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parts of this Snytterfield land (one of the seven coheirs being then dead), which Agnes Arden held in dower of the inheritance of the said Mary Shakspere. This Robert Webb was first cousin to the poet, his father, Alexander, having married Mary Arden's sister, and Agnes, who claimed dower as widow of Robert Arden, was aunt of Robert Webb as well as stepmother-in-law of his father.

There is, therefore, absolute proof that John Shakspere, the poet's father, was entitled in reversion to the estate of Snytterfield, which Robert Arden purchased, and of which Richard Shakspere was his tenant, as well as tenant of his widow, down to the time of his death; that Richard left a son John; and if MR. VINCENT cannot see the inference that the two Johns were identical, it can only be by the rejection of the clearest inference which follows from the facts. I venture to say that the case is proved, and that the evidence is sufficient for any jury to find it; unless, indeed, it can be laid down that inferences are not to be drawn from facts-a manifest absurdity.

Thorpe Cottage, Teddington.


'Guy Mannering.'-Col. Mannering and Vanbeest Brown (Bertram), in India.

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The Antiquary.'-Lovel and Capt. M'Intyre. Rob Roy.'-Frank Osbaldistone and his cousin Rashleigh, in Glasgow. Thorncliff Osbaldistone was killed in a duel with "a gentleman of the Northumbrian border, to the full as fierce and intractable as himself."

Bucklaw. *Ravenswood and Col. Ashton. Col.
Ashton was finally "slain in a duel in Flanders,"

'The Bride of Lammermoor.'-Ravenswood and

the details of which are not stated.
'Ivanhoe.'-Ivanhoe and the Templar.

"The Monastery.'-Halbert Glendinning and Sir Piercie Shafton.

and the Earl of Leicester (twice).
'Kenilworth.'-Tressilian and Varney. Tressilian

"The Fortunes of Nigel.'-Glenvarloch and Lord
Peveril of the Peak.'-*Sir Geoffrey Peveril and
Major Bridgenorth.

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Mowbray and Lord Etherington.
'St. Ronan's Well.'-*Tyrrel and Sir Bingo Binks.
'Redgauntlet.'-*Redgauntlet and Lord (not
named). (This quarrel was southered" as soon as



Kenneth and Conrade of Montserrat.

The Talisman.'-Sir Kenneth and the Emir. Sir

Col. Everard. *The same, later in the story.
"Woodstock.'-Louis Kerneguy (Charles II.) and

"The Fair Maid of Perth.'-Hal of the Wynd and Bonthron.

'Anne of Geierstein.' - Arthur Philipson and Rudolph Donnerhugel.

'My Aunt Margaret's Mirror.'-Sir Philip Forester and Major Falconer.

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'The Two Drovers.'-Robin Oig M'Combich and won-Harry Wakefield (not strictly a duel," although fatal enough).

DUELS IN THE WAVERLEY NOVELS. As everything connected with these derful and evergreen romances is interesting, those of your readers who, like myself, are loyal subjects of "le roi des romanciers," as George Sand calls Sir Walter, may like to see the following list of duels in the Waverley novels. Those where there is only a challenge, but where the parties do not actually fight, I have distinguished by an asterisk. It may be objected that some in my list are single combats rather than what we understand by "duels." However this may be, I have not included any that take place during an actual battle, or in "the current of a heady fight," such as the Black Knight's hand-to-hand encounters with Front-de-Bœuf and De Bracy at Torquilstone, or Bothwell's terrible single-handed fight with Burley at Drumclog. When one reads this long list of duels one feels thankful that there is no fear of any one-at least in our own land-having his life snuffed out in this wretched way now, though I believe that duels were fought in England so lately as the forties.

If any of your readers should notice any omissions from my list, will they kindly point them out?

and the Lieutenant-Colonel of Fort St. George.
'The Surgeon's Daughter.'-Richard Middlemas

'The Death of the Laird's Jock.'-Young Armstrong and Foster.

In Sir Walter's poetical romances the duels that I at present remember are those of Cranstoun with William of Deloraine, and Cranstoun with Musgrave, in 'The Lay of the Last Minstrel'; Marmion with the supposed Elfin Warrior (really De Wilton); and Fitz-James with Roderick Dhu, in 'The Lady of the Lake.' JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

Ropley, Alresford, Hants.

