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The Library.

Calendar of the Close Rolls, Henry IV. Vol. 1. 1399-1402. (H.M. Stationery Office. 17s. 6d.).


THE most important of these documents have

Foedera, and of these we will here make no mention. Apart from them, however, the student will find much that is of high interest on public topics, to say nothing of the abundance of material relating to persons and families, to disposal of landed estates, to trade, shipping, and ecclesiastical affairs. We begin with a significant order to sheriffs, and local authorities generally, to restrain expression of hostility to the friars mendicant; an order repeated some seven months later. The Carmelites obtain an order for the delivery to their prior provincial of all rebellious and disobedient friars to be found in the different bailiwicks, the prior being engaged in making a visitation of the Carmelite houses, wherein much was amiss. The Cistercians within the realm have a strict order directed at them to cease from interference with the usual course of payment of tithes, an interference upon which they had been set by papal letters. Among harms such innovation would produce is reckoned the impossibility of rectors and vicars to keep hospitality." The Carthusians at Hull are granted exemption, on the score of their poverty, from the obligation to find horses, armour and archers.


In May, 1400, we have the writs issued to all the sheriffs to prevent any chaplain preaching without licence of the diocesan-a provision expressly against the spread of heresy. There are some good examples of the form of provision for masses for the dead, as in the agreement for this purpose between the Francisca ns and Stephen Hayme, and in the bond of the Abbot of St. Mary Graces for celebration of the anniversary of Mary, the deceased wife of the King.

At Colne Priory there is a dispute as to the office of Prior, and the guardians of the peace are instructed to intervene. In April, 1401, the ecclesiastical authorities are directed to enquire into the increasing number of aliens flocking into the alien priories.

The white nuns of St. Benedict at Worcester for relief of their mean estate are to have £10 a year from the county; and the monks in the island of "Farnelande by Baumburgh have payment ordered of the alms King Edward III. allotted to them. Mention is made of Margery Pensax, an anchorite shut up in the churchyard of St. Botolph without Bishopsgate.

The political change finds several of those smaller echoes which yet bring home to us the life of the time: Thomas Fox of Brasewell has had laid to his charge the speaking of " perverse and disgraceful words" concerning the King's person before his coming to England, but being ready to make his excuses at the King's pleasure," is to be set free, upon security given, from Pontefract castle. Here are also the orders



for the election of new coroners as by the cession of the late King the power of the coroners appointed in his time is altogether determined." Bristol In January, 1400, the mayor and sheriff of are ordered to have the head of Thomas, lord le Despenser, delivered to the sheriffs of London. The warden of the college

of Plessy church is ordered to receive Huntingdon's head from one to him on behalf of Elizabeth Lancaster, the King's sister and Huntingdon's wife, and to lay it with his body, said to be buried in that church, while the sheriffs of London have corresponding order to take the head down from London Bridge, where it was to have remained as long as it might last, and deliver it to Elizabeth. So also was the head of the Earl of Kent ordered to be taken down from London Bridge and delivered to his wife, Joan; and that of William Lescrope similarly to be delivered to his wife Isabel.

The business of calling up men for service in the King's wars finds illustration in numerous orders subsidiary to those selected for the 'Foedera.' Especially interesting is the demand for ships. In 1400 the barons are stated to be under obligation to find the King fifty-. seven ships upon forty days' notice, in every ship twenty men and a master armed and arrayed. Here fall several good writs concerned with Welsh affairs and "Owen Glendourdy." In 1401 the sheriff of Hereford was directed to see that no Welshman was constable of a castle. The demands on bishops and abbots are also instructively illustrated here. Irish affairs crop up occasionally. Thus, upon information of Janico Dartasso (a personage whose doings in these pages well repay study) that distance and the King's enemies make it difficult to reach the chancery of Ireland, the Prior of St. Katherine's at Waterford is empowered to receive the oaths of office of the mayor and constable of the staple of Waterford. The Prior of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in Ireland, returning home from Rhodes, where he had been on the service of God resisting the unbelievers, finds another has taken his place and is supported in his claim to redress by an order to Stanley, the King's lieutenant in Ireland.

Orders for the payment of pensions and delivery to various persons of tuns of wine or of raiment make up a large proportion of the entries. An interesting group of this kind is that assigning maintenance in monasteries. A good many writs of supersedeas concern imprisonments in the Tower. Two prisoners in the Fleet are ordered to be released because the warden of the Fleet could signify nothing against them save that the Bishop of Exeter, chancellor of the late King's time, had ordered him by word of mouth to keep them in custody till further order.

