Page images

necessary and damaging ostentation. But her behavior to us has not the less cooled and alienated our friendly feelings, while her conduct and that of her satraps to their own subjects has disgusted the nation to a degree to which it is not easy to give adequate expression. She may rest assured that if she forces a quarrel on our gallant ally we shall stand by him with unhesitating resolution; and though we seek no fresh work,

pressed, their property had no longer any owner, and therefore reverted to the State in whose territories it was situated"! This is aggression the first. Again, Austria has instigated the Grand Duke of Tuscany to demand the recall of an attaché to the Sardinian embassy at Florence-which attaché had been previously accepted and received; and this not as a courteous request, but in a rude and insulting manner. Diplomatic intercourse, therefore, naturally and necessa-yet if she forces a quarrel on us, we shall be rily ceased between the two Courts; and the slower to lay it down than to take it up. matter might have rested there and no great Our tendencies and wishes are pacific; our mischief or disturbance have ensued. But policy is that of non-interference: our dethere is more behind. Not content with testation of oppression and cruelty does not having caused a quarrel between two friendly go the length of volunteering a crusade States, the Austrian Government proceeds to against it; but if she deludes herself for one thrust itself into the dispute as a principal; instant with the hope that we shall permit her and Count Buol, it is said, has intimated to, to bully or assail Piedmont any more than we the Sardinian Minister at Vienna, that as permitted Russia to bully and assail the SulTuscany has seted by Imperial direction, his, tan, most certainly she never hugged a more Imperial Majesty regards the matter as one groundless or fatal fancy. If she is bent personal to himself, and if the dispute be upon hastening that war of principles and not adjusted within a specified time, “will nationalities which it has been our most sedtake measures accordingly." If this com- ulous effort to avoid and to postpone, she munication really took place, we can only may do so to-morrow, a few more instansay that anything so unwarrantable in sub-ces of interference and arrogance will comstance and so insolent in form has rarely disgraced the diplomatie intercourse of civized States. The language of Prince Menzichoff at Constantinople, so sternly avenged, offers the nearest parallel in recent times.

plete the work; — but with her will rest all the responsibility, as on her will fall all the ruin and nearly all the loss. We warn her to pause and draw back while it is yet possible to do so. A few months more, and We cannot for a moment doubt that the Russia may probably be at the mercy of the French and British Governments will act Allies,—and what will Austria, isolated, with becoming promptitude and vigor in this bankrupt, and abhorred, do then? We depaffair, and will intimate to the Court of Vi- recate with all earnestness the extension of enna without loss of time that the King of the war at the moment when a satisfactory Sardinia is our close, loyal, and cordial ally, peace seems neither improbable nor distant; and that the alliance shall not be for him a — but of this much we are certain: that the source of danger, bat a shidd of protection English Government will meet with the utand a sword of strength. Whatever may most determination any attempt of Austria have been the feelings of the English people to wreak her spite upch Sardinia, and that or the language of the English press, the if it were possible the Government should be e nduct of the English Covernment towards slack in doing so, the people would speak Austria throughout the last difficult years their sentiments in a mode which would has been faithful and enduring in the ex- leave Ministers no option in the matter;— treme. They have borne much and forborne and moreover, that if the war of freedom and long. Far from seeking cause of quarrel, nationality against despotism and oppression they have avoided such with a long-suffering should be forced upon us, the British nation care which has cost them much popularity, will rush into it with a real, an enthusiasm, Not only have they religiously shetained and an unanimous resolve which will amaze from using the advantage which encour- both their rulers and their foes, and which sgement to the discontented nations under all the probable prudence and the possible Austrian sway might have yielded them, but lukewarmness of the governing classes will they have discouraged any popular move, be utterly powerless to restrain. ment in those countries with perhaps un


To the Editors of the Evening Post.

THE following article, from the Journal des Debats, gives the latest and most reliable information respecting the new metal aluminium, in a condensed form, and in language suited to the popular capacity. Yours, etc., SCRUTATOR.

