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pressed, their property had no longer any necessary and damaging ostentation. But
plete the work; — but with her will rest all
We cannot for a moment doubt that the French and British Governments will act with becoming promptitude and vigor in this affair, and will intimate to the Court of Vienna without loss of time that the King of Sardinia is our close, loyal, and cordial ally, and that the alliance shall not be for him's but of this much we are certain: that the source of danger, but a shidd of protection English Government will meet with the utand a sword of strength. Whatever may most determination any attempt of Austria have on the feelings of the English people to wreak her spite upon Sardinia, and that or the language of the English press, the if it were possible the Government should be e nduct of the Eaglish Government towards slack in doing so, the people would speak Austria throughout the last difficult years their sentiments in a mode which would has been faithful and enduring in the ex- lave Ministers no option in the matter; — treme. They have borne much and forborne, and moreover, that if the war of freedom and long. Far from seeking cause of quarrel, nationality against despotism and oppression they have avoided such with a long-suffering should be forced upon us, the British nation care which has cost them much popularity, will rush into it with a real, an enthusiasm, Not only have they religiously shetained and an unanimous resolve which will amaze from using the advantage which encour- both their rulers and their foes, and which agement to the discatented nations under all the probable prudence and the possible Austrian sway might have yielded them, but lukewarmness of the governing classes will they have discouraged any popular move, be utterly powerless to restrain. ment in those countries with perhaps un
unaffected by water or acids, with the oxception of the chlorhydric. Its solvents, the last-named of soda and potash, which decompose it by setacids excepted, are the concentrated solutions ting free the hydrogen. It surpasses all metals as well as by reason of its durability it will become as a conductor of electricity, and on this account invaluable for telegraphic purposes. It melts at a heat between that required to fuse zinc and copper, and is easily cast and run in moulds.
At first it was supposed that it would be impossible to alloy aluminium with any other metal; but the recent experiments of Messrs. Tissier prove that it forms alloys with silver, zinc, and tin. These alloys are fusible in a greater or less degree; but all melt at a lower temperature than the aluminium. The alloy with copper, which M. Deville succeeded in making while engaged in some experiments immediately after his first discovery, is extremely hard and brittle; it scratches glass, and can be fractured by a blow of a hammer, like steel.
The high price of aluminium at present entitles it to be ranked among the precious metals. Nevertheless, it has been employed in the useful arts for many purposes of a highly interesting character. Its unalterableness, its tenacity, and its lightness have made it indispensable in the manufacture of instruments of precision and exactness, in which the skill of the artisan and the value of the time and labor employed are of more importance than the material used. We instance, for example, delicate balances for minute weights, watch movements, and surveying and astronomical instruments. Being unoxyda
Scientific men, and all who are occupied in the practical development of the useful arts, are at this moment deeply interested in the discovery of the new metal, extracted from clay and termed aluminium. This metal was known as far back as 1827; though most of the attempts to produce it date from 1845; but the process of extraction was so imperfectly known, that the few specimens in the laboratories were regarded simply as curiosities, of no practical value. At length the problem has been solved by M. Henri Sainte Claire Deville, a young French chemist, assisted by two young chemists, Messrs. Tissier. The process of extraction has been perfected by him to such a degree that the new metal has already passed from the domain of Science to that of Industry. We need only visit the galleries of the "Exposition Universalle" to see a beautiful chronometer and various other articles of aluminium manufactured in the establishment of M. Christofle. The metal of which they are composed was produced by the Messrs. Tissier. Aluminium is more fusible than silver, and almost as white. It is unaffected by the air at whatever temperature; and unattackable by all acids, except the chlorhydric. When melted and increased in density by hammering or pass-ble, and therefore incapable of affecting injuriing it under the roller, it acquires a bluish tint ously the animal economy, it will undoubtedly like that of platinum. Ductile and malleable as be used extensively in the manufacture of sursilver, it is capable, like that of metal, of being gical instruments. Although it may not equal drawn out into wire, or beaten into leaves of ex- silver in brilliancy, it possesses the advantage treme tenuity. Its surprising lightness, howev-over silver of never tarnishing by exposure to er, is the property which constitutes its great value in the useful arts. Zinc, until now, has been the lightest of the metals in ordinary use; its specific gravity, taking water as a standard But the above are by no means the only uses as 1, being 7.21; while that of aluminium, to which aluminium can be applied. As soon as compared in the same manner, is only 2.56. the improved processes of its manufacture, by Thus aluminium, whose extreme lightness, judg-increasing its production, proportionately lower ing from all previous analogies, would seem to indicate it as highly oxydable, ranks, on the other hand, in this respect, with silver and platinum; for, in common with these metals, it loses nothing of its substance when exposed to the most intense heat, and surpasses, moreover, silver in respect to its property of not being blackened or tarnished by the fumes of sulphur. It differs from copper and tin in being tasteless and inodorous; and all its alloys are perfectly
As if in contradiction of all previous experience, aluminium, in spite of its extreme lightness, has been found to be highly sonorous. Its tone is pure, and its vibrations are of extraordinary duration. It is as hard and tenacious as iron-especially after undergoing the process of hammering.