Orders in confirmation of rights and privil eges are numerous. Many concern holders of demesne lands. The Dean and chapter of the King's free chapel of St. Stephen within Westminster palace obtain orders in confirmation



of Edward III's grant of quittance for the published-to be followed by the rest if ensealing of any documents of theirs in chancery; couragement is forthcoming. Surely this and William de Wykeham, now bishop of will not long be lacking, for alike by the imWinchester," has the like in respect to liberties portance and interest of the matter, and by and quittances for himself and his men and the skill and care with which it has been tenants at all " ports and passages." A few handled and arranged, this register may claim persons have grants of Edward III. and Richard its place with the best works of the sort. The II. continued. In January, 1400, an order under biographies, as it is hardly necessary to say, pain of £100 required all staves with heads of contain an astonishing amount of detail showing iron after the fashion of lances and how diligently every available lurking-place of other staves and axes whatsoever with heads of stray fact has been ransacked: the genealogical iron and lead newly made by men of Frome to fulness of many entries is particularly striking. be sent before the King and Council " for par- But the lengthier ones are further conspicuous ticular causes laid before " these. In July, 1400, for their easy readableness and often also for an interesting order is sent to Edward Cherlton the apt characterisation of their subject. to have the high road at Swanscombe, where Peterhouse men have their full share in the he has woods near it, widened according to a pages of the D.N.B.', and the careful reader statute of Edward I., which provides that the will note here one or two corrections of that high roads between market towns shall be 200ft. work, as of earlier work of the compiler himwide for the greater safety of the public-at self. The most to be prized of these little Swanscombe, it would appear, now grievously Lives are, however, those which have 1ecovered imperilled by thieves and murderers. The for us the careers of the less known men-of terribly insanitary state of Calais, which smites those especially in the mid-sixtenth century the King's lieges with disgust, is the subject who bore their part in the revival of learning of a lively writ to the captain and treasurer of and the subsequent great religious struggle. the place. Other subjects which find illustration are the divers privileges bestowed on the King's sons; the regulations for shipping to and from Calais, and other ports whether for trade or war, and the regulations concerning passage of aliens and against transport of money, or gold and silver; the business of the mint and graving of the King's dies, in which there is the long indenture witnessing the appointment of Walter Merwe to be master and maker of


As examples of material for family history we may take the series of documents concerned with the estate of Dengayne or Engayne; and those concerned with the dower of Joan de Stapilton. The Kilburn documents may be noted as rich in minute topographical particulars. The Calendar, as a whole, is one of the most widely representative of the life and events of the time.

A Biographical Register of Peterhouse Men.
Part I., 1284-1574. By Thomas Alfred
Walker. (Cambridge University Press.
28. net).


HE full title sets out that this is a register
of Peterhouse men and some of their neigh-
bours from the earliest days (1284) to the com-
mencement (1616) of the first admission book
of the College. Admissions to Peterhouse,
1615-1911' was published in 1911. The College
Treasury, as material for the compilation
before us, contains the Old Register; Computus
Rolls; Computus Books of special Foundations;
title deeds, leases and the like; Bakehouse and
Buttery Books, of which the earliest is of
1542 and other records. As long ago as 1914
from these and other sources was put together
and sent to the Press a manuscript covering
the entire period 1284-1616; the war prevented
its publication then, and now the increase in
cost allows no more than a first part to be

OBITUARY: WILLIAM DEL COURT. WE record with much regret the death of our correspondent, MR. WILLIAM DEL COURT, which occurred on Aug. 16, at Le Zoute, Belgium, in his 69th year. A Knight of Mary of the Teutonic Order and Member of the Historical Society of Utrecht, he was an accomplished student of art and of history, particularly on its genealogical and personal side. His contributions to our own columns illustrate chiefly his interest in the continent. Besides an account of his own family, he wrote many articles in various art journals, and the translation of the diary of a Dutch lady of the seventeenth century which appeared serially in the Western Morning News. He had to the last an affection for N. & Q.', and his kindly genial letters will be greatly missed.




Ar ante p. 139, col. 2, last line but one, for perfidus read perfidis; and at p. 140, col. 1, line 35, for heirs read heir.


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Seventy-Eighth Year.

SEPTEMBER 17, 1927.

Vol. 153. No. 12.


