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if the Princess Royal is to be married on es- incessantly levelled at any British family into tablished principles, she must have a Prince and a Protestant for her consort.

An intelligent writer in the Dublin Evening Mail conjures up many objections to the marriage, and suggests an escape from this routine round of royal couplings.

which the Princess Royal should marry! There is not a cousin of the whole kin that could stir without exciting doubts of corruption, favoritism, and nepotism. In view of these difficulties a Prussian Prince is perhaps something better than a pis aller; and if Englishmen look after their own interests with sufficient vigilance and sufficient will, they need not fear that the power of this country will be made away with in a marriage-contract.

From the Times, 3 Oct.

THE PRUSSIAN WOOING.

A marriage between the Royal Houses of Prussia and England now, when Autocracy has got so heavy a blow in the fall of Sebastopol, may be thought useful to prevent the spirits of the corporation of despots from falling too low. This Prince of Prussia, to whom England's daughter is affianced, and whom Prince Albert posted thirty miles to meet, is first cousin to the Czar; who will, no doubt, find in that project of alliance, and in the delicate attention to his AFTER the first great outbreak of the great feelings which makes the time chosen for reveal- revolutionary war Prussia contrived for many ing it, a pledge that he will not be driven to the years to keep herself free from entangling alwall. The indication is rendered more signifi-liances, and, by a vacillating and discreditacant by the fact, that of the whole diplomatic ble but, up to a certain point, successful polibody accredited to the Tuileries, the only mem-cy, to preserve to her subjects the blessings of a ber who did not join in the ceremonial of public dishonorable peace long after the rest of Euthanksgiving for the triumph of the arms of the

Allies was the Belgian Minister-the representa-rope was weakened and desolated by war. tive of England's most politic uncle and of Inde. But all this caution and trimming availed not. pendance Belge. It is surely time to repeal the Royal Marriage Act, and to abolish that most unnatural restriction which forces our Royal Family into anti-national alliances.

The wheel of destiny revolved, and Prussia could no longer avoid confronting those dangers which she had so meanly and pusillanimously avoided. The great military power of Germany-the school of heroes, the elysium The public will perhaps trouble itself little of tacticians, whose reviews were visited from about the absence of particular Ministers. As every quarter of Europe by all the students to the Indépendance Belge, it now represents of high military art, fell prostrate at a single the French rather than the Russian view. blow, like a giant without a heart, on the field The truth is, that there are inconveniences from of Jena, and surrendered within fifteen days the limited choice afforded to royal people. all her strong places into the hands of the They become like a clique at a watering- conqueror. But we doubt if even this disasplace, at which everybody is known to every-trous reverse, and all the unspeakable humilibody else, and the feuds are as much increas- ation that succeeded it, so effectually lowered ed as the complicities by this personal the character and prestige of the Prussian rapprochement. It is in this way that we ac- monarchy as the course adopted by the degencount for the reception given by the Queen erate successor of Frederick the Great during to the Duke and Duchess of Montpensier on the last three years. His conduct has protheir return to this country. The Duke and claimed to the world that the Royal family of Duchess are both persons of some estimation; Prussia regards itself as the mere leader of the they are members of the circle in which Queen van of Russian aggression,-satraps nominally Victoria and Prince Albert move; and that independent, because it suits the purposes of would justify their reception, even if, in a their master that they should be So, but really technical point of view, they did not rather speaking the language and doing the will of a represent Spain than the suspended preten- foreign and hostile Power. The effect of this sions of the house of Orleans. has been twofold; it has completely degraded The difficulty of the repeal of the Royal Prussia from the rank of a first-rate Power, Marriage Act is not of royal making. George making her presence in the councils of Euthe Fourth might have had objections to a rope a mere fraud, which, under the semSussex marriage, and there might even at blance of equality, really gives two votes out the present day be inconveniences if collateral of five to Russia. The second effect is, unless members of the Royal Family were able to we be much mistaken, to establish a wide and consolidate alliances according to their per- impassable breach between the Court and peosonal predilections, without regard to state ple of Prussia. Every feeling of the nationdignities and necessities. But the grand its patriotism, its independence, its Spartan objection to any striking departure from the courage, its highly developed intelligenceRoyal Marriage Act would come from the has been hurt and lacerated to the very quick public. Only let us imagine the suspicions by the disgraceful spectacle of the last few