ROBERT BURTON.-Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy' has been a favourite work with the publishers and booksellers; few books of the seventeenth century have been reissued more frequently in this nineteenth century. Why this has been so it is hard to understand, for it would seem to be essentially a book for the few, and most readers would agree with Lamb when he exclaimed, "What hapless stationer could dream of Burton's ever becoming popular?" The eight folio editions (1621 to 1676) seem to have an

Waverley.'The Baron and Balmawhapple.swered all demands until the beginning of *Waverley and Fergus Mac-Ivor.

the present century, although Watt quotes,

probably erroneously, two folios of 1728 and 1738. The bibliography of the folios is discussed in 'N. & Q., 7th S. vi. to ix., and for the first five is also fully given in Madan's 'Oxford Press.' In 1799 a writer in the Gentleman's Magazine (vol. lxix. p. 200) pointed out the need of a new edition of the 'Anatomy,' and the next year appeared the first of the octavo editions which Charles Lamb declared such a "heartless sight." Since then reprints have been numerous. In the following tentative list of these editions I have, as far as possible, taken the information from authoritative sources; but in a few instances I have had to depend on booksellers' catalogues, and in these entries there is, of course, great danger of error.

1800, London, 2 vols. 1804, London, 2 vols.

1806, London, 2 vols., Vernor, et al.
1813, London, 2 vols.

1821, London, 2 vols., Cuthell, et al.
1826, London, 2 vols., McLean.
1827, London, 2 vols.

1829, London, 2 vols.
1836, London, 1 vol.

1836, Philadelphia, 2 vols., Wardle. 1837, London, 2 vols.

1838, London, 1 vol.

1839, London, 1 vol.

1840, London, 1 vol., Tegg.
1845, London, 1 vol.
1849, London, 1 vol.
1852, Philadelphia, 1 vol.

1853, Philadelphia, 1 vol., Moore.
1854, Philadelphia, 1 vol., Moore.
1854, London, 1 vol., Tegg.
1855, London, 1 vol., Tegg.
1857, Philadelphia, 1 vol., Moore.
1859, Boston, 3 vols., Veazie.
1859, London, 1 vol.

1861, London, 1 vol., Tegg.

1861, Cambridge, 3 vols., Riverside Press. 1862, New York, 3 vols.

1863, London, 1 vol.

1864, Boston, 3 vols.

1868, Philadelphia, 1 vol.

1870, London, 1 vol., Tegg.

187-(?), New York, 3 vols., Widdleton.
187-(2), New York, 3 vols., Appleton.
1875, Philadelphia, 1 vol., Claxton.
1876, London, 1 vol., Tegg.
1879, London, 1 vol., Tegg.

188-(?), New York, 3 vols., Armstrong.
1881, London, 1 vol., Chatto.

1886, London, 3 vols., Nimmo.

1891, London, 1 vol.

1894, London, 3 vols., Bell. 1896, London, 3 vols., Bell.

Many of the above are, of course, merely reissues from the same plates with a changed imprint. I should be glad to learn of any other editions, and also the names of the publishers, when not given in the above list. ALFRED CLAGHORN POTTER. Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass.

BREWSTER'S 'LIFE OF NEWTON.'-Sir David Brewster published a 'Life of Newton' in 1831; but his 'Memoirs of the Life, Writings, and Discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton,' which appeared in two volumes in 1855, is so greatly enlarged that, though founded upon the former, it is not considered the same work. What is called a second edition of the latter appeared, however, in 1860; but it is well to make a note that it is a mere reprint in smaller type of the 'Memoirs.' It is much to be regretted that advantage was not taken of the opportunity to correct the slips in the latter, some of which are very glaring. Thus we are told in the first chapter, speaking of Newton's mother (p. 4), that he was "her only and posthumous child." The expression would have been true if applied to his father (of whom Sir David must have been thinking); but his mother had three other children by her subsequent marriage with the Rev. B. Smith. Again, in the twenty-sixth chapter, we are told (vol. ii. p. 396) that the memorial window in Trinity College, Cambridge, represents the presentation of Newton to George III., doubtless meaning George I., who died a few months after the death of Newton, eleven years before the birth of George III., and thirty-three before his accession. W. T. LYNN.


SWANSEA.-In the course of teaching English history I have used the term Swansea as a capital illustration of the presence on the Welsh coast of Danish invaders. Every one knows that Abertawe, and not Swansea, is the Welsh name of the great Glamorganshire seaport; and students also know that the name Swansea has been traced back by the late Col. Grant Francis, through various spellings, to the latter part of the twelfth century. Col. Francis's derivation from Sweyn's Ey, though he supposed that he was the first to suggest it, had been proposed long before his time; and that derivation is, I believe, the one generally accepted.

