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marriage registers will now complete the marriages of the Borough of Brentford, those of New Brentford having found place in vol. iv. of the Series. We understand that this work of printing Parish Registers, which must appeal very strongly to the numerous genealogists among our readers, is in some need of the support of additional subscribers to cover necessary outlay. On many of the more recently published volumes actual loss on the cost of production has been sustained; in some this has been prevented by the intervention of friendly guarantors. Among the latest volume issued are Cambridge, vol. viii; Norfolk, vol. xi; Bucks, vol. ix. We have pleasure in reminding our readers of this enterprise, and commending it to their active goodwill. The general editor of the Series is Mr. Thomas M. Blagg, F.S.A., and

the editor of the volume now in question is Mr. Thomas Gurney.

A CORRESPONDENT of the Manchester

Guardian (Oct. 3) gives an account of an Indian Jesuit Father who preached on Sunday, Oct. 2, at the Church of the Holy Name, Manchester. Appealing for help for Mangalore in perfect English, and bearing a Portuguese name, he told his deeply-impressed hearers that he was an Indian, belonging to a family which had been converted to Christianity and baptized by St. Francis Xavier. Descendants of St. Francis's Brahmin converts moved from Goa to Mangalore more than a century ago, and among the preacher's fellow-workers there are about forty Jesuits of like descent. His own family-as many did-took the name of the European Christian who stood sponsor at the baptism of the ancestor, or ancestors, originally converted.

A CURIOUS occurrence is related in the Manchester Guardian of Oct. 4: how for the first time on record the tide failed to come in at Parkgate, on the Dee estuary, Cheshire, on Monday morning. The water came no farther than Heswall, three miles away. The fishermen leave their boats between Heswall and Parkgate when the tide is in, and bring their mussels or shrimps ashore at Parkgate in small punts. After the ebb-tide on Sunday the fishermen prepared to go out again early yesterday morning, as the mussel season is now in progress. They waited in vain, however. The tide came in as usual in the afternoon. Has a failure of the tide ever been recorded elsewhere? And what conjectures can be offered as to the cause of it?

IN The Times of Oct. 5 is a long account of

the excavations at the Roman villa at Ashstead, where operations have been much hindered by the rain. The most interesting matters which have been worked out into clearness are the system of the guttering, to extension of the building; with the way in which it had been adapted the heated tesserae (white limestone, brown septarian rooms with their hypocausts, and the finds of nodules from the London clay, Purbeck marble, brick and a hard yellow stone) which ment; the bath system; and then the kitchen point to their having once had a fine pavewith its raised hearth, and its with red brick cement.



Two Hundred Years Ago.


The British Journal.

SATURDAY, October* 7, 1727.

Cumberland fhall walk in the Proceffion at

Wednesday his Majefty was pleas'd to order that his Royal Highnefs the Duke of the approaching Coronation as a Knight of the Bath, and in the Robes appertaining to that moft Hon. Order.

Sir Robert Walpole will walk in the proper Robes of the most Noble Order of the Garter.

Yefterday the fine Anthem compofed by Mr. Handel, for their Majefties Coronation, was rehearfed in Westminster Abbey.

Tis computed there will walk in Proceffion at their prefent Majefties Coronation between 4 and 500 Perfons more than at any

Solemnity of that fort before.

Thursday Night Sir Francis Forbes, Kt. and Alderman, deceased, having lain in State at Haberdashers Hall in a magnificent Manner, was buried at St. Magnus at London Bridge, with great Solemnity; fix Aldermen held up the Pall, viz. the Lord Mayor Elect, Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Sir Peter Delme, Mr. Alderman Parsons, Mr. Alderman Levet, and Sir John Williams: We hear he hath left 8001. to Chrift's Hofpital and 1001. apiece to the Hofpitals of Bethlehem, Bridewell and St. Thomas, of all which he was one of the Governors. Two Hundred Bluecoat Boys walk'd and fung before his Hearfe.

