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Than is thy ftrange apparent cruelty.
And, where thou now exact'ft the penalty,
Which is a pound of this poor merchant's flesh,
Thou wilt not only lose the forfeiture,
But, touch'd with human gentleness and love,
Forgive a moiety of the principal;
Glancing an eye of pity on his loffes,
That have of late fo hudled on his back,
Enough to prefs a royal merchant down;
And pluck commiferation of his ftate
From braffy bofoms, and rough hearts of flint;
From stubborn Turks and Tartars, never train'd
To offices of tender courtefie.

We all expect a gentle answer, Jew.

Shy. I have poffefs'd your Grace of what I purpose. And by our holy Sabbath have I fworn,

To have the due and forfeit of my bond.
If you deny it, let the danger light
Upon your charter, and your city's freedom!
You'll ask me, why I rather chufe to have
A weight of carrion flesh, than to receive
Three thousand ducats? I'll not answer that.
But fay, it is my humour; is it answer'd?
What if my house be troubled with a rat,
And I be pleas'd to give ten thousand ducats
To have it baned? what, are you answer'd yet?
Some men there are, love not a gaping pig;
Some, that are mad, if they behold a cat ;
And others, when the bag-pipe fings i' th' nofe,
Cannot contain their urine for affection. (15)


(15) Cannot contain their Urine for Affection.
Mafterless paffion fways it to the Mood

of what it likes, or loaths.] Masterlefs Paffion was first Mr. Rowe's Reading, (on what Authority, I am at a Lofs to know;) which Mr. Pope has fince copied. And tho' I have not difturb'd the Text, yet, I must observe, I don't know what Word there is to which this Relative [it, in the 2d Line] is to be referr'd. The ingenious Dr. Thirlby, therefore, would thus adjust the Paffage.





Masterlefs paffion fways it to the mood
Of what it likes, or loaths. Now, for
As there is no firm reafon to be render'd,
Why he cannot abide a gaping pig;
Why he, a harmless neceffary cat ;
Why he, a woollen bag-pipe; but of force
Muft yield to fuch inevitable shame,
As to offend, himself being offended;
So can I give no reason, nor I will not,
More than a lodg'd hate and a certain loathing
I bear Anthonio, that I follow thus


A lofing fuit against him. Are you answer'd?
Ba. This is no anfwer, thou unfeeling man,
T'excufe the current of thy cruelty.

Shy. I am not bound to please thee with my an-

Baff. Do all men kill the thing they do not love?
Shy. Hates any man the thing he would not kill?
Baff. Ev'ry offence is not a hate at first.

Shy. What, would't thou have a ferpent fting thee


Ant. I pray you, think, you question with a Jew. You may as well go ftand upon the beach, And bid the main flood 'bate his ufual height. You may as well ufe queftion with the wolf, Why he hath made the ewe bleat for the lamb. You may as well forbid the mountain pines To wag their high tops, and to make no noise,

Cannot contain their Urine; for Affection,

* Master of Paffion, sways it &c. * Or, Mistress. And then it is govern'd of Paffion: and the 2 old Quarte's and Folio's read. Mafters of Paffion, &c.

It may be objected, that Affection and Paffion are Synonomous Terms, and mean the fame Thing. I agree, they do at this time. But I obferve, the Writers of our Author's Age made a fort of Diftin&tion: confidering the One as the Cause, the Other as the Effect. And then, in this place, Affection wili ftand for that Sympathy or Antipathy of Soul, by which we are provok'd to fhew a Liking or Disgust in the Working of our Paffions.


When they are fretted with the gufts of heav'n.
You may as well do any thing moit hard,
As feek to soften that, (than which what's harder!)
His Jewish heart. Therefore, I do beseech you,
Make no more offers, use no farther means;
But with all brief and plain conveniency
Let me have judgment, and the few his will.
Ba. For thy three thousand ducats here is fix.
Shy. If ev'ry ducat in fix thousand ducats
Were in fix parts, and ev'ry part a ducat,
I would not draw them, I would have
Duke. How fhalt thou hope for mercy, rend'ring
none ?



