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ADDITIONAL COPIES

OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCU'RED FROM
TRE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.

AT

30 CENTS PER COPY

PUBLICATIONS OF THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON WOOD

UTILIZATION

THE MARKETING OF SHORT-LENGTH LUMBER.

This report contains a careful analysis of more than 250 house plans representing the typical small American house and shows that about 20 per cent of the total lumber bill may be purchased in lengths of less than 8 feet, while in actual practice only about 142 per cent of the lumber is bought in short lengths, the balance (182 per cent) being cut into short lengths from long lengths on the job. Tables show where these short lengths may be used in building and construction. Price, 10 cents per

copy. END-MATCHED SOFTWOOD LUMBER AND ITS USES.

A discussion of the manufacture of end-matched softwood lumber, its handling, storing, and use, with particular reference to building and construction. The report points out an important saving in the use of lum

ber and installation costs. Price, 5 cents per copy. SAWDUST AND WOOD FLOUR.

This report gives a detailed description of the known uses of sawdust, together with a description of how this material should be treated and handled. The subject of wood flour (ground sawdust) is given special treatment, mainly with the idea of making the United States independent

of foreign supplies of this material. Price, 10 cents per copy. GRADE MARKING OF LUMBER FOR THE CONSUMERS' PROTECTION.

This bulletin explains grade marking as applied to lumber and shows the benefits and economics of specifying and using lumber marked to

indicate quality. Price, 10 cents per copy. SEASONING, HANDLING, AND CARE OF LUMBER (CONSUMERS' EDITION).

First of a series of four monographs on the proper seasoning, handling, and care of lumber. Written from the consumer's point of view. Price,

15 cents per copy. SEASONING, HANDLING, AND CARE OF LUMBER (DISTRIBUTORS' EDITION).

The second of a series of four monographs on the proper seasoning, handling, and care of lumber. Written from the distributor's point of

view. Price, 20 cents per copy. SEASONING, HANDLING, AND CARE OF LUMBER (FABRICATORS' EDITION).

The third of a series of four monographs on the proper seasoning, handling, and care of lumber. Written from the fabricator's point of

view. Price, 25 cents per copy. SURVEY OF NONUTILIZED WOOD IN VIRGINIA.

The first of a series of State surveys of nonutilized wood occurring at sawmills and wood-fabricating plants. Methods of utilizing and disposing of wood waste are suggested, together with recognized practices which decrease waste production. An appendix lists the name and address of each firm which has nonutilized wood for disposal as well as the kind, amount, and species of this material. A large map folder shows the distribution of waste by counties and the location of each mill which has

reported nonutilized wood. Price, 20 cents a copy. (The above publications are for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., or from any district office of the Department of Commerce in the principal cities.)

840201

CONTENTS

Page

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Introduction

Why the manufacturer seasons his lumber---

Place of seasoning in American Lumber Standards.-

Losses incurred in seasoning lumber-

Seasoning of lumber in sawmill yards.

Sawmill yard arrangement and layout---

Pile foundations.---

Width and spacing of lumber piles..

Experimental tests on foundations..

Pile widths and heights --

Side and rear spacing of lumber piles.---

Pile stickers, and chimneys or tunnels, and spacing between boards_

Projection of end stickers ---

Sorting of lumber for grades, widths, and lengths for piling-

Box piling---

Special piling in pile bottoms..

Pile roofs.

Side piling

Special pile protection

Air seasoning as affected by liability to blue stain.

Defects produced in lumber by air seasoning--

Surface checking and casehardening-

Loosening of knots -

Warping and cupping-

Period required for adequate air-drying of lumber-

Seasoning of miscellaneous sawmill products_-

Seasoning of timbers ---

Seasoning of sawed railroad ties_

Air-drying of lath.--

Air-drying of small-dimension stock..

The kiln-drying of lumber at the sawmill.

The kiln operator---

Progressive and compartment types of kilns..

Progressive kilns ---

Sorting of mill product for drying in progressive kilns.

Drying time in progressive kilns.--

Steam-heating equipment of dry kilns.--

Why the final kiln-drying stage needs more heat and less humidity

Compartment kilns for sawmill kiln-drying---

Piling of lumber for kiln-drying----

Stickers and sticking in dry-kiln piling-

Box-piling in kiln loads.--

Common faults in compartment-kiln operation.

Operation of compartment kilns---

Steaming treatments particularly in compartment kilns.

Kiln-drying of sawmill product other than lumber-

The kiln-drying of shingles----

Making moisture-content tests--

Casehardening tests and samples.

Dry-kiln control readings and instruments.-

Final steaming of kiln-dried stock.

Sawmill shed storage of lumber---

Heated storage.--

Kiln-drying in a vacuum.

Bibliography of lumber seasoning, handling, and care for the lumber

manufacturer ---

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11. Short hemlock piled two end-lapped lengths to pile

12. Good and poor care of stickers---

13. Power lumber piler or elevator---

14. “Air-line piling" under monorail.

15. Portable horse used in piling unit packages_

16. Sling used for lifting unit packages by cable-

17. Straddle lumber tractor-

18. Elevated tramcar helps in piling lumber---

19. Improved jack for elevating lumber to top of pile_-

20. Simple sticker spacing frame----

21. Diagram of arrangement of tiers in box piling-

22. Yard alleys showing common form of pile roofs-

23. Cross section of side-piled lumber pile---

24. Pile shield for end of pile of 3-inch cypress---

25. Pole stacking for reduction of blue-stain damage.

26. Samples showing checking and honeycombing--

27. Section of oak plank showing severe honeycomb---

28. End checking in a cross section of western larch.-

29. Partly air-dried pile of thick oak with severe end check

30. Warped lumber produced by crooked sticker course

31. Drying rate chart for Douglas fir-----

32. Method of piling railroad ties known as 7-1 or 8-1.-

33. Lath loaded for kiln-drying at southern pine sawmill.

34. Round-edged lumber piled for air-drying--

35. Squares bundled with stickers and wire-tied over protecting blocks--

36. Bundle dimension stacked for air-drying outdoors--

37. Piles of squares end protected with heavy paper..

38. Squares shed piled with ends butted to reduce end check---

39. Dimension in large stacks, end lapped---

40. Short lumber piled herringbone fashion without stickers.

41. Air-seasoning yard for stave bolts-----

42. Stack of stave bolts showing method of stacking--

43. Proper piling of squares to reduce surface check----

44. Conventionalized longitudinal section of progressive kiln.

45. Kiln load piled with narrow vertical vents..

46. Kiln load piled with liberal vertical air vents.

47. Kiln load mechanically piled of package units.

48. Convenient form of control chart for progressive kilns--

49. Conventionalized cross section of compartment kiln--

50. Edge-stacked kiln load collapsed by shrinkage in kiln.

51. Study of two kinds of spacing between boards.-

52. Use of form for shaping chimney in kiln load.

53. Completed load piled with use of tunnel form.-

54. Kiln load piled with vertical through chimney.

55. Kiln load with flared chimney reaching part way up-

56. Piling frame with sticker spacing racks---

57. Kiln load of redwood piled in sticker frame--

58. Transfer car equipped with tractor power---

59. Method of cutting moisture-test samples.

60. Recesses in side of kiln load for holding kiln samples.

61. Casehardening samples and what they show---

62. Cupping of casehardened southern pine board upon resawing-

63. Churt of equilibrium moisture content in wood.---

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