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the gratitude of these men? It is well known that when the Carbonari were persecuted and driven out of every other Italian state, this excellent prince refused to take any measures against them, though urged repeatedly to do so by Austria, declaring that he felt secure in the love of his people: and nobly had he earned that love by carrying out the designs of his grandfather, so as to raise Tuscany above every other portion of the peninsula. We recollect hearing, when in Italy some years since, an anecdote which well illustrates his character. A man appeared before him, and presented him with a long list of conspirators; the Grand Duke and the informer were alone; he received the roll of paper from the traitor's hand, and having put it into the fire unread, sternly looked at him from head to foot, and then said, "That will do, Sir; I shall now know what a villain is like, the next time that I see
Such a man deserves not only the love of his people, not only the gratitude of every Italian patriot, but the sympathy of every good and generous mind; and if, in the latter days of his life, he has shown less firmness than might have been wished, when assailed on the one hand by that storm which has swept in desolating fury from the shores of the Seine to those of the Indus, let us not press hardly on the homeless old man, let us not think unkindly of one who was always kind, or unjustly of one who was always just; and, if no costly monument, no proud inscription, mark the last resting-place of the royal exile, the Athenian historian will furnish an epitaph which, by merely changing the sex, and making a few other slight alterations, will fairly and strictly apply to "the Father of his People.'
̓Ανδρὸς ἀριστεύσαντος ἐν Ἑλλάδι τῶν ἐφ ̓ ἑαυτοῦ
Η πατρός τε καὶ ἀνδρὸς ἀδελφῶν τ ̓ οὖσα τυράννων
ART. III.—1. A Plan of Church Extension and Reform, submitted
3. Urgent Reasons for reviving the Synodal Functions of the Church.
In connexion with the subject of this publication, we will also refer to the interesting account which the Rev. W. W. Malet has published, of the origin and proceedings of the Tithe Redemption Trust. We have long watched with interest and sympathy the exertions which the founders of the Tithe Redemption Trust have made to promote their excellent and most unexceptionable objects. Their design of promoting the restoration of all tithes to the support of the parochial clergy, or, at least, of obtaining augmentations from appropriated and impropriate tithes for poor benefices, must command the approbation of all Churchmen. We cannot, however, quite go along with Mr. Malet in looking on the payment of tithe to bishops as, in itself, any alienation of this property from its original purposes; for Mr. Malet himself will not deny, that from the very earliest period tithes were paid to the bishops for their own support, and that of the inferior clergy; and it should be always remembered
that the bishop is, in the view of the Church, the pastor of his whole diocese, and that all parish priests are his assistants in the work of the ministry; so that there would be nothing unreasonable in the payment of tithe to him by a portion of his own flock. It seems to us, that, sound as is the doctrine which assigns the tithes of each parish to its actual incumbent, there must be some modifications and exceptions, or the result would be a very unequal distribution as compared with the amount of labour and expense; for the tithes of rural districts, in which there is least population, are usually very much more valuable than those of benefices where there is a very large population; the increase of population, in many cases, having caused the tithes to diminish in value. The restoration of the alienated tithes to their original purposes would not benefit so much the numerous poor town parishes as the better endowed country parishes; and for the former, where the chief evil lies, some other remedy must be found than a mere restoration of tithes to their original purposes. There would, we think, be no objection in principle to applying any portion which could be recovered of the impropriated tithe of a country parish already sufficiently endowed, to the endowment of a poor living in some populous place. With these remarks on the subject of the Tithe Redemp tion Trust, we must take our leave of that Institution, cordially wishing that it may obtain that kind of support which is essential to its efficiency; but with the conviction, that something beyond mere voluntary associations like this, depending on the alms of the charitably-disposed, is requisite to meet the exigencies of the Church.
The Plan of Church Extension and Reform, which is comprised in Mr. Colquhoun's publication, is of such a nature as to deserve the attention of all who are inclined to adopt practical views of the subject. It is eminently a practical view, pointing out the evils which are to be remedied, and the means of remedying them. We do not concur in the expediency of every one of the measures proposed; but it certainly ought to be a subject of very great satisfaction to Churchmen generally, to see laymen of so much influence and station as those who have taken a leading part in putting forth this plan, thus earnestly, and, we will hope, effectually, working in the Church's cause. This is precisely the sort of thing that is wanted. We want men who will openly avow themselves desirous of advancing the cause of religion, by extending the means of usefulness possessed by the National Church. We want men who will not be content with mere wishes or writings on the subject, but who will take measures for carrying their plans into actual operation-will push
forward their measures, and persevere in them until they are carried. We are particularly pleased to see Lord Ashley occupying a prominent position in this movement; for, although we may not wholly concur with his lordship in various points, we do concur in this plan as regards its main features; and Lord Ashley has shown before now, that when he has taken up a cause, he has perseverance and weight enough to carry it to a successful issue. Looking at Lord Ashley's general position as a politician, and as a deservedly respected advocate of all objects tending to the amelioration of his fellow-men, either physically or morally; we regard him as well suited to advance the interests of the Church of England, at the present time, in such a direction and on such points as the Plan refers to.