*The paper has, by a misprint, "September."

Literary and Historical Mychell.


E. CAMPION, BOOKSELLER, AND JOHN MYCHELL, PRINTER. A GENERAL interest attaches to the Blessed Edmund Campion, S.J. Not only was he one of the heroic band of whom the tortures and deaths furnish the ghastliest pages of England's judicial records. Even in his own lifetime he was regarded as detached from the ordinary undistinguished crowd of martyrs. He was an Oxford don, a distinguished writer, a searcher for hazardous exploits that furnished gossip for romanticists through a period of Elizabethan years. Further, he was, though that was unknown in his day, the first and original writer of that famous description of Wolsey embodied by Shakespeare in Act IV, scene ii. of Henry VIII.'

But little is known of his parents. Of them he writes that he could hope that they died in the Faith. They certainly seem to have lapsed in Edwardian and Elizabethan days. Their son had been baptized, somewhere in London, but where is unknown, on the Feast of St. Paul the Apostle, Jan. 25, in the year 1540, New Style, the day of his birth if Tanner be correct. The father, a bookseller, was unable to provide for the education of a very promising lad, and was about to apprentice him to a trade, when, at the expense of some rich London guildsmen, he was sent to a good Grammar School, and thereafter to Christ's Hospital, Newgate St.


It is upon this clue-that Campion's father, an Edmund Campion, was a bookseller-that the biographer must work. Campion had, at Oxford, a contemporary, an Edmund Campion, the Church of England incumbent of Sherborne. The Christian name may easily have been a family favourite of some generations' standing. In the Baptismal records of St. Mary's at Bow and St. Pancras, Soper Lane, there is a contemporary Edmund Campion, son of Walter, and several others of like surname any of whom may well have been kinsmen of the future Jesuit.


No Campion appears upon the lists in
Arber's Registers of the Stationers' Company.
In Duff's Century of the English Book
Trade,' is one, an ""
E. Campion of Canter-
bury," who sold a volume printed by John


It is the intent of this thesis to prove that Duff is in error in adding to Campion's name the description" of Canterbury,' and, as further intent, to suggest that the bookseller, E. Campion, was, in fact, of London.

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The volume that Duff records is British Museum Catalogue C 37 c 28, a small octavo booklet, black letter, ascribed by Duff to 1550, and by the Catalogue to 1548, the latter date has not misled me, the type used by Mychell being the more probable. If my observation in 1549 contained some material not used in C 37 c 28 The book is entitled Newes from Rome concerning the blasphemous sacrifice of the papisticall Masse with dyvers other treatises very godly and profitable." Of it there is also a copy in the Bodleian Library. Internal evidence shews that it was prynted at Canterbury by J. Mychell for E. Campion." This does not suffice to prove that both Campion and also Mychell were resident at, or were of, Canterbury, and no other evidence that Campion was so resident has been adduced heretofore.



The work is prefaced by a dedication made to my right honourable lord and maystre Lord Thomas Hawarte," by his servant, the author, Randall Hurlestone, and consists of four treatises; the first, News from Rome,' a dialogue between Michobius and Polilogus. Polilogus represents an actual person, a daring Lutheran, lately returned from Rome, where he had bearded Italians, learned but godless, and had all but fed the fish in the Tiber. The second portion, 'How God must be worshipped aright,' is debated between Curio and Aluterius; the third, 'How saints ought to be worshipped,' between Sanderus and Glandorpius; the fourth, 'What is Christian libertie,' between Philostatius and Vegetius. The book itself, an early example of an English provincial press, is on exhibition in the King's Gallery, and concerning its peculiar features somewhat remains to be added later.

Of the pseudonyms I do not presume to offer any identification, although several tempt conjecture.

But "Lord Thomas Hawarte," Randall Hurlestone and John Mychell must receive notice. The first is Howard (the variant of the name being found elsewhere contemporaneously).