In the Cambrian newspaper for June, 1896, I find, in some most interesting articles by Mr. E. Roberts, of Swansea, that Col. Morgan had suggested, in a pamphlet which I have not seen, another derivation, Senghenydd.

Readers of Brut y Tywysogion' may remember that under the date 1215 it is said

(Ab Ithel's translation in the Rolls Series) that

"Young Rhys collected also an army of vast mag nitude and obtained possession of Cydweli and Carnwyllon, and burned the castle. And from thence he drew to Gower, and he first reduced the castle of Llychwr, and afterwards he fought against

the castle of Hugh, and the garrison essayed to consisted of a wooden sole with a large iron keep the castle against him; but Rhys obtained ring fastened to the bottom. This ring was the castle by force, passing the garrison through for the purpose of raising those who wore fire and sword. The following day he marched towards (the castle of Ystum Llwynarth in) Seng- pattens above the region of the wet and mud. henydd [Ab Ithel's Welsh text on the opposite page They were fastened round the instep by a has "Sein Henyd"]; and from fear of him the strap. The clatter they made was not a garrison burned the town. And they, without pleasant sound. In some places it was the being diverted from their purpose,, proceeded to habit of women when they went to church the castle of Ystum Llwynarth, and he encamped about it that night; and the following day he in pattens to leave them outside in the porch, obtained the castle, which, with the town, he lest the noise they made on the pavement burned. And by the end of three days he reduced should disturb the congregation. I have all the castles of Gower; and thus, happy and heard that notices to the effect that all victorious, he returned home." pattens were to be removed before entering were sometimes posted up by the wardens on the church doors. That pattens were not a new invention is certain. Sir Thomas More mentions them, though whether the pattens of his time were identical with those which survived into the Victorian era may admit of question. He says:

Mr. Roberts illustrates his third paper by a map of Young Rhys's march, from which I see that Hu's castle was situated at Pont ar ddulais. The same map shows Ystum Llwynarth near Oystermouth, and Sein Henyd in the immediate neighbourhood of the present Swansea (Abertawe). Mr. Roberts's fourth paper analyzes the compound Sein Henyd, and proves, on philological grounds, that Sein would naturally develope into Sweyn, later Swan. As I have said above, I have not seen Col. Morgan's pamphlet, nor, indeed, the first two of Mr. Roberts's papers; but so far as I can make out, these two gentlemen deserve the credit of having for the first time established a reasonable and satisfactory derivation for Swansea. I should add that the words enclosed in parentheses The word patten does not occur in Mrs. in the above quotation from Ab Ithel's trans-Cowden Clarke's 'Concordance' to Shakelation are from MS. E (latter part of the spere's plays. fifteenth century). J. P. OWEN.

"But loke if ye see not some wretches yt scant can crepe for age, his hed hanging in his bosom, and his body croked, walk pit a pat vpon a paire of patens, with the staffe in the tone hande and the pater noster in the tother hande, the tone fote almost to part with any thynge, nor to restore that he in the graue already, and yet neuer the more hast haith euyl gotten, but as gredy to geat a grote by the begiling of his neybour, as if he had of certaynty seuen score yere to liue."- Workes the Englysh tonge,' 1557, 94. D.

My reason for referring to pattens at the 48, Comeragh Road, W. present time is because I have just come AUTOGRAPH_LETTER OF SIR CHRISTOPHER upon a sample of derivation-making which WREN.—Mr. J. D. Crace has recently pre-in the Sporting Magazine for 1812, speaking may perhaps amuse your readers. A writer sented to the Royal Institute of British of some one or other who had been alluding Architects, of which he is an honorary member, an autograph letter of Wren, addressed to pattens, says :— to Mr. Vanbruck, which was rescued by his father from a mass of documents at Greenwich Hospital which were ordered for destruction some time between 1840 and 1845. Mr. Crace is not quite sure whether the Mr. Vanbruck to whom the letter is addressed was the famous architect of Blenheim, who was afterwards known as Sir John Vanbrugh, but suggests that he may have been employed at Greenwich 1700-1, which Mr. Crace thinks is the date of the letter, in some subordinate capacity. Perhaps some of your readers throw light on this point. JOHN HEBB.


"He means the kind of shod clogs-those ugly, noisy, ferruginous, ancle-twisting, gravel-cutting, clinking things called women's pattens: taking their name from beautiful blue-eyed Patty who first wore them."—Vol. xl. p. 27. The true derivation of the word may be found in Prof. Skeat's 'Concise Dictionary.'


