The Effects of a Magnetic Field on Radiation: Memoirs by Faraday, Kerr, and Zeeman
Preface -- Faraday, M. On the magnetization of light and the illumination of magnetic lines of force -- Faraday, M. On the magnetic affection of light -- Faraday, Biographical sketch of -- Kerr, J. On rotation of the plane of polarization by reflection from the pole of a magnet -- Kerr, J. On reflection of polarized light from the equatorial surface of a magnet -- Kerr, Biographical sketch of -- Zeeman, P. On the influence of magnetism on the nature of light emitted by a substance -- Zeeman, P. Doublets and triplets in the spectrum produced by external magnetic forces -- Zeeman, Biographial sketch of -- Bibliography.
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Page 4 - I have long held an opinion, almost amounting to conviction, in common I believe with many other lovers of natural knowledge, that the various forms under which the forces of matter are made manifest have one common origin; or, in other words, are so directly related and mutually dependent, that they are convertible, as it were, one into another, and possess equivalents of power in their action.
Page 14 - The magnetic forces do not act on the ray of light directly and without the intervention of matter, but through the mediation of the substance in which they and the ray have a simultaneous existence; the substances and the forces giving to and receiving from each other the power of acting on the light.
Page 71 - Kelvin (now 40 years ago*) gave the solution of the following problem : — Let the two ends of a cord of any length be attached to two points at the ends of a horizontal arm made to rotate round a vertical axis through its middle point at a constant angular velocity, and let a second cord bearing a material point be attached to the middle of the first cord. .The motion now is investigated in the case when the point is infinitely little disturbed from its position of equilibrium.
Page 5 - ... were separated from each other about two inches in the direction of the line of the ray, and so placed that, if on the same side of the polarized ray, it might pass near them; or, if on contrary sides, it might go between them, its direction being always parallel, or nearly so, to the magnetic lines of force.
Page 14 - That magnetic force acts upon the ray of light always with the same character of manner and in the same direction, independent of the different varieties of substance, or their states of solid or liquid, or their specific rotative force...
Page 9 - ... (2231.). 2166. I could not perceive that this power was affected by any degree of motion which I was able to communicate to the diamagnetic, whilst jointly subject to the action of the magnetism and the light. 2167. The interposition of copper, lead, tin, silver, and other ordinary non-magnetic bodies in the course of the magnetic curves, either between the pole and the diamagnetic, or in other positions, produced no effect either in kind or degree upon the phenomena. 2168. Iron frequently affected...
Page vi - ... or in the contrary direction. But the elastic reaction of the medium must be the same for the same displacements, whatever be the velocities and directions of the particles ; that is to say, the forces which are balanced by centrifugal force of the circular motions are equal, while the luminiferous motions are unequal. The absolute circular motions being therefore either equal or such as to transmit equal centrifugal forces to the particles initially considered, it follows that the luminiferous...
Page 77 - 1862 was the last year of experimental research. Steinheil's apparatus for producing the spectrum of different substances gave a new method by which the action of magnetic poles upon light could be tried. In January he made himself familiar with the apparatus, and then he tried the action of the great magnet on the spectrum of chloride of sodium, chloride of barium, chloride of strontium, and chloride of lithium.
Page 75 - It thus appears that e/m is of the order of magnitude 107 electromagnetic CGS units. Of course this result from theory is only to be considered as a first approximation. 24. It may be deduced from the experiment of §20 whether the positive or the negative ion revolves. If the lines of force were running towards the grating, the right-handed circularly-polarized rays appeared to have the smaller period. Hence in connexion with §18 it follows that the positive ions revolve, or at least describe the...
Page 15 - But it does not make them magnets (2171.), and therefore the molecular condition of these bodies, when in the state described, must be specifically distinct from that of magnetized iron, or other such matter, and must be a new magnetic condition; and as the condition is a state of tension (manifested by its instantaneous return to the normal state when the magnetic induction is removed), so the force which the matter in this state possesses and its mode of action, must be to us a new magnetic force...