Thomas Howard, second son of that Robert, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, whose career in the days of Henry VIII contributed so largely to the destruction of the older Church régime, was,



in Elizabethan days, the first Viscount Bindon, and uncle of the 4th Duke, the ill-fated, irresolute aspirant to the hand of Mary, Queen of Scots. Both Randall " and "Hurlestone" would suggest a Palatinate origin, and a Randall Hurlestone is to be found, of this date, in the pedigree of Hurlestone of Picton, Hurleston and Newton, in the County of Chester. was the second son of Thomas Hurleston and Elizabeth, daughter to Adam Birkenhead of Huxley. His marriage with Margaret Longland, widow, was by licence of the Bishop of London, conditioned for his bride's parish of St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield, and dated Oct. 26, 1567. Therein, he is termed, of the City of London, gentleman, a description quite compatible with his reference to himself as "" servant" to Lord Thomas Howard. The Vernons of his own parish had as "servant " a sergeant-at-law.

The same Randall Hurlestone is probably he who figures in Strype's Appendix to Archbishop Parker's 'Life,' iii. 137. Letter no. 46 from the Earl of Derby and others to the Lord Treasurer and Secretary Walsingham, in behalf of Manchester College, and dated from Weegan, Aug. 20, 1581, recounts that, by order of the Council, tenants of the College were to have been

reduced to some favourable consideration, or other yearly augmentation of rent corne towards the maintenance of preaching, etc. As for some of the gentlemen, a Randal Hurleston (who claimeth a lease of the Easterbook, oblations, mortuaries, churchings, weddings, burials, smal tiths as pig, goose and such like, and that by xxiijli. xiijs. iiijd. les than the old rent which hath been yearly answered heretofore by such tenants as have occupied the same ever sithence the dissolution of the college in King Edward's days we cannot deal with them as conveniently as

we desire.

With this wish of the local tormentors who raised the moneys desired by the Council, the record of Randall Hurlestone closes.

He is to be distinguished from the Hurlestone, a skinner of Cornhill, addicted to reforming, whose aid in the escape from Marian England of Doctor Sandys, later the occupant of the sees of Worcester, London and York, is recounted by Foxe. The registers of St. Michael, Cornhill, indicate adults; Thomas, John and Stephen Hurlestone and children of the first and second, but no Randall Hurlestone appears in those records, or those of St. Peter's, Cornhill. It would appear likely, therefore, that Hurle

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In 1525, William Thomson, book-binder, received admission to live and trade, and took up his living in Burgate, paying xvjd. fine. There he was still resident in 1528. No other bookbinder traded as intrant in Burgate until 1533, when John Mychell, paying vijd, took up his shop. This was thirteen years before the occupancy of the long shop in the Poultry. It is possible that Mychell printed at London and at Canterbury simultaneously.


At Canterbury he produced books other than that already described. One of them is mentioned in Strype's Ecclesiastical Memorials,' II. i. 313, wherein it is stated of Edmund Becke, whose biographical details there furnished are ample, that, in or about 1549, he published two dialogues written by Erasmus, translated into English, printed at Canterbury in St. Paul's Churchyard by John Michel. Were the work not now to be found, this notice would give difficulty, for St. Paul's, an ugly and paltry building in the days when Camden's Britannia' was written, had not a graveyard until 1591: the Abbot of St. Augustine's having of old com

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pelled the burial of parishioners in his cemetery. Yet there may have been, even in 1533, a small yard, not a churchyard, where Mychell may have plied his double trade. If he printed but few books, book-binding in the neighbourhood of great ancient monastic libraries, then not dispersed, may well have furnished the staple of his income.