ROBERT GOMERSALL. As we know from the article in the 'Dict. Nat. Biog.,' xxii. 101, that the last published verses of this dramatist and divine are dated 1639-40, and signed "Robert Gomersall, Vicar of Thorncombe in Devon," it seemed worth while to test the PATTENS. These were commonly worn by accuracy of Wood's statement that " one women in the early years of this century, but Rob. Gomersall died 1646, leaving then by have now become almost, if not quite, obsolete, his will," &c. The will duly came to light and, I think, well-nigh forgotten also. I(P.C.C., 143 Twisse), and in the Probate Act remember their being used less than forty Book for 1646 this Robert Gomersall is deyears ago, but never see them now. They scribed as "ate of Thorncombe in the co. of

Devon deceased." There can, therefore, be no question of his identity with the author. The will, which is dated 27 March, 1643, was proved 31 Oct., 1646, by his widow, Helen. Therein Gomersall gave to the church of Thorncombe 20s., and to the poor of the parish 21. To his son Robert he bequeathed 1,000l., and to his two daughters, Helen and Christian, 500l. apiece upon their coming of 65 my age. He names as one of his overseers brother Richard Bragge." The Bragges, it may be noted, were then, as now, lords of the manor and patrons of the living of Thorncombe, which was annexed some years ago to Dorset. Doubtless further particulars respecting Gomersall might be gleaned on application to the family.


LESWALT, WIGTON.-Wodrow, the Church historian, in his reference to the parish of Leswalt, calls it Lasswade. The ancient local scribes of the place all through the eighteenth century, and probably before, in their kirk session books also used the same form. This seems puzzling against the well-known Lasswade, near Edinburgh, one of the homes of De Quincey, and in the teeth of the fact that Leswalt has always officially been spelt Leswalt, i.e., so far back as printed records J. G. C. touching upon it go, I imagine.


CLASSICAL TRAINING OF KEATS.-Mr. W. L. Courtney appears lately to have written 66 a Keats withsomewhere that Rossetti was out his classical training." This seems to have appealed to the sub-editorial mind as a quite remarkable deliverance in literary criticism, for it is now duly presented to readers of provincial journals for their intellectual improvement and delectation. But what is the significance of such a remark? The classical training of Keats was a very limited quantity. He had a school course of Latin, and he learnt no Greek at all. this respect also, as well as in his elemental outlook and wide grasp, he resembled Shakspeare. It was because he could not read Greek in the original that he was so completely transported with the work of Chapman as to dance enthusiastically over the perusal of him till the small hours of the morning, much to the disturbance of his landlord, who slumbered in the flat below the poet's quarters. It is because of the limited classical training of Keats that his ability to look at the beautiful from practically the same point of view from which it was observed by the Greeks is so remarkable and praiseworthy. On the whole, it is unkind to Keats to suggest that he enjoyed a

"classical training." His work shows him to have been practically independent of such experience and discipline; and had he lived another twenty years it is probable that no estimate of him would have implied any THOMAS BAYNE. reference to the classics at all.

Helensburgh, N.B.

A NOTABLE APHORISM.-"Until a man has grasped the truth that there are no classes, but only individuals, he will be all his lifemonition of our patron saint, "when found" time subject to bondage." Mindful of the I made a note of this; but it did not occur to me at the time to ask for it, what I think it deserves, a niche in 'N. & Q.' It occurs in an admirable paper, by Mr. Herbert Paul, on 'The Apotheosis of the Novel under Victoria,' in the Nineteenth Century of May last (p. 774). If Mr. Paul continue to write papers so excellent as this he will rank with the foremost of British essayists.


Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B.

"BOB." (See 9th S. i. 19.)-The American song quoted is called 'Camptown Races,' and the last line is


Somebody bet on the bay.



We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the answers may be addressed to them direct.

INDEXING. Can any of your readers in-
form me of the headings under which the
following names should be indexed ?—
1. Andrea Del Sarto.
2. B. Ten Brink.
3. Fra Bartolommeo.
4. St. Thomas à Becket.
5. B. De Las Casas.
6. Van Dyck.

7. L. A. A. De Verteuil.
8. L. M. D'Albertis.
9. John De Witt.

10. Madame De Witt (Anglo-French writer).
11. Anne Boleyn.

12. Margaret, Countess of Richmond and Derby

13. Joan of Arc (about to be canonized).
14. Duchess of Rutland.
15. Simon de Montfort.

16. Earl of Leicester.

I am greatly interested in indexing, and

bearing in mind that 'N. & Q.' has long been an advocate of systematic indexing, I venture to ask you to insert this query, in the hope that it will lead to uniformity of treatment in the future, settling contradictory dicta, and the promulgation of rules dealing with cases which have hitherto escaped attention. BIBLIOPHILE.