DXCVIII. LIVING AGE. VOL. XI. 23*

years. The names of the Royal family are associated in the minds of the people with the notions of foreign subjection, national degradation, and the systematic sacrifice of Prussian interests to Russian influence. The nation neither loves nor fears its King, and views in him and his family the representation of that which it both fears and hates.

foreign degradation to internal servitude. They await but the first blast that shakes the forest to fall prostrate, bearing down with them in their ruin the lesser plants that have sought shelter under their shade. The banishment of the Royal family seems an indispensable step in the course of freedom. "It has been so in England, in France, and in Spain; how long may it be until it is so in Prussia also?

of its influence over any portion of the Royal family of England. In humbling Russia we are not only reducing a barbarous and aggres sive Power, but plucking up from the very depths of the ocean that mighty anchor upon which all the anti-popular dynasties of Europe hope to ride out the storm of public indignation and contempt. Why should we place a We make these remarks, not with a view daughter of England in a situation in which of exciting any ill feeling between this coun- devotion to her husband must be treason to try and Prussia, but because they happen to her country-why distract her mind between have an immediate bearing on a very delicate wishes for the welfare of the family which she and interesting subject. On the very day on has left and that into which she is to be rewhich we announced the capture of Sebasto-ceived? Nor is this all. Who is there that pol it also transpired that Prince Frederick does not see that the days of these paltry GerWilliam of Prussia had arrived at Balmoral man dynasties are numbered, and that it is as for the purpose of "improving his acquaint- impossible for them to survive the downfall ance with the Princess Royal." It is under- of Russian influence as for the branches to stood, so far as a matter of this kind can be outlive the trunk that gives them sap and nuunderstood, that in the year 1851, when her triment? Upon what, indeed, do they rest Royal Highness had attained the mature age when deprived of these alien and exotic inof ten years, a kind of preliminary understand-fluences? From their subjects they have ing was entered into that she was one day to withheld the liberty they promised, and made become the bride of this young Prince, the its loss only the more keenly felt by adding heir presumptive to the Prussian Crown; and now that the Princess has attained the age of fifteen years it may be supposed that the negotiation is about to advance another stage. It is the misfortune of Royalty that these domestic transactions, which in private life are concealed under so much reserve, must inevitably be treated as matters of public concern, involving as they do not merely the happiness or misery of two young people, but questions of policy and alliance most important to the Suppose this marriage to take place, who future destiny of empires and of kingdoms. Is can tell how soon we may see the Princess it, then, or is it not expedient, that a daughter whose betrothal to a member of the house of of England should take her place upon the Hohenzollern is now being hurried on with throne of Prussia; and, in forwarding such a such ill-omened haste return to these shores, match, are the parties principally concerned stript of the pomp and dignity with which she consulting the happiness of the young Prin- departed from them, to find as an exile and a cess, or the safety, honor, and welfare of our fugitive in the home of her ancestors that asySovereign and her dominions? We lay no lum which already receives within its arms so stress on the fact of the rapid and visible de- many of the great ones of the earth? Or, far cay of Prussian power and influence since worse, why may it not be the fate of this Prus1851; nor, following the precedents of former sian Prince, as of so many others of Royal and times, should we regard it as any substantial noble lineage, to enter the Russian service, objection if King Frederick William should and to pass those years which flattering anticisucceed in placing what was once a great Pow-pation now destines to crown in ignominious er on a level with the petty kingdoms of Sax- attendance as a General officer on the levee ony, Bavaria, or Wurtemberg. It has never of his Imperial Master, having lost even the been the policy of England to seek the alli-privilege of his birth, which is conceded to no ance of first-rate States; and whenever she German in Russia? Why link the fortunes has deviated from that policy she has seen of a daughter of England with all this uncerreason to repent it. In one sense, however, tainty-all this danger? Why embark anew ⚫ an alliance with Prussia may be considered as on the troubled sea of internal German politics, a step towards an alliance with Russia. The from which the devolution of Hanover to the two Royal families are inextricably entwined male branch has so happily relieved us? Surein the bonds of relationship, of sympathy, and ly, the same considerations which would renof mutual interest; and it needs little argu- der it most imprudent for a private citizen of ment to prove that the present is, at any rate, an assured position and easy fortune to unite his ill chosen time for bringing us into contact with daughter to a man engaged in hazardous specthe Court of St. Petersburg, or raising a suspicion ulations ought to apply with tenfold force to

ers.