The second of Campion's books, noted, as above mentioned, by Strype, is to be found both in the Bodleian, and British Museum libraries. The B.M. catalogue assigns the work, no doubt correctly, to 1550. Its production in that year is, however, prima facie, unlikely. The caricature of the Gospeller would amuse an earlier and another period. Yet Becke was ordained by Grindal, advanced Reformer, and his desire to produce this particular work of gross humour (the nasty uselessness of a mean-minded and futile man, such as Erasmus was) is not easily explicable, whatever the date assigned. The book, a charmingly produced little black ter octavo, is B.M. Cat. C. 57 aa 29; Two dyalogues wrytten in laten by the famous clerke D. Erasms of Roterodame one called Polyphemus... the other dysposyng of thynges and names, translated in to Englyshe Canterbury." by E. Becke."



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Its initials, where these are signal, as for beauty they occasionally are, seem later than those of The Newes from Rome,' and do not include a notable capital W, that may have historic interest. Further, the internal description accord with with Strype's. There


Both the above books, the former of which is mentioned in Duff's Century of the Englet-lish Book Trade,' are to be found in the British Museum Library, and at the Bodleian.

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the ground and fought them with bare hands, the giant Constable of the Tower, is depicted as an aged, undersized, frail, but typical country rector, with side-whiskers, vested, as in unwonted for a special photograph, medieval garments.


I believe that an extensive iconography of the saint exists (a useful, summary seems to be that in the Rev. F. G. Lee's Historical Sketches of the Reformation '), and, doubtless, some of your readers, with knowledge more exact than my own, will be able to state whether an image of St. Thomas of Canterbury, either upon the shrine destroyed in Canterbury Cathedral, after Mychell's arrival in the city, or upon Gilbert à Becket's tomb in St. Paul's, was the original of the little woodcut in C. 37 c 28; perhaps a contemporaneous reproduction of a likeness executed by those who had seen the great Archbishop.



is no mention of St. Paul's Church- days. He was, however, one of the six yard. It is Edmonde Becke's work, printed preachers at Canterbury in 1560, which renin saynt Paules paryshe by John Mychel." ders the tale unlikely. Let us hope that he Perhaps Strype's inaccurate reminiscences merely abjured his wife, and retained his arose because the work had been seen exposed religious principles intact. for sale in St. Paul's Churchyard, London, by him who recorded.

The initial W in C 37 c 28, to which reference has been made, has this interest. The right half of the letter contains the head of a bearded prelate, whose jewelled mitre is pierced by a sword. This method of depicting St. Thomas à Becket is traditional, and quite unlike to the popular portrait recently produced in connection with the raffle of a motor-car for hospital funds, wherein the mighty warrior who flung his murderers to


The British Museum also possesses An Exposytion in Englyshe upon the Epistyll of saynt Paule to the Philipias for the instruction of them that be vnlerned in tōges: gathered out of holy scriptures and of the olde catholike doctours of the church and of the best authors that now adayes do write. By Lancelot Rydley of Canterbury. Printed by John Mychell, Canterbury (1550 ?), Black Letter, 8vo., C. 25, d. 18. This is catalogued under Bible,' but not, apparently, under Ridley.' Lancelot Ridley, a cousin of the Bishop, is said to have abjured Protestantism and his wife, and to have become a Roman Catholic priest in Marian






The fourth of Mychell's works, of which an copy is known to me, is the Cronicle of Yeres.' This is in John Ryland's Library, Manchester, where, perhaps, some kindly reader will examine it for the purposes of description more ample than that afforded by the mere recital of its title. The first of these Cronicles of Yeres' had appeared in 1543, and had been reprinted in 1544. John Mychell greatly augmented the matter, and in a quaint dedication to the improved edition of 1551, beseeches Sir Anthony Aucher, master


of the King's Jewell House,* to aid him in improving the next issue of a book the profits of which he implores his friends and brotherprinters to suffer him to enjoy. The 1553 edition in the John Ryland's Library is entitled : A breviat Cronicle contaynynge all the Kinges from brute to this daye and many notable actes gathered out of dyuers Cronicles from Willyam Conqueror until this yere of crist a M v c liii.' The Cronicle was re-issued in 1555, '6 and '9, and about 1560, by Mychell, or in his name. He was not suffered to enjoy the whole fruit of his labours, however, for William Capland in 1557 printed A Chronicle of yeres from the begynnynge of the worlde,' 16mo., London: an effort with a title so ambitious that only the imagination of a modern biologist could add to its vaunting record.