[1. Andrea del Sarto is indexed under Vannucchi in the 'Nouvelle Biographie Générale' of Didot, under Sarto in Phillips's 'Dictionary of Biographical Reference,' and Andrea d'Agnolo in Bryan's Dictionary of Painters.'

2. Under Brink in London Library Catalogue. 3. Goes naturally under Bartolommeo. 4. Under Thomas in Dict. Nat. Biog.,' other

A Becketts under A.

5. Under Las, 'Nouvelle Biog. Gén.'

6. Under Van in 'Dict. Nat. Biog.,' under Dyck in Bryan.

7. Verteuil. See Quérard, 'Dictionnaire Bibliographique.'

8. Under D, London Library Cat. 9 and 10. Under Witt.

11. Under Anne, Dict. Nat. Biog.'

12. Beaufort, ib.; Margaret, Lond. Lib. Cat. 13. Joan, Lond. Lib. Cat.; under Darc in the 'Nouvelle Biographie Générale,' by an afterthought, since under Arc you are referred to Joanne. 14. Manners.

15. Montfort, general consent. 16. Dudley, Dict. Nat. Biog.'

We will ourselves lay down no law but this, that in names such as De Musset you should index under Musset, as you should speak of Musset unless you put before it the prefix M. or Monsieur or the name Alfred or Paul. It is, of course, different with names such as Delepierre or Delécluze, which appear under D. We agree with you that it is desirable, though difficult, to establish authoritative rules.]

"CREAS."―This word appears to be a not uncommon word in Yorkshire and Lancashire for the measles. It occurs in texts and glossaries, written also crees, creeas, creease. Grose (1790) has "crewds, measles," which is probably a distinct word. Is this word creas as a name for measles known in any part of the United Kingdom besides the

shires above named?



The Clarendon Press, Oxford. "DEFAIS LE [sic] For" is the motto to the armorial bearings cut on the vault of the Key family at Christ Church, Chaptico, Maryland. Hon. Philip Key, a native of London, and son of Philip and Mary Key, of London (and ancestor of Francis Scott Key, author of the 'Star-Spangled Banner'), Lord High Sheriff of St. Mary's County, who died in 1767, is there buried, as also are many of his descendants. The shield is impaled, dexter, having a cross engrailed; crest, a griffin's head holding a key in the beak. The

tinctures are not known. What are the source and meaning of the motto? T. H. M.


STEWART: LAMBART.-Can any one give me the lineage of Frances Stewart, the wife of the Hon. Oliver Lambart, fourth, but second Oliver Lambart died 18 April, 1738, aged surviving son of Charles, third Earl of Cavan? fifty-five; buried in North Cross, Westminster Abbey. Mrs. Lambart died on 3 January, 1750/1, in her sixty-seventh year, and was buried in the North Cross, Westminster Abbey. I do not want any account of this lady's complicated matrimonial relations, but her lineage. C. L. D.

ASSES BRAYING FOR TINKERS' DEATHS.-In the south of Ireland the people used to say, when they heard a donkey bray, "There's a tinker dead!" What origin may be assigned to this expression? On p. 24 of 'A Tour in Connaught,' by C. O. (Dublin, 1839), the words, "The tinker's ass brays responsively as the guard blows," suggest that Irishmen are wont to associate tinkers and donkeys in their thoughts. PALAMEDES.

JOHN STEVENSON, THE COVENANTER.—I wish some Scotch antiquary would enlighten me with regard to this ancient Ayrshire hero. Were there two men enjoying these same two names at the period, and both devoted to disturbing the peace of the Crown authorities? I ask because my ancestor, one Rev. Wm. Cupples, of Kirkoswald, in 1729 put together (reprinted several times) a curious morsel of religiosity called 'Cordial for Christians, by John Stevenson, Land Labourer, of Dailly, Ayrshire.' But the deeds of this lachrymal labourer in my ancestor's account, which he asserts in his preface is a record in the actual words of the suffering Covenanter, seem altogether

far too tame to have warranted the erection of the fine statue standing, I believe, in Maybole to the memory of a John Stevenson.

J. G. C.

GENEALOGIES OF NORTH-EAST FRANCE.What antiquarian magazine published on the Continent would be most likely to give information as to the history of a family which was settled in French Flanders, Hainault, and the Cambresis in the sixteenth and preceding centuries? Kindly give the full address of the publisher. STONE MAN.

THE ORDER OF THE LOBSTER.-There is a local tradition in Heligoland that one of the governors instituted an order of the lobster,

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