As we have already remarked, aluminium is
the atmosphere; and this property alone will make it a formidable rival in the various departments of watch-making and jewelry.
its cost, it will enter into competition with copper, and be universally preferred to it. On the one hand, there will be a metal, oxydable, nau seous to the taste and smell, all whose compounds are deleterious and poisonous; on the other hand, a metal, unchangeable, three times as light, tasteless, inodorous, and utterly harmless to the animal economy.
The advantages of the new metal are positive and incontestible. Even at present, supposing
that aluminium costs four times as much as sil
ver, it is not in fact dearer; for a pound of aluminium contains four times the bulk of a pound of silver, and four times as many articles can be made out of it. If the anticipated facilities of production be realized, sooner or later, even no farther than to bring down the cost of aluminium to three times that of copper, pound for pound, it would really be no dearer than copper,
because a pound of aluminium will be thrice the | en, under the superintendence of Messrs. Tissier,
tofle, Chanu, Davy, &c. Let us all pray that We are gratified to learn that numerous ex- that science will justify the confidence which their labors may be crowned with success; and periments, having for their object the abridging industry has reposed in her, that the new and improving the processes in use for the ex- metal will be furnished in sufficient abundance traction of aluminium, are now being pursued to supply the demands and necessities of comin various parts of France, and especially at Rou-mon life.
THE HIDDEN PATH. By Marion Harland. (Low | Francis was the author, but that Garrick must & Co.)
THIS is an improvement upon the author's last
JUNIUS. In Rush's Residence at the Court of London, Vol. 1. p. 310, is preserved an anecdote relating to the authorship of Junius, which may be appropriately recorded in "N. & Q.," not only from its apparent importance, but as more likely in such an index rerum to meet the eye of any future investigator of this vexed question, than in the work from which I transfer it. It is as follows:
have been in the secret. 29
WILLIAM BATES, Birmingham. - Notes and Queries.
speak of plagiarism, but of "great resemblan-
"What's that we see from far! the spring of day
To add a nobler planet to the seven?
Of holy saints she paces on, Treading upon vermillion The chafed air with fumes of paradise? And amber, spicing but must feel that Milton's soul was deep-dyed with the beauty of Herrick's verse when he wrote descriptively, in the "Samson Agonistes," of the approach of Dalila?
"But who is this? what thing of sea or land?
That so bedeck'd, ornate, and gay,
"Mr. Canning related an anecdote pertinent to the topic,, derived from the present king, when Prince of Wales. It was to the following effect: The late king was in the habit of going to the theatre once a week at the time Junius' Letters were appearing, and had a page in his service of the name of Ramus. This page always brought the play-bill in to the king at teatime, on the evenings when he went. evening before Sir Philip Francis sailed for InOn the dia, Ramus handed to the king, at the same time when delivering the play-bill, a note from Garrick to Ramus, in which the former stated that there would be no more letters from Junius. This was found to be the very night on which Junius addressed his laconic note to Garrick, threatening him with vengeance. Sir Philip did embark for India next morning, and in point of fact the letters ceased to appear from that very day. The anecdote added that there lived with Sir Philip at the time a relation of Ramus, who sailed in the morning with him. The whole narrative excited much attention, and was new to most of the company. The first impression it made was, not only that it went far towards showing, by proof almost direct, that Sir Philip—Notes and Queries.
