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Plays and Masques at Court, 1558-1642. By
an index of the several places in which the
The playwright whose work was most in
The Founders of Seismology. By Charles
resembles astronomy and
The next important worker is Alexis Perrey,
Those were cheerful days when not only were
Still more noteworthy was his contemporary Robert Mallet, a Dublin man whose principal work for the earlier years of his life was engineering. At about thirtyfive years of age, while he was building a railway station, his notice was caught by the diagram in Lyell's Principles of the two pillars which had had their upper parts twisted, but not overthrown, in an earthquake. He perceived that the explanation given of this was incorrect; and he perceived what was the right explanation, and thence went on to a general consideration of the dynamics of earthquakes, which he embodied in a memoir, to be regarded, as Dr. Davison says, whatever its imperfections, " as one of the chief foundation-stones of seismology as a science." This was followed up by several studies of earthquake-phenomena, the last of which, discussing the great Neapolitan earthquake of 1857, is the first scientific investigation of its kind. Besides this, we owe to Mallet the invention of several terms now in use-among them seismology itself; the statement of the laws that govern the distribution of earthquakes in time and space; and a determining influence upon the whole point of view by which the methods of the study were in those early days controlled.
From him and some notes on his successors we pass to a chapter on the study of earth quakes in Italy-the work that is, of Palmieri and Bertelli, of De Rossi, Mercalli and Tacchini. This is, naturally, but a summary chapter; Dr. Davison, however, writes well, and what he is forced to compress does not thereby lose life and colour. The great service rendered by the Italian seismologists is their impressive series of earthquake investigations, with the erection of the first observatory for seismological purposes, and the invention of the first sensitive recording instrument. The seismological work of Central Europe has achieved most in the way of making out connexion between earthquakes and the structure of the earth's crust, and establishing the pos sibility of multiple origin for some earthquakes. To these workers, too, are owing the construction of isoseismal lines and the determination of the epicentre by means of them, as well as the use of time-records in determining the depth of the focus. The seismologists of the United States have done brilliant work in the study of special earthquakes, and also in the compilation of earthquake-catalogues for special districts.
We come next to Montessus de Ballore, the great French seismologist, who, after a military training side by side with Marshal Foch, was sent as a young captain of artillery to San Salvador, and there began the pursuit of his life by studying earthquakes in his leisure hours. The immensity of his labours is astonishing. He has left, unpublished but accessible to students, a catalogue of 171,434 earthquakes. His Géographie Seismologique' of 1906, was followed in 1907 by La Science Séismologique ';
in 1917 he published a text-book 'La Séismologie Moderne' and towards the close of his life, he turned in another direction and produced a number of historical essays besides the work of his vast bibliography of seismology. It must increase astonishment to recollect that to all the work we have mentioned, and numerous memoirs besides, must be added no inconsiderable amount of work in the way of criticism of other seismologists.
The two closing chapters of the book are devoted respectively to John Milne and to Fusakichi Omori. In both of these we reach a new stage in seismological study, which has as one main characteristic more definite and active co-operation among seismologists, and as another, the prominence of their interest in Japan. Milne was the founder of the Seismological Society of Japan, for which he justly claimed that it marked an epoch in the history of the science. It was formed in 1880 and continued its work till 1892, in which year, upon the wellsupported petition of Baron Kikuchi, was formed the Imperial Earthquake Investigation Committee. Of this Fusakichi Omori was president from 1897 to 1923. In the late summer of 1923 he was returning home from Australia, his health on the journey steadily declining; he arrived at Tokyo just after the great earthquake and fire of Sept. 1, and died there in the University Hospital, on Nov. 8, having received a day or two before his death the highest order of the Sacred Treasure. The lives of these two great seismologists bring before the reader a perfectly staggering amount of work accomplished, whether we consider the range of their researches, or the bulk of their output, the immensity of the mere records of fact, or again the importance of their total achievement-particularly where Omori is concerned. This is, indeed, an admirable book.
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sent either to London or to Wycombe; letters PERHAPS the two articles in the July Connoisseur most likely to interest our readers are that by our correspondent Mr. A. Forbes Sieveking on Some Little-known Portraits of Voltaire, and that on Wren's Restoration of Westminster Abbey, of which the part relating to the drawings is contributed by Mr. E. Beresford Chancellor and that relating to the signatures by Mr.
Laurence E. Tanner. The Westminster
THE celebration of the ninth centenary of
be carved by Mr. S. W. Knox as a memorial to his father, Dr. Kyle Knox, a business man who was also a great churchman, and was a member of the Convention which produced the Constitution by which churchmen are now governed, and moved in the Synod the bill which created Cathedral in Belfast. The members of the choir have undertaken to defray the cost of putting mosaics into the great central tympanum on the inside. Mr. Milne Barbour, in memory of his wife, is making a gift to be spent in the provision of a floor of marble and wood.
the whole scheme worked out worthily both of the distinguished guests who came to be present, and of the hero of the occasion, for whom his fellow-townsmen can certainly claim with truth that he is one of the very few human beings whose doings have directly changed the course of history.
IN the Irish Times of July 4 we noticed
drawings number fourteen, and include