Scientific men, and all who are occupied in the practical development of the useful arts, are at this moment deeply interested in the discovery of the new metal, extracted from clay and termed aluminium. This metal was known as far back as 1827; though most of the attempts to produce it date from 1845; but the process of extraction was so imperfectly known, that the few specimens in the laboratories were regarded simply as curiosities, of no practical value. At length the problem has been solved by M. Henri Sainte Claire Deville, a young French chemist, assisted by two young chemists, Messrs. Tissier. The process of extraction has been perfected by him to such a degree that the new metal has already passed from the domain of Science to that of Industry. We need only visit the galleries of the "Exposition Universalle" to see a beautiful chronometer and various other articles of aluminium manufactured in the establishment of M. Christofle. The metal of which they are composed was produced by the Messrs. Tissier.

Aluminium is more fusible than silver, and almost as white. It is unaffected by the air at whatever temperature; and unattackable by all acids, except the chlorhydric. When melted and increased in density by hammering or passing it under the roller, it acquires a bluish tint like that of platinum. Ductile and malleable as silver, it is capable, like that of metal, of being drawn out into wire, or beaten into leaves of extreme tenuity. Its surprising lightness, however, is the property which constitutes its great value in the useful arts. Zinc, until now, has been the lightest of the metals in ordinary use; its specific gravity, taking water as a standard as 1, being 7.21; while that of aluminium, compared in the same manner, is only 2.56. Thus aluminium, whose extreme lightness, judging from all previous analogies, would seem to indicate it as highly oxydable, ranks, on the other hand, in this respect, with silver and platinum; for, in common with these metals, it loses nothing of its substance when exposed to the most intense heat, and surpasses, moreover, silver in respect to its property of not being blackened or tarnished by the fumes of sulphur. It differs from copper and tin in being tasteless and inodorous; and all its alloys are perfectly


[blocks in formation]

unaffected by water or acids, with the exception of the chlorhydric. Its solvents, the last-named of soda and potash, which decompose it by setacids excepted, are the concentrated solutions ting free the hydrogen. It surpasses all metals as a conductor of electricity, and on this account as well as by reason of its durability it will become invaluable for telegraphic purposes. It melts at a heat between that required to fuse zinc and copper, and is easily cast and run in moulds.

At first it was supposed that it would be impossible to alloy aluminium with any other metal; but the recent experiments of Messrs. Tissier prove that it forms alloys with silver, zinc, and tin. These alloys are fusible in a greater or less degree; but all melt at a lower temperature than the aluminium. The alloy with copper, which M. Deville succeeded in making while engaged in some experiments immediately after his first discovery, is extremely hard and brittle; it scratches glass, and can be fractured by a blow of a hammer, like steel.

The high price of aluminium at present entitles it to be ranked among the precious metals. Nevertheless, it has been employed in the useful arts for many purposes of a highly interesting character. Its unalterableness, its tenacity, and its lightness have made it indispensable in the manufacture of instruments of precision and exactness, in which the skill of the artisan and the value of the time and labor employed are of more importance than the material used. We instance, for example, delicate balances for minute weights, watch movements, and surveying and astronomical instruments. Being unoxydable, and therefore incapable of affecting injuriously the animal economy, it will undoubtedly be used extensively in the manufacture of surgical instruments. Although it may not equal silver in brilliancy, it possesses the advantage over silver of never tarnishing by exposure to the atmosphere; and this property alone will make it a formidable rival in the various departments of watch-making and jewelry.

But the above are by no means the only uses to which aluminium can be applied. As soon as the improved processes of its manufacture, by increasing its production, proportionately lower its cost, it will enter into competition with copper, and be universally preferred to it. On the one hand, there will be a metal, oxydable, nau seous to the taste and smell, all whose compounds are deleterious and poisonous; on the other hand, a metal, unchangeable, three times as light, tasteless, inodorous, and utterly harmless to the animal economy.

The advantages of the new metal are positive and incontestible. Even at present, supposing that aluminium costs four times as much as silver, it is not in fact dearer; for a pound of aluminium contains four times the bulk of a pound of silver, and four times as many articles can be made out of it. If the anticipated facilities of production be realized, sooner or later, even no farther than to bring down the cost of aluminium to three times that of copper, pound for pound, it would really be no dearer than copper,

because a pound of aluminium will be thrice the | en, under the superintendence of Messrs. Tissier,
bulk of the same weight of copper, and three with the co-operation of Messrs. Malétra, Chris-
times the number of culinary utensils can be
made from it.