Of Tarsus, bound for the isles
With all her bravery on, and tackle trim,
tuous beauty, and seem to issue from one and
A DESULTORY READER.
worsted in their endeavors to overthrow or to reform their oppressive Governments at home; who in fact constituted the Republicans, Socialists, and revolutionary party generally, in the various States of Central Europe. Most of these had imbibed before they crossed the Atlantic-why or wherefore it is difficult to say
the cultivated, and the respectable classes the political mal-contents of their native throughout that great community are as land who had long sighed for a liberty friendly towards us as we are towards them; which they could not attain; who had been and that just in proportion to the eminence of the respective States in the Union for knowledge, intelligence, political science, and general civilization, is the cordiality of the regard for the "old country "felt by their citizens. But America reckons among her population vast numbers who are Americans neither by birth, descent, or feeling,— who a thorough distrust, suspicion, and dislike are in her but not of her, who disregard her of England. She had disappointed their exinterests, abuse her hospitality, and bring dis- pectations. They had looked to her, as the credit on her character. In virtue of the one great free State of Europe, for aid or at unbounded liberality of her customs, the least for sympathy in their various revolusettled freedom of her institutions, and the tionary movements; they had flattered themrich rewards which she offers to industry selves that they were certain of obtaining it; and enterprise, she has for nearly two gener- they had deceived themselves, or at least ations been the refuge of adventurers from suffered their leaders to deceive them, into a every portion of the old world. The active belief that it had been first promised and and the striving saw in her a field where then withheld; and they resented the disaptheir energies would be secure of wealth and pointment of their unwarrantable hopes as greatness; the depressed and despairing if a positive engagement had been broken and flocked in thousands to a land where success a positive injury inflicted. We need not was possible and hope was reasonable; the loving fled to her as a country where marriage was feasible and where children would be a help and not a burden; the discontented sought her as a land of promise, the tossed and persecuted, as a place of restadventurers of every variety of character and every sort of antecedents, those who had made Europe too hot to hold them, those who had quitted it because it was too sober for their wild dreams and too strong for their attempted or meditated crimes, fugitives from tyranny, fugitives from justice, all these crowded to the great Republic of the New World, and found there a ready welcome, or at least a hospitable shelter, and an uninquiring and unsuspicious home.
tell Englishmen, or any one who knows the strong clinging of the English Government to the established and the legitimate, how entirely baseless were these self-deceiving hopes. But nevertheless they were firmly entertained by thousands of insurgents throughout Europe, - who first settled in their own minds what Great Britain ought to do, then persuaded themselves that she would do it, and finally hated her because she had not done it. There can be no question that England is and has long been in dreadful disrepute with the popular party on the Continent; and that those of them who have crossed the Atlantic in consequence of the ruin of their hopes, have carried their animosity against us along with them, and preached it as a creed in their new country.
Now, among this miscellaneous mass of Of the sentiments towards England which immigrants, two classes are especially no- the Irish emigrants have carried with them ticeable both as more numerous and more in- into the United States, it is needless to speak. fluential than the rest,- the emigrants from The names of Meagher and Mitchell are sufCentral and Northern Europe and the emi- ficient. The Hibernian detestation of the grants from Ireland. At present and for British Government dates far back in hissome time back the emigrants of each of tory. It partook of all the elements of disthese classes have numbered on the average cord which could fan a sentiment into a upwards of 100,000 annually. Each of them, passion-animosity of race, animosity of with their immediate descendants, is calculat- politics, animosity of religion. The pered to reach about 2,000,000. Thus out of verse and apparently innate lawlessness of a total white population of twenty millions, the Irish no doubt made it a matter of enorfour consist of aliens, - men who are not mous difficulty to govern them at once mildly naturalized at heart into their adopted coun- and effectively. Unluckily, too, for genertry, who are still Irish or Germans, notations we did neither. Our Government United States men, - who have carried with was undeniably oppressive and unjust. Our them and still retain all the passions and prej- laws, as far as regarded Catholics, were inudices they brought with them from the land tolerent and iniquitous in the extreme. of their extraction- and who in truth are as There was ample warrant for Irish hatred of anti-American as they are anti-English. A the British Government. But unhappily the great proportion of the Germans belonged to feeling survived long after its causes and its