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In presenting to the public another volume of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA, containing the record of the most turbulent year which the country has witnessed, the publishers trust that it will be found truthful and impartial. No efforts have been spared to secure its completeness and accuracy, and to preserve it free from every mark of partisanship.
The year 1863 was a remarkable one. Principles adopted in the previous years had gone into effect, and now manifested their results. Many new and important questions thus came up, and were discussed in Congress, by the press, and before civil tribunals. In Europe, also, similar developments were manifested, and although the conflict of arms was not so extensive or violent as in this country, the agitation of men's minds was no less deep and earnest. In these pages the effort has been made to present the facts of this seething condition, so that the reader may see what steps have been taken in public and social affairs, and how far forward they lead toward any amelioration of mankind.
Among the numerous questions discussed were those relating to confiscation, emancipation, indemnity official and pecuniary, the relations of the insurrectionary States to the Union, personal liberty, martial law, prize, the liability of Great Britain for damages done by the Alabama, the reconstruction of the map of Europe, and the reorganization of Germany.
A detailed statement of the vast military and naval operations in this country is given, which presents the movements of the armies day by day, and step by step, with the objects of those movements, and their consequences; also the efforts of the Government to improve the condition of the freedmen who came within their control, and to organize the able-bodied as soldiers; also the plans and arrangements of its immense hospitals for the sick and wounded. The military operations are illustrated with complete topographical maps of the country.
The details of the internal affairs of the country embrace the organization of the armies, North and South; the number and condition of the troops; the important measures and debates in Congress; the acts of State Legislatures,
and resolutions of political organizations, and the results of elections; the finances of the Federal Government, and of that of the insurrectionary States, and the important public measures of the latter; the commerce of the country, and the regulations adopted for commercial intercourse with parts of the Southern States within the lines of the army; the correspondence with foreign States; the enrolment and draft, and the exchange of prisoners; the unusual popular disturbances, and all those important occurrences comprised in the history of the nation.
The interesting events relating to foreign nations in all parts of the world are presented, and more especially the conflict in Poland, the movements in Germany, the emancipation in Russia, the propositions of France, and her efforts to obtain a congress to settle the vexed complications of Europe.
The mechanical industry manifested in the construction of iron-clad ships has been severely tested during the year. These results, with the opinions of their commanders, are not overlooked. The improvements in heavy ordnance are also described.
The progress of science in its application to useful purposes has been brought up in some branches, and the views and discussions of scientific men in others, are presented.
The geographical explorations which have been actively pursued in all quarters, have resulted in some discoveries which have long been sought by brave and enterprising men.
The history of the financial operations of the Federal Government from the beginning of the civil war to the close of the year, are described. It embraces the condition of the treasury, the system of finance adopted by the Secretary, the measures recommended by him to Congress, the action of that body and the results, together with tables from the Department which have not before appeared in print.
A most thorough and complete classification of the books published during the year, shows that the record of literature is not less important than in any previous year.
The notice of the principal religious denominations of the country, states their branches, membership, views on civil affairs, and the spread of their distinctive opinions.
The number of distinguished men who closed their career during the year, has been unusually large. A brief tribute has been paid to their characters and services.
All important documents, messages, orders, and letters from official persons, are inserted entire.
AFRICA. The most important of the countries of this continent which have native governments, are Egypt, Abyssinia, Liberia, Morocco, Tunis, Tripoli, and Madagascar. Egypt, under the enlightened rule of Said Pasha, who died on Jan. 18th, 1863, and his successor, the actual Pasha Ismail, has been, and is still, making great progress in civilization. Its population is rapidly increasing, and had, in 1859, risen to 5,125,000. The canal of Suez, which is rapidly approaching completion (see SUEZ, CANAL OF), will give to Egypt a large interest in the commerce of the world, and greatly elevate its position among civilized nations. Its principal city, Cairo, with 254,000 inhabitants, and Alexandria, with 150,000 inhabitants, will soon claim a place among the great and important emporiums of the world.
The Emperor of Abyssinia has been for some years engaged in war against the neighboring tribes, for the purpose of enlarging the boundaries of his empire. The details of these wars, which continued during the year 1863, are of little interest, although the public was shocked toward the close of the year by a report of unparalleled barbarities committed by him. On the other hand, the emperor is highly praised as friendly to civilization by some lay missionaries of the Missionary Society of Basle, Switzerland, who have been permitted to settle in Abyssinia and establish schools. The Republic of Liberia continues to advance in prosperity. On February 17th the ratifications of a treaty of commerce and navigation, concluded at London between Liberia and the United States of America, were exchanged. In the island of Madagascar a revolution broke out on May 12th, at the capital of Tanarivo. King Radama II. and his ministers were assassinated. The widow of the king was proclaimed queen under the name of RaVOL. III.-1 A
soaheri-Manjoka, and signed a constitution, drawn up by the anti-foreign party of the Hovas. The treaties concluded by King Radama with the European Powers were suspended, but assurance was given that religious liberty would be respected, and that the labors of the missionaries would not be interfered with.