We are gratified to learn that numerous experiments, having for their object the abridging and improving the processes in use for the extraction of aluminium, are now being pursued in various parts of France, and especially at Rou

tofle, Chanu, Davy, &c. Let us all pray that their labors may be crowned with success; and that science will justify the confidence which industry has reposed in her, that the new metal will be furnished in sufficient abundance to supply the demands and necessities of common life.

[ocr errors]

THE HIDDEN PATH. By Marion Harland. (Low | Francis was the author, but that Garrick must & Co.)

THIS is an improvement upon the author's last story of" Alone," reviewed by us on its appearance. There is more pith and consistency in the plot, and very much less fine writing fewer provincialisms, both of thought and expression. The incidents of ordinary life are still treated too grandly. A lady never bursts into tears without its being announced as the "overflowing of the sympathetic fount." The story, however, is not devoid of interest, and it is, we repeat, a great improvement upon the last.. -Athenæum.

JUNIUS. In Rush's Residence at the Court of London, Vol. I. p. 310, is preserved an anecdote relating to the authorship of Junius, which may be appropriately recorded in "N. & Q.," not only from its apparent importance, but as more likely in such an index rerum to meet the eye of any future investigator of this vexed question, than in the work from which I trans

fer it. It is as follows:

have been in the secret."

WILLIAM BATES, Birmingham. - Notes and Queries.


HERRICK AND MILTON.-I am not going to
speak of plagiarism, but of "great resemblan-
Who that reads the exquisite opening of
Old Herrick's "Epithalamium on Sir Clipseley
Carew and his Lady".
"What's that we see from far! the spring of day
Bloom'd from the east; or fair enjewell'd May
Blown out of April; or some new
Star fill'd with glory to our view,
Reaching at Heaven,

To add a nobler planet to the seven?
Say; or do we not descry
Some goddess, in a cloud of tiffany
To move; or, rather, the
Emergent Venus from the Sea?
T is she! 'tis she! or else some more divine
Enlighten'd substance.


Mark how from the

Of holy saints she paces on,
Treading upon vermillion
And amber, spicing

The chafed air with fumes of paradise?
but must feel that Milton's soul was deep-dyed
with the beauty of Herrick's verse when he
wrote descriptively, in the "Samson Agonistes,”
of the approach of Dalila?

"But who is this? what thing of sea or land?
Female of sex it seems,

That so bedeck'd, ornate, and gay,
Comes this way sailing,
Like a stately ship

"Mr. Canning related an anecdote pertinent.
to the topic,, derived from the present king,
when Prince of Wales. It was to the following
effect: The late king was in the habit of going
to the theatre once a week at the time Junius'
Letters were appearing, and had a page in his
service of the name of Ramus. This page al-
ways brought the play-bill in to the king at tea-
time, on the evenings when he went. On the
evening before Sir Philip Francis sailed for In-
dia, Ramus handed to the king, at the same time
when delivering the play-bill, a note from Gar-
rick to Ramus, in which the former stated that
there would be no more letters from Junius.
This was found to be the very night on which
Junius addressed his laconic note to Garrick,
threatening him with vengeance. Sir Philip did
embark for India next morning, and in point
of fact the letters ceased to appear from that
very day. The anecdote added that there lived
with Sir Philip at the time a relation of Ramus,
who sailed in the morning with him. The whole
narrative excited much attention, and was new
to most of the company. The first impression it
made was, not only that it went far towards
showing, by proof almost direct, that Sir Philip-Notes and Queries.

Of Tarsus, bound for the isles
Of Javan or Gadire,

With all her bravery on, and tackle trim,
Sails fill'd and streamers waving,
Courted by all the winds that hold them play.
An amber scent of odorous perfume
Her harbinger.”