Of the tone of Mr. Colquhoun's pamphlet we cannot speak too highly it is the production of a man who is evidently cordially attached to the Church of England. He is no lukewarm friend, but an attached member of the Church. Whatever may have been Mr. Colquhoun's early connexions and associations, there can now, at least, be no doubt of his firm and enlightened adherence to the cause of the English Church.
We proceed now to examine the Plan in detail. It is conceived in the following terms:—
"I. With a view to the more efficient government of the Church, the better apportionment of Ecclesiastical revenues, and a more adequate supply of pastors to the people, it seems desirable that the Ecclesiastical Commission should be remodelled, and its powers enlarged.
"II. Means should be taken to ascertain the full value of all lands pertaining to bishops and Ecclesiastical Corporations, and to make them available to the fullest extent for spiritual purposes.
"III. The archbishops and bishops of existing dioceses should be endowed with incomes of a definite amount, and the surplus arising from episcopal property should be paid into a general fund at the disposal of the Ecclesiastical Commission.
"IV. The fund accruing from this surplus, and from the improved management of Church lands, should be employed in making provision for the spiritual wants of the people, by the endowment of new districts to be formed on the principle of Sir Robert Peel's Act.
"V. Periodical returns should be made of the spiritual wants of each Diocese, and the results should be published, with a view of directing the contributions of the wealthy to those quarters in which the creation and endowment of churches are most required.
"VI. New sees should be formed in such numbers as to secure the vigilant oversight of dioceses, the annual holding of Visitations and Confirmations, and frequent personal intercourse with the clergy. The new bishops should not have seats in Parliament, and should receive incomes not exceeding 20007. per annum, with a residence.
"VII. For this purpose deaneries as they become vacant should be raised into bishoprics, and the funds hitherto devoted to the payment of deans should be paid into the hands of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for the endowment of the new sees.
"The duties of the deans should be discharged by the bishop within whose diocese the cathedral is situated.
"VIII. As the incomes of the deaneries will fall in gradually, and may for a length of time be insufficient for the endowment of new bishoprics, means should be taken to encourage and apply the voluntary benefactions of such as may desire to contribute to the endowment of new bishoprics.
"IX. The funds attached to canonries and minor canonries should be annexed to ill-endowed benefices in populous districts, with a reserve of funds sufficient for the preservation of the fabric, the maintenance of cathedral worship, and the more frequent celebration of Divine Service in the cathedral."
We do not observe in Mr. Colquhoun's pamphlet, any explanation of the reasons on which the first proposition of the Plan, viz., that of remodelling the Ecclesiastical Commission, is grounded. We are aware that Mr. Horsman has made a great many violent attacks upon the Commissioners, and he has certainly succeeded in causing distrust and jealousy in the minds of many persons. The only tangible ground of objection however, as it seems to us, is the expenditure of considerable sums in the erection of episcopal residences. We agree with those who lament that so much money has been expended in this way. We are no advocates for the erection of vast and splendid piles of building for the lodging of our bishops. We should have been much better pleased to see Lambeth in its old state, than after the expenditure of 60,000%. on it by the late archbishop. This was, we think, a useless expenditure of money which now remains charged on the revenues of the see. But it seems rather unjust to blame the Commissioners for expending sums in the erection of episcopal residences on the same scale of magnitude which has always hitherto been considered essential to the dignity of the episcopal office. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have acted on the precedents which they found-have merely carried out the system of state and grandeur which has been hitherto recognised, and which invests the episcopate of England with all the external attributes of the Peerage. We apprehend that this proposition of remodelling the Commission is a concession to the feeling of the House of Commons; but it seems very problematical whether a better Commission can be obtained. The station and the character of the members of the present Ecclesiastical Commission, inspire the fullest confidence in the integrity of its administration. The