For the remainder of Mychell's printing, whether at Canterbury or in London, I rely largely upon a list (vide Mitchell) in the

As for E. Campion, possibly Edmund Campion the father of a saint as passionate, as loyal and loveable as that Saint Thomas, E. Campion was not of Canterbury. He whose image is imprinted in the book he sold was neither a freeman of the City, nor is he

to be found on the roll of intrants. Without

'D. N B.'


(iv) 'The Psalter after the Translation of the Great Bible,' 4to., 1549 and 1550.


(v) A Treatise of Predestination by John Lambert,' 8vo., 1550.

the privileges, he could not have traded
within the city. Even a Strange Woman"
found it worth her while in Elizabethan days
to pay twopence to
temporary inhabitant was forced to register
and pay. In 1518 and 1519, Joyce Busse, an

"live and trade."


This John Lambert would be Nicholson, the martyr, who after severe baiting by Latimer and Cranmer, met his death at Smith-organ-maker, paid fivepence for the privilege field in November, 1538. of living for one quarter in Newyngate, during which time he was executing some work within the city. Campion could not have escaped record if, at any time, he had been a bookseller of Canterbury. His real place of residence is to be conjectured from the need In Canterthat Mychell had of his services. Nei-bury Mychell could have sold for himself. Campion's function was to supply the London market, then, as now, the greatest in the world. His exact place of residence and business may be difficult to discover. The records destroyed, the registers of St. Paul's Cathe of the few grammar schools are now all dral probably lost for ever, and the probable source of certainty as to the paternity of the Blessed Edmund Campion lies hidden in the chance record of wills and deeds. If that certainty is to be attained, it is likely to be by the aid of the knowledge that exists in the circle of your readers.

I should have liked to have expressed my British Museum for the interest with which obligation to one of the high officials of the he has facilitated my search-an interest and kindness of which I have had former experience-but I fear that, under the guise of thanks, I might easily expose him to the

His other record, where and when he died, his relatives and personal touch with this world, and the other, are yet to be found, possibly in references among wills deposited at Canterbury. The muniments of St. Paul's parish there record nothing earlier than the baptisms of 1562, and, of him, nothing. ther is his will a Canterbury will.

It is noteworthy that, prior to his arrest,

Lambert had lived in the Stocks Market and had been associated with St. Peter's Cornhill, both close to the Poultry, where, for some time, Mychell plied his trade.



The treatise on Predestination does not appear to be in the Museum Library, nor is it noted in the D. N. B.' under Lambert. (vi) Articles to be enquired__into thordinary Visitation of ... the Lord Cardinall Poole's Grace, Archbyshop of Canterburie within hys Dioces of Canterbury, 1556,' 4to. No copy in Museum Library.

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(vii) A Shorte Epistle to all such as do contempne the Marriage of us poor Preestes,'

*And Mayor of Dover in 1640, as Nicholas Partridge, tutor to his children, relates in a letter of Feb. 26, 1640.

16mo., undated.
The use of the term
"Preestes ""
suggests Edwardian rather than
Elizabethan days.


(viii) The Spiritual Matromonye between Cryste and the Soul,' 24mo., undated.

Not in

(ix) 'The Confession of Fayth wryttyn in Latyn by Ph. Melancthon, translated by Robert Syngylton,' 8vo., undated. Museum Library. Hugh Singleton was the printer of Coverdale's Treatise of Death,' and of his Hope of the Faithful.'

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Marian days, was an account of Sir Thon as
A tenth booklet of Mychell's, produced in
Wyatt's rebellion. To it I can furnish no
reference, my note having been lost.

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