From the Times, 1 Oct.

an union with the bankrupt dynasties that yet glorious, and that we might be more content for a little while encumber the central thrones with past fame than eager to embark in new of Central Europe. What is his Prussian quarrels. We even incurred some unfavoraMajesty to us, or we to him? We never seem ble comments by suggesting the salutary tento agree to do the same thing at the same time. dency of so qualified a triumph. Yet, after diffiWhen in 1850 he armed against Austria we culties and countervailing efforts that at the were anxious for peace; now we are involved beginning of this war it would have been folly in war, he in protocols. What sympathy can to imagine, we have arrived at an event which, exist between a Court supported like ours on though very far from final, fully justifies all the solid basis of popular freedom and nation- our caution. The Englishman who stands al respect, and a camarilla just engaged in the among the ruins of Sebastopol has far more interests of a foreign patron in trampling out reason to weep, as many a conqueror has done the last embers of popular government which before, than to pant for new battlefields. A a revolution, resisted with perfidy, yielded to vast sacrifice has been offered up. Myriads with cowardice, and quelled with insolence, of men of many nations; the tribes of many had left behind it? For our part, we wish for a steppe; the labors of many a harvest; the the daughters of our Royal house some better flocks and herds of many a valley; armies and fate than union with a dynasty which knows fleets; a city and fortresses; vast fabrics that neither what is due to its own dignity, to the have been slowly rising from the rock or the rights of the people over which it presides, nor shore; accumulations of artillery, missiles, to the place it occupies in the great European powder, food, and all the fell material of war, confederacy; and we regard it as a poor se- which, after such an unparalleled waste, seemquel to the efforts which have broken the ed still inexhaustible; the resources of emstrength of Russia that we should ally our- pires at the highest pitch of art, have all been selves with Princes who are only too happy to collected and heaped together, only to be be ranked among her pensioners and support- hacked and hewn, rent and torn, buried in the The people of England, at all events, earth and flung to the skies, smashed, ground has no wish to improve its acquaintance with to dust, blasted and burnt, gashed, riddled, any Prince of the house of Hohenzollern. mangled, dismembered, reduced to mortal agony and festering corruption, till the whole lies at length motionless and silent, a mere chaos of shattered fragments and mortal remains. Never since the beginning of history was seen BENEATH a dull gray canopy of cloud, and so vast a pile of ruin and misery, contributed under weeping skies, London yesterday offer- by so large a portion of the human race. ed up her thanksgiving for the national suc- With the exception of a few odious features cesses at Sebastopol. It cannot be said that from which we are happily spared, the catasthis great capital was glad on the occasion-trophe is without an equal in the annals of nay, the minds of the mass of worshippers in war. And what is the moral? Is it that the the metropolitan churches seemed to sympa. Englishman is a better soldier than the Frenchthize with the aspect of Heaven, and their man, or even the Russian? Is it that we are eyes were too often dimmed by the thought of pre-eminent in generalship, in dashing coura success so near akin to a reverse. Still, age, in mechanical ingenuity, in abundance of amidst tears and sighs and sobs, and in con- material resources and versatility of genius? gregations whose sable garments too often re- Is it that they who rule the sea must needs vealed the sad story of some dear one now also shake the earth? Is it that a constitustill and cold in the Crimean earth, the feeling tional government must give us an advantage of thankfulness prevailed, thankfulness that over slaves? Whoever once expected aught the first act of this great tragedy is over, and of these things must now give up the idle that for a while England may dwell on the im- hope; for, so far as England is concerned, the pressions of the last awful scene. That scene only augury we can gather from the huge hecis pictured with no careless and no unfaithful atomb is the hard though final triumph of justouch by the hand of our correspondent, and tice, liberty, and truth. This is much indeed, even the many days that have elapsed since but it is not all. Whatever we ventured to the event was known have not diminished the ask from Heaven in our prayers has been interest of the description. If England ever granted. If any one asked for more-if any did want a lesson, not to humble her, but to teach her to prosecute a righteous cause with moderation and self-denial, it has been given by the results of this war. Very early in it we anticipated as the most probable alternative, that even in the case of substantial success the event might be rather honorable than

HARD WORK FOR ENGLAND.

ambitious mortal intruded national glory or aggrandizement into the solemn litany of nations, he has been signally disappointed.