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NOTES:-Charles I and the Banqueting-house, Whitehall, 201-O'Connor of Sylan, Co. Galway, John Harrison of St. Paul's School and Prince Phillip The oldest British Locomotive in America, 207. QUERIES:-Washington lands-Letters from Lord Combermere: portrait and identification sought -Letter of Robert Burns: his friend Clarke The story of Jephthah-Thomas Raikes: journal and letters, 208-Blum-Laserre-Texts of early puppet plays-" Centres" of England--Proverbs of cross purpose-John Stilwell-Freedom of a city conferred on a woman-Lyminge Family of Leicester Hanoverian Garrisons in Great Britain-John Huddlestone Wynn, 209. REPLIES:-Torold and Turchetil King's ships built in Southampton neighbourhood, 210 Births at midnight Alexander Aitken Firsakia: Frithby-" Bag Lane," 211-" Pine end' -Strangers' memorials-Dr. Edmond Halley, 212 -Medallion found at Wingham, N.S.W. Sir William Rule Ann Beale The St. Isidor Theatres in the City-Suffragan Bishops, their style and title, 213--" Say 999 "-Hair suddenly turned white Insects in books Mechanical entertainments with Graeco-Latin names-Folk etymology: Tow Law John Roberts, London printer-Authors wanted, 214.

THE LIBRARY:- The Place-names of Worcestershire - The Cambridge Reinaert Fragments.' Bookseller's Catalogue.

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A correspondent sends us a cutting of the and Leamington Gazette for Sept. 10, giving an authoritative account from Mr. Philip B. Chatwin of discoveries made in the Beauchamp Chapel at Warwick, where very careful and interesting work in restoration and investigation is now being done. It will be remembered that on a September afternoon in 1695, an unknown person walking along Brittain Lane, Warwick, with a lighted torch in his hand, was cause of the destruction by fire of two hundred and fifty houses in the town. While the fire was raging the townspeople had the unfortunate idea of collecting the goods they had hastily snatched from their burning homes into St. Mary's church for safety. Some of these things had fire smouldering in them; this burst forth and ignited the other furniture, and the end of it was that the tower, nave and transepts of St. Mary's were burnt down. The stalls in the chancel suffered a good deal, but survived; the Beauchamp chapel was slightly damaged. Traces of this fire on stall and beam have recently been made out in the chapel. A chamber over 3ft. deep has been found under the floor of the stalls, made, it is thought, to improve the sound of the singing a device of which two or three other examples in England are known. Some interesting fragments were discovered here: bits of the Purbeck marble which till 1731 formed the pavement of the chapel; a mutilated figure of St. John Baptist about a foot high; the upper part, beautifully


carved, of a small angel; fragments of pinnacles and canopy work still retaining their colour. These should be part of the great reredos destroyed by Colonel Purefoy in 1642. Here also was a fragment of a brass inscription which shows signs of having been through the fire. The words are quondan filia and from Dugdale's Antiquities of Warwickshire,' where are many pictures of brass memorials later destroyed by fire, they can be assigned to a Hugford brass. Those who have not visited the Beauchamp chapel within the last year or two should hasten to do so. There has nowhere been more signal success in the recovery of the colour which made so great a part of the original beauty of the pre-Reformation churches and chapels.


E have received notice of the proposed publication of a collection of certified copies of wills made in Westmorland tetween 1686 and 1738, now in the library of the Friends' Meeting House, Kendal. The

wills have inventories attached to them, which means the addition of much ing matter; and the genealogist may well find his account in a book where descendants are traced sometimes to the seventh and

eighth generation. The testators are for the most part yeoman farmers, and many of them lived on farms still occupied. Their history, and often also that of their ancestors and children, has been traced out through the Quaker records and registers; and there occur here some pedigrees of wellknown families which are carried back further than in any previous records. The book is entitled An Old Book of Westmorland Wills'; the editor is Mr. John Somervell; the publishers are Messrs. Titus Wilson and Son of Kendal, and the price is seven shillings and sixpence or with postage eight shillings.


THE Librarian of the Canterbury Library

contributes to The Times of Sept. 14 a most interesting account of the history and contents of that collection. The primitie librorum ecclesiae Anglicanae as the Canterbury Chartulary has it consisted of nine volumes sent from Rome five years after the arrival of the Italian Mission headed by St. Augustine. From this the library advanced during the Middle Ages to be one of the central English libraries, comparable in the later fourteenth century to that of the Sorbonne. Only about twenty of its original MSS. (and about half-a-dozen of those of St. Augustine's Monastery) are now

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