Hand-books of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy: Heat

Front Cover
C. Lockwood & Company, 1877
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Contents

Walferdins maximum thermometer
26
Baudins alcohol minimum thermometer
27
Negretti and Zambras mercurial minimum thermometer ib 36 Casellas mercurial minimum thermometer
28
Sixes selfregistering thermometer
29
Photographic mode of registering temperatures
30
Alcohol thermometers
31
The differential thermometer
32
Breguets metallic thermometer
33
Pyrometers
34
Wedgewoods pyrometer
35
Brogniarts pyrometer
37
The weight thermometer
38
CHAPTER III
40
Measure of the force of dilatation
41
Compensators
42
Coefficient of expansion
43
Experimental determination of coefficients of expansion ib 53 Roy and Ramsdens method
44
Table of expansions
46
Influence of physical condition
48
Fizeaus experiments
50
Determination of cubical expansion
51
Variation of coefficients with temperature
53
Expansion of crystals
54
Exceptions to the general law of expansion
56
CHAPTER IV
57
Relation between the apparent and absolute expansion
58
Determination of the absolute expansion of mercury
65
Process of heating a liquid
71
Rudbergs researches
83
Warming buildings by heated
89
SECT PAGE 98 Bunsens icecalorimeter
98
Method of mixtures
102
Regnaults experiments
103
Regnaults tables of specific heat
104
Necessary precautions
110
Method of cooling III
111
Specific heat of liquids
112
Specific heat of water and ice
113
Relation between specific heat and atomic weight
114
Relation of specific heat to various phenomena
116
Specific heat of gases and vapours
117
Formula for variation of specific heat with pressure
119
Summary of laws regulating the specific heat of bodies
121
CHAPTER VII
123
Heat latent in liquefaction
124
Latent heat rendered sensible by congelation
125
Liquefaction and congelation always gradual
126
Useful effects produced by latent heat
128
Alloys
132
Sulphur
133
Facility of liquefaction proportional to latent heat ib 126 Refractory bodies
134
Weldable metals
137
Table of freezing mixtures
138
Apparatus for producing artificial cold
141
Action of fluxes
142
Various experimental facts and practical consequences
143
Dutch tears
146
Retardation of solidification
147
Change of volume accompanying fusion and solidi fication
148
Influence of pressure on the temperature of fusion
150
Regelation
151
CHAPTER VIII
152
Vapour of a liquid an elastic fluid like air
154
Quantity of vapour in saturated space depends on temperature
156
temperature
158
Daltons apparatus
161
Mechanical force developed in evaporation
163
Regnaults tables for steam and other vapours
166
Specific gravities of vapours
170
GayLussacs apparatus
171
Dumas method
173
Mixture of gases and vapours
175
Liquids at different temperatures in communication
177
Boutignys experiments
178
Expansion of vapours separated from liquid
179
Effects of mere compression
180
Permanent gases are superheated vapours
181
Processes by which gases are liquefied and solidified ib 167 Gases which have been liquefied
182
Carbonic acid
183
Thiroliers apparatus
186
Exceptions to the general
193
Causes which modify the temperature of the boiling
200
Babo and Wüllners experiments
206
Experiments on the retardation of ebullition
215
Experimental determination of latent heat of vapours
221
Latent heat of alcohol
227
Crystallisation produced by distillation
233
CHAPTER IX
239
Psychrometers
245
Secr PAGE 209 Masons dry and wet bulb hygrometer
246
Retardation of chemical action by lowering of tempe rature
260
General remarks on dissociation or thermolysis
261
CHAPTER XI
263
Compensation of pendulums for temperature
266
Grahams mercurial compensating pendulum
268
The barometercorrection
270
Superficial and cubical expansion
275
Illustrations of methods for determining expansion
278
Expansion of gases
285
Influence of expansion on the specific gravity of bodies
289
Determination of the density of vapours
291
Problems on temperaturecorrections
293
Expansion of alloys
296
Correction for fixed points of thermometers
297
Calibration of a thermometer
301
The airthermometer
304
Comparison of mercury and airthermometer
306
CHAPTER VI
307
Practical determination of specific heat ib 240 Problems on specific heat
312
SECT PAGE 241 Pyrometric use of specific heat
316
The two specific heats of air
317
Latent heat
318
Mixtures of vapours and gases
324
Problems on the tension and density of vapours
325
BOOK II
329
Table of conducting powers
331
More recent researches on conduction ib 249 Variations of conductivity in the same body
333
Conductivity of wood
334
Conductivity of organic substances
336
Rumfords experiments
337
Influence of mechanical state on conductivity
338
Comparison of the conducting power of two rods
340
Absolute conductivity
342
Conductivity of liquids Convection
343
Conducting power of water
344
Conductivity of gases
347
Causes which influence the conductivity
350
Examples ib 262 Numerical expression for conductivity
354
Most recent experiments on conductivity in gases
355
Summary of the results of experiments
356
CHAPTER XIII
357
Instruments for the study of radiant heat
359
SECT PAGE 267 Thermal analysis of solar light
360
Refrangibility dependent on the nature of medium
361
Radiation of invisible rays
362
Reflection of heat
363
Absorption
365
Thermal equilibrium
367
Transmission of heat
368
Results of Mellonis experiments
369
Diathermancy
371
Polarisation of heat
372
Formation of dew
375
Artificial ice
376
Recent experiments and theories
377
Analogies between light and radiant heat
378
Law of diminution with the distance
380
Relation between radiation and absorption
383
Elective absorption
384
Diathermancy of liquids
386
Influence of thickness
387
Quality of heat
389
Absorption by gaseous matter
390
Action of vapours
392
Action of perfumes
393
Absorption of aqueous vapour
394
Summary of phenomena
395
Reflexion and refraction
397
Absorption
398
General results
399
CHAPTER XIV
400
Joules experiments
401
Heat rendered sensible by compression of air
402
Hirns experiment
404
Specific heat of air at constant volume and constant pressure
405
Further consequences and theoretical considerations
406
Steamengines Loss of heat when work is done
411
Other physical processes
412
Melting of ice
413
BOOK III
414
Combustion 311 Carbon 312 Hydrogen
415
Flame
419
Products of combustion
422
Construction of grates
424
Temperaturo necessary for combustion 317 Quantity of heat developed by combustibles 414 415 ib 417 419 422 424 431
431
Object of calorimetry
432
CHAPTER XVI
434
Temperature of blood 320 Results of observations 321 Chemical action accounts for total heat 434
435
Apparent and absolute expansion 58
443

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