A Text Book of Physiology

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Macmillan and Company, 1879 - 720 pages

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Page 137 - A complete beat of the whole heart, or cardiac cycle, may be observed to take place as follows : — " The great veins, inferior and superior venœ cavas and pulmonary veins are seen, while full of blood, to contract in the neighbourhood of the heart ; the contraction runs in, a peristaltic wave towards the auricles, increasing in intensity as it goes."§...
Page 570 - ... 12 (on the posterior portions of the superior and middle frontal convolutions), the eyes open widely, the pupils dilate, and the head and eyes turn toward the opposite side ; 13, 13...
Page 353 - It is unlike the cough of laryugismus stridulus. How is it caused ? Coughing is a, common effort, consisting in the first place of a deep and long-drawn inspiration, by means of which the lungs are well filled with air, this being followed by a complete closure of the glottis, followed again by a sudden and forcible expiration, in the midst of which the glottis suddenly opens and a blast of air is driven through the upper respiratory passages. Coughing is a reflex act. But there is something more...
Page 249 - B, in which the granules are fewer and coarser ; &, the outer transparent zone, small in A, larger in B, and in the latter marked with faint striae; c, the lumen, very obvious in B, but indistinct in A ; d, an indentation at the junction of two cells, only seen in B.
Page 340 - ... is the curve of blood-pressure with its respiratory undulations, the slower beats on the descent being very marked ; b is the curve of intra-thoracic pressure obtained by connecting one limb of a manometer with the pleural cavity. Inspiration begins at i and expiration at e. The intra-thoracic pressure rises very rapidly after the cessation of the inspiratory...
Page 569 - On the posterior parietal (posterior central convolution). Individual and combined movements of the fingers and wrist of the opposite hand. Prehensile movements. 5 At the posterior extremity of the superior frontal convolution.
Page 149 - The Sounds of the Heart. When the ear is applied to the chest, either directly or by means of a stethoscope, two sounds are heard, the first a comparatively long dull booming sound, the second a short sharp sudden one. Between the first and second sounds, the interval of time is very short, too short to be measurable, but between the second and the succeeding first sound there is a distinct pause. The sounds have been likened to the pronunciation of the syllables, lubb, dup, so that the cardiac cycle,...
Page 598 - C'. show in horizontal sections of the glottis the position of the vocal ligaments and arytenoid cartilages in the three several states represented in the other figures. In all the figures, so far as marked, the letters indicate the parts as follows, viz. : I, the base of the tongue; e, the upper free part of the epiglottis; e...
Page 357 - A frog, the lungs of which have been removed, will continue to live for some time, and during that period will continue not only to produce carbonic acid, but also to consume oxygen. In other words, the frog is able to breathe without lungs, respiration being carried on efficiently by means of the skin.
Page 552 - When placed on its back, it immediately regains this natural posture. When placed on a board, it does not fall from the board when the latter is tilted up so as to displace the animal's centre of gravity : it crawls up the board until it gains a new position in which its centre of gravity is restored to its proper place. Its movements are exactly those of an entire frog except that they need an external stimulus to call them forth.

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