We now see on what hard conditions even duty must be done. England has seen this many a time before, but the lesson is soon forgotten, and must be taught again. The sol

some things; in other respects we have our superiors.

ed that the temple should ever remain, and that all nations might continue to find a neutral ground for improvement, and a home for the arts of peace. That concourse dispersed; those treasures were scattered; that fabric melted away, and the plough has long passed over the soil where it stood. Not three years had passed when there was another concourse of nations, another trial of skill; other piles of manufactures; hardware in abundance, shot and shell, musket and sword and bayonet; a whole harvest of dragons' teeth. Then

dier who exclaimed that " to fight for his country was the only infallible omen" did but perish before its fall, and Western Europe now The catastrophe, if such it can be called, sees that a still nobler cause than that of coun- has been so long coming, that few probably retry is not to be undertaken without a propor- flect on the really brief interval which has setionate cost, and may bring no glory beyond parated the most glorious triumphs of civilizathe most naked success. In the very magni- tion from the worst horrors of war. Only four tude, sacredness, and necessity of the quarrel, years ago we were all dreaming of universal we early saw and predicted its fearful risks and peace. From the green sward that half girts sacrifices. Yet we never could have imagin- this quiet metropolis, by the banks of an artied, and certainly should not have ventured to ficial lake, among ancient trees, every leaf of impose upon our readers, so horrible a picture which was religiously respected, there rose up as that of the event. Yet this is merely the as if by enchantment, a temple of concord, beginning, and we see in the scorched and worthy of its purpose as a resort of all nations, gory ruins of Sebastopol only the first step in and for the amicable rivalry of universal art. the long work before us. The salvation of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Italians, Turks, and liberty and civilization from Russian aggres- Russians were there all seen displaying their sion can only be worked out with fear and native productions, from which we remember trembling among men, amidst the confused all warlike weapons were religiously excluded, sound of an artillery that mocks Heaven's and comparing their several skills. As it was thunder on many a hard-fought field strewn once asked "Let us make three tabernacles," with garments rolled in blood. An irresistible so in this instance fond philanthropy demandnecessity has brought us to where we stand, but who can say when that necessity will be satisfied? All we know is that there must be no turning back, that it must be satisfied at any cost. Once landed on the soil of the Crimea, honor as well as self-preservation impelled us to the Alma; thence delay was dangerous till we arrived beneath the fated walls; we had to defend ourselves at Balaklava and Inkermann, and were besieged a whole winter in our trenches and camp; pushed on earlier than our preparations warranted, we were obliged to assault and suffer defeat on a day hitherto mark-came other rivalries, arbitrations, and prizes. ed with victory in our calendar; honor led us to the breach where we were certain to be repelled; again, on the last day of Sebastopol, when the lists were about to be closed, and the curtain of endless night about to fall on that stage, we met our last opportunity, unprepared, disordered, ill-advised, in poverty of leadership and effeteness of invention, and, goaded on beyond our own tardy pace by the example of our allies and the awfulness of our cause, we were driven to the slaughter. Thus from first to last we have had little to boast of Woe, indeed, to those that attack us, even though they find us, as they always do find us, unprepared; but ours is not now, at least, the military skill, ours is not the master mind, ours is not the creative genius to organize the attack, to command victory, and appropriate the palm. We did these things once, but we do them no longer. Fifty years ago we had a General, but English generals are like American aloes, they come into bloom once, perhaps, in a century. There is no disguising it, To the Editor of the Times. and the less we blink the fact the better-we SIR,-In your paper of to-day appeared are now novices in war. With a righteous the last of a series of letters from Mr. J. Maccause, an overwhelming necessity, and gallant donald, merchant in China, on the state of allies, we quit ourselves like men. Non om- that country, and on Occidental-more espe nia possumus omnes. We beat the world in cially British-proceedings there.

It was to a small promontory at the other end of Europe, three thousand miles off, in the midst of barbarism, that the scene was removed; and thither half the civilized world went to converse in the proper language of this fresh competition. It was Sebastopol. But a twelvemonth ago that great gathering' was opened, and it too, with the long-prepared fabric, has now disappeared; not to be replaced by green turf, but to afflict and inflame the whole world with its hideous pile of death and destruction. Not four whole years have intervened between two spectacles each unexampled, yet in so different kinds, and so fearfully opposite. No words are necessary to point the inevitable moral of the fearful contrast, which we gladly leave to the solemn feelings of our readers.

CHINESE INSURGENTS AND BRITISH

POLICY.

