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III. How, in spite of this, it differs from the corresponding sensation-
The illusion accompanying it is speedily rectified-The image inva-

riably comprises an illusion of greater or less duration-Dugald
Stewart's Law-Instance of an American preacher-Testimony of
M. Flaubert-Instance of an English painter-Evidence of a
chess-player-Observations of Goethe and of M. Maury-Volun-
tary hallucinations-Various circumstances under which the image
becomes hallucinatory-These extreme cases are evidence as to the
normal state-In the normal state, the illusion is at once destroyed
-It is destroyed by the presence of an antagonist or reductive.

IV. Cases in which the contradicting sensation is too feeble or is annulled

-Hypnagogic Hallucinations-Experiments of M. Maury-Per-

sonal experience-Passage from the simple image to the halluci-

natory image, and from that to the simple image--Other cases in

which the contradictory sensation is annulled-Wounds in battle-

Hallucinations strictly so-called-Hallucinations of sight after the

prolonged use of the microscope-Partial restoration of the anta-

gonist sensation-Pathological instances-In such cases, the hallu-

cination is destroyed-Story of Nicolai --General means of destroying

the hallucination-Case in which a sensation calls up an illusion

properly so-called-Story of Dr. Lazarus-In such cases, the sup-

pression of the exciting sensation destroys the illusion.

V. Other antagonists-Reminiscences and general judgments form, by

their combination, a body of auxiliary reductives-Their influence

is more or less prompt and energetic-Different examples-Cases

in which their influence is not sufficient-The antagonistic sensa-

tion, which is the special reductive, is then annulled-Examples

in intoxication and illness-The patient then concludes the halluci-

nation to be an hallucination-Instances in which all reductives

are annulled, or of complete mental alienation-Remarkable case

recorded by Dr. Lhomme

PAGL

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