Shy. What judgment fhall I dread, doing no wrong? You have among you many a purchas'd flave, Which, like your affes, and your dogs, and mules, You use in abject and in flavish part, Becaufe you bought them. Shall I fay to you, Let them be free, marry them to your heirs? Why fweat they under burdens ? let their beds Be made as foft as yours, and let their palates Be feafon'd with fuch viands; you will answer, The flaves are ours. So do I answer you: The pound of flesh, which I demand of him, Is dearly bought, 'tis mine, and I will have it: If you deny me, fie upon your law! There is no force in the decrees of Venice: I ftand for judgment; anfwer; fhall I have it? Duke. Upon my pow'r I may dismiss this Court, Unless Bellario, a learned Doctor,

Whom I have fent for to determine this,
Come here to day.

Sal. My lord, here ftays, without,
A meffenger with letters from the Doctor,
New come from Padua.

Duke. Bring us the letters, call the meffenger.
Baff. Good cheer, Anthonio; what, man, courage


The Jew fhall have my flesh, blood, bones, and all,
Ere thou shalt lofe for me one drop of blood.

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Ant. I am a tainted weather of the flock, Meeteft for death: the weakest kind of fruit Drops earlieft to the ground, and fo let me. You cannot better be employ'd, Baffanio, Than to live ftill, and write mine epitaph.

Enter Neriffa, dress'd like a Lawyer's Clerk.
Duke. Came you from Padua, from Bellario? (16)
Ner. From both, my lord: Bellario greets your

Baff. Why doft thou whet thy knife so earnestly?
Shy. To cut the forfeit from that bankrupt there.
Gra. Not on thy foale, but on thy foul, harsh
Jer, (17)

Thou mak'ft thy knife keen; for no metal can,
No, not the hangman's ax, bear half the keenness
Of thy fharp envy. Can no prayers pierce thee?

Shy. No, none that thou haft wit enough to make.
Gra. O be thou damn'd, inexorable dog,
And for thy life let justice be accus'ḍ!
Thou almoft mak'ft me waver in my faith,
To hold opinion with Pythagoras,
That fouls of animals infufe themselves
Into the trunks of men. Thy currith fpirit
Govern'd a wolf, who, hang'd for human flaughter,

(16) From both my Lord Bellario greets your Grace.] Thus the two old Folio's, and Mr. Pope in his Quarto, had inaccurately pointed this Paffage, by which a Doctor of Laws was at once rais'd to the Dignity of the Peerage.

(17) Not on thy Soale, but on thy Soul, harsh Jew.] I was obliged, from the Authority of the old Folio's, to restore this Conceit, and Jingle upon two Words alike in Sound, but differing in Senfe. Gratiano thus rates the Jew; "-Tho' thou "thinkeft, that thou art whetting thy Knife on the Scale of "thy Shoe, yet it is upon thy Soul, thy immortal Part, that "thou do'ft it, thou inexorable Man!" There is no room to doubt, but this was our Author's Antithefis; as it is fo ufual with him to play on Words in this manner: and That from the Mouth of his moft serious Characters,

Ev'n from the gallows did his fell foul fleet,
And, whilft thou lay'ft in thy unhallow'd dam,
Infus'd it felf in thee: for thy defires
Are wolfish, bloody, ftarv'd, and ravenous.
Shy. 'Till thou canft rail the feal from off my bond,
Thou but offend'ft thy lungs to speak fo loud.
Repair thy wit, good youth, or it will fall
To cureless ruin. I ftand here for law.

Duke. This letter from Bellario doth commend
and learned doctor to our Court.
Where is he?

Ner. He attendeth here hard by

To know your anfwer, whether you'll admit him.
Duke. With all my heart. Some three or four of you
Go give him courteous conduct to this place :
Mean time, the Court fhall hear Bellario's letter.


YOUR Grace fhall understand, that, at the receipt of your letter, I am very fick but at the inftant that your messenger came, in loving vifitation was with me a young Doctor of Rome, his Name is Balthafar: I acquainted him with the cause in controverfie between the Jew and Anthonio the merchant. We turn'd o'er many books together: he is furnished with my opinion, which, bettered with his own learning, (the greatnefs whereof I cannot enough commend,) comes with him at my importunity, to fill up your Grace's request in my ftead. I beseech you, let his lack of years be no impediment, to let him lack a reverend eftimation: For I never knew so young a body with fo old a head. I leave him to your gracious acceptance, whofe trial fhall better publish his com


Enter Portia, drefs'd like a Doctor of Laws.

Duke. You hear the learn'd Bellario, what he writes, And here, I take it, is the Doctor come:

Give me your hand. Came you from old Bellario? Por. I did, my lord.

Duke. You're welcome: take your place.

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