Among the English possessions in Africa, the islands of Mauritius and Seychelles are rapidly increasing in population. The total population of Mauritius, according to the census of April, 1861, was 313,462, no less than 129,956 more than in 1851. The Indian-born population numbered 172,425, and the children of Indian parents were 20,029, so that the Indian element now numbers 192,604, or more than three fifths of the whole. In 1862 there were 9,893 additional immigrants landed in Mauritius, and 190 liberated Africans on the Seychelles. No one of the European Powers is making so great progress on the African continent as France. This is especially the case on the western coast. In Senegal and its dependencies she has already annexed a territory of 25,357,525 hectares with 252,000 inhabitants, while fully 1,000,000 of natives are exclusively trading with her. On Feb. 27th, 1863, the commander of the French fleet stationed upon the western coast accepted, in the name of his government, the protectorate of Porto Novo, the coast west of Lagos. In Algeria France now rules over an area of 39,000,000 hectares, and a population of 2,999,124. Of these 2,806,378 are natives, and 192,746 Europeans.
The number of Roman Catholics in Africa may be estimated at about 1,100,000, of whom about 10,000 live in the Cape Colony, 2,500 in Natal, 120,000 in Mauritius, 6,000 in the Seychelles, 10,000 in Senegambia, 120,000 in Reunion, 439,000 in the Portuguese and 12,000 in the Spanish possessions, 185,000 in Algeria,
27,000 in Egypt, 30,000 in Abyssinia, 10,000 in of the crop of the previous year, and the qualTunis and Tripolis.
Protestantism prevails in Liberia, in the Cape, Colony, and other English possessions. In Madagascar, where the missionaries have been able to gather again the dispersed native congregations, the number of Protestants is supposed to reach fully 10,000. Altogether the number of the population connected with or at least under the influence of Protestant denominations is estimated at about 730,000.
Of other Christian bodies, there are in Africa the Abyssinian Church with a population of 3,000,000; the Copts in Egypt, whose number is estimated by some at 150,000, by others at 250,000; Syrian Christians (in Egypt), 5,000; Greeks (in Egypt), 5,000; Armenians, 2,000. The negro tribes in the interior of Africa have, since the beginning of the present century, adopted to a large extent the Mohammedan creed. More recently it has been reported that Islamism is making some inroads in regions which have been hitherto regarded as secured to Christianity. On the west coast of Africa it has proselyted many of the liberated Africans, and is now extending southerly on the coast. In the Cape Colony the Mohammedan working people are accounted among the most orderly part of the population, and many of them find wives among the English girls, who do not scruple to adopt the religion of their husbands.
ity of much of that gathered was very poor, possessing no fattening properties. As a result of this, the number of hogs fattened was very much smaller than the previous year, and the larger part of those slaughtered were not in such condition as to furnish the best grades of mess pork. The same frost materially diminished the potato crop, which, in consequence, was 13 millions of bushels less than the previous year, and the buckwheat crop, which fell off nearly three millions of bushels, or about one sixth of the crop.
The grain crops of England and France were much better than they had been for two years previous, and hence the export demand was not as heavy; but the large demand for the army and navy, and the short crop of corn, enhanced the price of all descriptions of bread stuff, and at the close of the year, they were from twenty to twenty-five per cent. higher than in 1862. Provisions of the higher grades had advanced, mainly from the falling off of the corn crop, about 30 per cent.; but the exports of these, owing in part, perhaps, to the higher rates of exchange, had increased during the year over any previous year. The accompanying tables will exhibit the estimated amount of the principal crops in each of the Northern States in 1862 and 1863, and the exports of agricultural produce.
The following crops and products are estimated in the aggregate by the Agricultural Department from the monthly returns of their correspondents, as follows, in 1862 and 1863:
Crop or Product,
Flax seed......................... .bushels..
Exports of Breadstuffs and Provisions in 1862 and 1863 from New York.
AGRICULTURE. The crops of the year 1863 were not generally equal to those of 1862. The wheat crop exceeded that of 1862, in the quantity produced, about one million of bushels; but this was owing to the considerably greater breadth sown, and not to the number Hay.. of bushels grown to the acre. The quality of the grain was somewhat inferior. The amount of rye produced was nearly half a million of bushels less than in 1862, and of barley about a million bushels less; while the production of oats (though the grain itself was lighter) was about two and one third million bushels more. The great falling off, however, was in the fall crops corn, buckwheat, and potatoes, and was due to two severe frosts: one occurring on the 28th, 29th, and 30th of August; the other on the 18th of September. These frosts were most severe in a tract extending from Lake Superior southward as far as Tennessee, and, perhaps, five hundred miles in width. In the northeast, the second frost did not appear till the 22d of September, and in New York not until the 24th, and was much less severe than in the Mississippi valley. The corn, at the time of the first frost, was not sufficiently forward to have formed much of its starch principle, and as the sap flowed but little after the first frost, and not at all after the second, it was prevented from any complete development, and dried up in a shrivelled condition. The falling off in the amount of the crop, notwithstanding the much greater breadth planted, was over 134 millions of bushels, about one fourth
Breadstuffs and Provisions.
Beef, from all ports..
Hams and bacon....
The culture of the grape, both as a table fruit and for the purpose of producing wine, has received a new impulse the past year. The comparative merits of different varieties have been very thoroughly ascertained. For table purposes it seems to be settled that, in the northern tier of States, the Delaware, Concord, and Hartford Prolific are the most desirable, ripening earlier than others, and producing fruit of a good quality. For the region_lying_south of 40° N. latitude, the Catawba, Diana, Union Village, Isabella, and Allen's Hybrid are re
AMOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL CROPS IN EACH OF THE NORTHERN STATES AND TERRITORIES IN 1862 AND 1863.
Compiled from the Reports of the U. 8. Agricultural Department.
The returns of the Crops in these States showing very little variation in the two years, the returns of 1862, which were made with great care, have been adopted for 1863.