Both passages are redolent of the same voluptuous beauty, and seem to issue from one and the same gorgeous imagination.


land; who had long sighed for a liberty which they could not attain; who had been worsted in their endeavors to overthrow or to reform their oppressive Governments at home; who in fact constituted the Republicans, Socialists, and revolutionary party generally, in the various States of Central Europe. Most of these had imbibed before they crossed the Atlantic-why or wherefore it is difficult to say

the cultivated, and the respectable classes the political mal-contents of their native throughout that great community are as friendly towards us as we are towards them; and that just in proportion to the eminence of the respective States in the Union for knowledge, intelligence, political science, and general civilization, is the cordiality of the regard for the "old country "felt by their citizens. But America reckons among her population vast numbers who are Americans neither by birth, descent, or feeling, who a thorough distrust, suspicion, and dislike are in her but not of her, who disregard her of England. She had disappointed their exinterests, abuse her hospitality, and bring dis- pectations. They had looked to her, as the credit on her character. In virtue of the one great free State of Europe, for aid or at unbounded liberality of her customs, the least for sympathy in their various revolusettled freedom of her institutions, and the tionary movements; they had flattered themrich rewards which she offers to industry selves that they were certain of obtaining it; and enterprise, she has for nearly two gener- they had deceived themselves, or at least ations been the refuge of adventurers from suffered their leaders to deceive them, into a every portion of the old world. The active belief that it had been first promised and and the striving saw in her a field where then withheld; and they resented the disaptheir energies would be secure of wealth and pointment of their unwarrantable hopes as greatness; the depressed and despairing if a positive engagement had been broken and flocked in thousands to a land where success a positive injury inflicted. We need not was possible and hope was reasonable; the tell Englishmen, or any one who knows the loving fled to her as a country where mar-strong clinging of the English Government riage was feasible and where children would to the established and the legitimate, how enbe a help and not a burden; the discontented sought her as a land of promise,the tossed and persecuted, as a place of rest: adventurers of every variety of character and every sort of antecedents, those who had made Europe too hot to hold them, those who had quitted it because it was too sober for their wild dreams and too strong for their attempted or meditated crimes, fugitives from tyranny, fugitives from justice, all these crowded to the great Republic of the New World, and found there a ready welcome, or at least a hospitable shelter, and an uninquiring and unsuspi

[ocr errors]

cious home.

[ocr errors]

Now, among this miscellaneous mass of immigrants, two classes are especially noticeable both as more numerous and more influential than the rest, the emigrants from Central and Northern Europe and the emigrants from Ireland. At present and for some time back the emigrants of each of these classes have numbered on the average upwards of 100,000 annually. Each of them, with their immediate descendants, is calculated to reach about 2,000,000. Thus out of a total white population of twenty millions, four consist of aliens, men who are not naturalized at heart into their adopted country, who are still Irish or Germans, not United States men, who have carried with them and still retain all the passions and prejudices they brought with them from the land of their extraction— and who in truth are as anti-American as they are anti-English. A great proportion of the Germans belonged to

[ocr errors]

tirely baseless were these self-deceiving hopes. But nevertheless they were firmly entertained by thousands of insurgents throughout Euarope, who first settled in their own minds what Great Britain ought to do, then persuaded themselves that she would do it, and finally hated her because she had not done it. There can be no question that England is and has long been in dreadful disrepute with the popular party on the Continent; and that those of them who have crossed the Atlantic in consequence of the ruin of their hopes, have carried their animosity against us along with them, and preached it as a creed in their new country.

Of the sentiments towards England which the Irish emigrants have carried with them into the United States, it is needless to speak. The names of Meagher and Mitchell are sufficient. The Hibernian detestation of the British Government dates far back in history. It partook of all the elements of discord which could fan a sentiment into a passion-animosity of race, animosity of politics, animosity of religion. The perverse and apparently innate lawlessness of the Irish no doubt made it a matter of enormous difficulty to govern them at once mildly and effectively. Unluckily, too, for generations we did neither. Our Government was undeniably oppressive and unjust. Our laws, as far as regarded Catholics, were intolerent and iniquitous in the extreme. There was ample warrant for Irish hatred of the British Government. But unhappily the feeling survived long after its causes and its

« PreviousContinue »