Everything which appears in the columns 000,000 or 4,000,000. M. Huc, the French of your paper greatly influences the formation missionary, who passed through the places, of that public opinion of which, in Anglo- gives 8,000,000. But though the power the Saxon States, the action of Government is insurgents have attained at the end of a five but the practical expression. For this reason, and because I consider the endeavor to preserve right relations between the British and Chinese peoples to be a special duty, I have but awaited Mr. Macdonald's "plans for the future," in order that I might beg for space in your columns to oppose the injudicious recommendation which it was evident must follow communication difficult. Much, therefore, from his erroneous opinions, and his "false facts."

years' civil war, undoubtedly gives them a political status, and though the supremacy of their chief Government at Nanking is undoubtedly real, nevertheless, the manner in which their posts are extended over some 500 or 600 miles of river valley, and menaced more or less by hostile forces, renders constant and certain

of their purely military proceedings must be left to the discretion of individual commandBy his "false facts," I mean, chiefly, cer- ers; and, while these commanders have a full tain unveracious reports respecting the orig- sense of the right, indispensable to belligerinal position, the character, and the military ents, of stopping any but people pledged to proceedings of the Chinese insurgents, which neutrality from penetrating their lines, most reports Mr. Macdonald has accepted, and now of them never spoke to a foreigner, and would disseminated as true; by his erroneous opin-not sufficiently understand the advisability of ions, I mean, mainly, his notions of the man- patiently and humbly avoiding a collision with ner in which Chinese of all classes regard re- a British squadron, even though it came to bellions in general, and this rebellion in parti- decide whether, and if so, to spy how, they cular; and as to injudicious recommendations, ought to be "driven from their strongholds." I have to point more especially to his advice Of course a squadron, going with such manner that some British vessels of war should be and purpose, among men prejudged as “scum" despatched up the river Yangtsze, through and brigands," would be apt to get most the insurgent lines and past their chief mili- grossly insulted whenever that suited its contary positions, in defiance of their wishes, and venience. with a carefully pre-arranged superciliousness Let your readers suppose Italian insurgents of manner, all for the purpose of ascertaining to take several such cities as Verona, Mantua, whether they are, or are not, " pirates and Milan, etc., seated all on one navigable Po; brigands," and fit persons to be extirpated by to hold these cities for two years and a half in British arms, in the furtherance of civilization, humanity, and commerce.

66

an attempt to expel the German rulers; and the British, finding their trade in Lombardy The home reader of your paper, guided affected, then to send a squadron up past all simply by his knowledge of the rights, duties, the insurgent positions, in contempt of their and modes of action of belligerent forces in wishes and with a bearing specially regulated Europe, will perceive that such a proceeding to signify denial of their political status-all would be a pure abuse of our superior mili- for the purpose of establishing, by a sort of tary power, even if no bloodshed ensued. But open spying, that it was proper and expedient the home reader cannot know, as I do, that to destroy the said insurgents for the sake of such an expedition would not be a mere ex-humanity and to restore peace. Let the Evencursion of inquiry, but must in itself form the ing Mail, European readers, picture this to actual commencement of hostilities by the themselves, and they may arrive, analogically, British nation against the Chinese insurgents. at a tolerably correct idea of the nature of These insurgents have, to the perfect know- Mr. Macdonald's proposal. But my parallel ledge of those even who call them "scum," is inadequate, for, while the Germans are a "pirates,"" robbers," etc., maintained an open larger nation than the Italians, and quite as fight with the Manchoo armies for five years. civilized, the whole nation of Manchoo TarThey have held Nanking, the former national tars are but a handful in comparison with the capital, for upwards of two years. They have numbers of the Chinese, and even those who held the cities of Chin-Keang and Kwa-Chow, are born and bred in China remain less civiconstituting the most commanding military lized than the people over whom they domiposition in the empire, for the same period; nate, and a portion of whom are now engaged and a recent report of their progress-per- in a manful struggle to expel them. If we fectly reliable, because given in the Pekin pick quarrels with the Chinese insurgents in Gazette, the organ of their adversaries-in-order to have an excuse for assisting the Manforms us that they have taken and occupied choos to effect their "extirpation "—a term the chief internal mart of the country-viz., which expresses literally what would ensuethe city of Woo-chang, with those of Hanyang then we shall simply commit a hideous nationand Han-Kow, a sort of far inland Liverpool, al atrocity.

with a double Birkenhead, but the population As to the Christianity of the insurgents, as of which cannot be taken at less than 3,- I shall presently publish a volume in which

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