writer, the pre-series of papers on South London, which shall do valent form of literature in France was poetry, at for transpontine London what he has done for Lonthe present moment it is criticism.-Among the don and Westminster. Sir Martin Conway defew non-controversial articles in the Nineteenth scribes brilliantly The First Crossing of SpitsCentury is one by Sir Algernon West, entitled 'A bergen.' Mr. Schooling gives the first of a series of Walk through Deserted London.' This is interest- illustrated articles on The Great Seal.' Judge ing as including recollections, but has some rather Morris tells in vivacious fashion the story of The strange errors, the most curious of which is speaking Campaign of the Nile.' 'The Largest Church of of the Juliet of Miss O'Neal (sic). Dr. Jessopp has an Olden Times' is old St. Paul's.-'Sir John Moore at article, in his well-known and most gossiping style, Corunna,' in the Cornhill, is by the Rev. W. H. on Parish Life in England before the Great Pillage.' Fitchett, the author of a series of Fights for the The property belonging to the parishes during the Flag, contributed to Australian periodicals, and centuries before the great spoliation under Henry now in course of reprinting. The story of heroism VIII. was, we are told, enormous, and was always is vigorously told. Mr. Stephen Phillips undergrowing. The church, too, was the property of the takes the defence of The Poetry of Byron,' is very parish. We are bidden to get rid of the notion that much in earnest, and says some good things, but is either the monks or the landed gentry built our not wholly convincing. Mr. Charles Bright depicts churches. What we now call squires did not then some Ancient Methods of Signalling.' Miss Elizaexist, and the monastic bodies were almost, from beth Lee has an excellent paper entitled 'A Literary one point of view, nonconformists. "The parishes Friendship,' presenting the friendship between built the churches, and the parishes in all cases Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Miss Mitford. kept them under repair." Very brilliant, if a little The story of Madame Lafargue is told afresh.-In too brightly coloured, are the pictures Dr. Jessopp Temple Bar the stirring and heroic career of Lally gives us of life in this period. It was called "Merry Tollendhal is narrated. Alas, poor Fido!' deals England," but it seems to have been less merry with the fidelity of dogs and the tears that have than it is thought. Mr. Thomas Arnold gives a been spent upon them. 'Poetry and Pipes' contains very interesting account of Arthur Hugh Clough, some criticism in the shape of a species of discussion

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between a tutor and pupils.-Mr. Charles Whibley, writing in Macmillan's on Burns, maintains the view advocated by Messrs. Henley and Henderson, that it is only in the vernacular that the poet is at his best, and that he handles English with the uncertainty of a scholar expressing himself in Ovidian Latin or Thucydidean Greek. Mr. Hadden describes some friends of Browning, among whom we find, not without surprise, mention of Coleridge and Lamb. 'An Episode in the History of the Comédie Française describes the heroic suppression during the Terror by Labussière, an actor, of some of the pièces accusatives against criminals such as Fleury, Vanhove, Molé, and hundreds of others. In the Land of the White Poppy is pleasant reading. Of The French Invasion of Ireland' the first part is supplied. Mr. W. J. Lawrence describes in the Gentleman's A Shakespearian Pantomime.' Mr. James Sykes supplies the origin of 'Some Famous Political Phrases after which we are frequently asked. The Veddahs of Ceylon are described. Some Fatal Books,' by the Rev. P. H. Ditchfield, does not pretend to completeness. We note with surprise the absence of any mention of Dolet.-Very attractive are, as usual, the contents of the English Illustrated, in which we commend to antiquaries and folk-lorists the account of 'Booty from Benin' and that of Regimental Pets.' The illustrations to the former article are very interesting and quaint. Vatican and Quirinal' is also a fair and admirably illustrated paper. Mr. Austin Dobson describes in Longman's, under the title of The Author of Monsieur Tonson,' John Taylor, known as the Chevalier Taylor. Mr. A. M. Bell tells 'The Tale of the Flint,' or in other words describes the discovery and the significance of flint arrow - heads. Mr. Lang, in At the Sign of the Ship,' makes light of Mr. Butler's Authoress of the Odyssey.' 'The Story of the "Donna" is retold. Not one, but two articles on subjects other than fiction appear in Chapman's. One is Notes of a Playgoer,' occupied with Mr. Forbes Robertson's Hamlet, the second a translation of Madame C. Joubert's excellent "Recollections of Heine.'

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IN Part LII. of Cassell's Gazetteer, Steeping to Stutton, the most important article is that on Stirling, of the castle of which a view is given. Stockport and Stockton-on-Tees are also described, as are the various Stokes, Stonehenge, and Stony Stratford, Stow in the Wold, and Stratford-onAvon.

WE have received the Christmas number of the Scots Pictorial, with an account of the ceremony known as 'The Burning of the Clavie,' and some lively pictures of 'The Roaring Game,' otherwise curling.

WE Congratulate the Upper Norwood Athenæum on attaining its majority. Started twenty-one years ago, it has done useful work among its members, and we have read the Record just published with much interest. During the summer months the members devote Saturday afternoons to the visiting of places of historical interest. Papers are read, and much valuable information obtained. The Records are illustrated, and are edited by Mr. J. Stanley and Mr. W. F. Harradence. The present number contains a history of the society, written by Mr. Charles Quilter. The President is the Rev. Lord Victor A. Seymour, the Vice-Presidents being

Mr. Daniel Stock and Mr. T. G. Doughty. We should like to see an extension of such societies to other districts.

WE have learnt from the North Devon Herald, with much regret, of the death of the Rev. John Ingle Dredge, Vicar of Buckland Brewer, one of our oldest contributors. His name appears in the first volume of the First Series, and is pleasantly conspicuous until the close of the Sixth, after which its appearance is less frequent. Born in Edinburgh 10 June, 1818, Mr. Dredge was brought up as a printer, became a Wesleyan minister, joined the Church of England, and was ordained by the Bishop of Chester deacon in 1868, priest in 1869. After holding curacies between 1868 and 1873 at Warrington, Liverpool, Seaforth, and St. Helens, he was presented in 1874 by Mr. Gladstone, then Premier, whose political opponent he was, to the living of which he died possessed. He was the chief authority on Devonshire and Cheshire bibliography and genealogy, and had an almost unrivalled acquaintance with Puritan theology. His works include 'Five Sheaves of Devon Bibliography,' 'The Booksellers and Printers of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries,' The Marwood List of Briefs, 1714-1744,' An Account of Frithelstock Priory, many biographies, contributions to the Devonshire Association, &c. We recommend our readers to turn to what is said under the heading 'Nonjurors of the Eighteenth Century,' 8th S. xi. 52, by Mr. T. Cann Hughes, M.A., who speaks of him as "a grand old man," and probably the oldest living contributor of N. & Q.'

Notices to Correspondents.

We must call special attention to the following notices:

ON all communications must be written the name and address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith.

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. To secure insertion of communications correLet spondents must observe the following rule. each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."

OSMOND DICKENSON ("Buried in Woollen").-See N. & Q.,' 4th S. i. 543; ii. 345; ix. 218, 284; xi. 42, 84; 5th S. vi. 288; 7th S. xi. 224, 333, s. v. Funerals in London."

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