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COLLAR (cliii. 334, 411). I beg to thank MR. ASKEW for interesting information. He maybe glad to know there is a fine example of a fourteenth century SS collar in the Department of Metalwork at the Victoria and Albert Museum. It is of silver and beautifully worked, has forty-four links and esses, and is an early and perhaps only example.
There are good articles on the Order in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1842.
Surely DR. J. M. BULLOCH errs when he "is remembered says that William Sangster as the introducer of alpaca." Certainly he was the first to use alpaca for covering umbrellas. This was in 1848. Alpaca was first extensively manufactured by Titus (afterwards Sir Titus) Salt, in 1836. Yarn from the wool of the alpaca had been spun in England for the first time in 1806, but it was not valued. Benjamin Green, of Greetland, near Halifax, endeavoured to popularise it in 1830, but unsuccessfully. Perhaps DR. BULLOCH meant his remarks to be confined to umbrella-making. H. ASKEW.
ENGELBERTUS KEMPFER (cliii. 398,
S.V. Two Hundred Years Ago '). There are many of his MSS. in the Sloane collection, including History of Japan,' seventeenth cent. Germ. Hologr. (3060); H. of J.' transl. by J. G. Scheucher, 1727, imperf. (4026 ff. 76-130), and Heads of his Work on J., eighteenth century (3329 f. 80). See Scott's Catal. Sloane MS.' p. 286.
the Memoir of Sir Sidney Lee, pre-fixed to this new volume of the D. N. B.' Sir Charles Firth takes occasion to re-tell the story of the inception of the whole work, and restate the original ideals of scope and method. The first volume was published in January, 1885, and the sixty-third and last in October, 1900. In those fifteen years readers observed with satisfaction that the articles contained more and more learning, and while it had not proved possible to carry out the plan of the work exactly upon the scale intended, the work itself preserved consistency and form, with advance in general merit. Two Supplements, each of three volumes, have since appeared, con
LEZZE. UMBRELLA WILLIAM SANGSTER, MAKER (cliii. 376, 408).—I have Lon-taining lives which by accident had been omitted don Directories of 1823-4 and of 1828. Both from the original scheme, and lives of persons of these give "Samuel Sangster, Umbrella who had died during the progress of the DicMaker, 94 Fleet Street." tionary. By the time the Second Supplement was under way these latter included many of the contributors to the Dictionary themselves. And here piety requires us to make mention of Joseph Knight. When in June, 1917, upon dissolution of the firm of Smith, Elder and Co., after the death of Mr. Reginald Smith, the Dictionary went to the University of Oxford, Lee gave up the editorship which he had held since 1891. It is not, therefore, surprising that this new volume, of which Professor H. W. C. Davis and Mr. J. R. H. Weaver are the editors, preformer ones, sents certain differences from differences which in large measure reflect those Perceptible in literary work of all sorts since At the foot of a large proportion of the articles appear the words personal knowledge "a fact which accounts for the frequent, tone. restrained but perceptible, warmth of The neutrality of style conspicuous (if one may so put it) in the Dictionary hitherto, here often gives place, usually without prejudicing brevity, to personal idiom. One change in the biographies of writers we regret; the main Dictionary, at the close of the life, gave systematworks, a feature ically a numbered list of which we have often found of great use. This has been discontinued. It may be conceded that in the case of very voluminous novelwriters not of the first rank it was unnecessary, but we think it might well have been adhered to for scholars, historians and the like.
These nine years, by the inclusion of the four years of war, offer a diversity, a mingling of youth and age, such as no other like span in English history could offer. As the Preface says, those names recorded here of young men who fell a sacrifice for their country, rather illustrate the richness and variety of the hopes centred in that generation than give measure of the loss. The airmen Ball, and Leefe Robinson and Warneford are here; and though poet or man of science or musician
(cliii. 377, 412). The author of 'Pinkie and the Fairies was W. W. Graham Robertson, whose portrait by John Sargent is reproduced as one of the illustrations of the Hon. Charteris' recent book on the artist.
K. H. H.
The Dictionary of National Biography, 1912-1921. Edited by H. W. C. Davis and J. R. H. Weaver. (Oxford University Press. £1 18. net.).
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WE Antiquity, with which that review, and we congratulate its editor and promoters upon it-completes its first and successful Its readers have collected nearly £300 year. towards the expenses of excavation at Ur, and now Mr. O. G. S. Crawford is appealing to them for help in securing Stonehenge. The present position there is that the land on which the aerodrome stands has been acquired by the National Trust. Demolition has already begun, and the contractors have undertaken that it shall be complete within a year. The café has still to be dealt with; and the purchase of the threatened land to be completed. It is now revealed that if a public-spirited person had not intervened and secured one of the options the land would have been acquired for factory. Time is getting short; the Avenue field, opposite Stonehenge, is still not within the National Trust; the appeal is therefore made urgent. Perhaps the most interesting items S under Notes and News' are those concerned with photography from the air. Near Dorchester (Oxon.) in a large arable field two large circles-quite invisible from the ground -have by this means been discovered. Illustration is given of the revealing photograph, taken by Flight-Lieuts. W. E. Purdin and B. T. Hood, and an account of excavation of the circles. From the same batch we are given photographs of certain fields near Dorchester which bring old field-divisions to light. Among recent events noted in the review is the despatch from Bagdad-due to the good offices of the late Gertrude Bell-to
Berlin, of the cases containing the finds of the German excavation of Babylon. Account of them is to be published by the Deutsche Orient Gesellschaft. It is also noted that a rock struck by lightning fell on the road between Visrelles and Chimay in Belgium, laying bare a large Frankish cemetery. The papers in this number are Algerian Hillforts of to-day,' by Mr. M. W. HiltonSimpson; Ithaka,' by Mr. Alexander Shewan;
The Climate of Pre-historic BriBarrows,' tain,' by Mr. C. E. P. Brooks; by Mr. O. G. S. Crawford; the second instalment (Cycles and Progress') of Mr. R. G. Collingwood's 'The Theory of Historical Cycles,' and Mr. William Page's Notes on the Types of English Villages and their distribution. To the general reader probably the article on Ithaka and that on Historical Cycles will prove the most interesting of them.
WE have received vol. xxiv of the Journal of the Friends' Historical Society, edited by our correspondent DR. NORMAN Journal of Margaret B. Harvey in 1809, PENNEY. We begin with extracts from the which give account of this lady's entertainment upon a visit from Philadelphia to Ire
These are most amusing and instructive pages, giving a picture of modes and manners, with a Quaker lady's view of them, · An put together in an easy, readable style. This article on Anthony Purver is curious. shoemaker in his man, apprenticed to a youth, was something of a genius, and possessed a memory of such extraordinary vigour that he could learn six chapters of the Bible by heart in an hour. He joined the Society of Friends, and spent most of his life as a school-master, but his claim to our interest is his translation of the Bible. This was completed, after a labour of thirty years, in 1764, a performance never accomplished by any one man before." Under Leading the the Way,' which gives particulars of Quaker inventions, are mentioned James Clark's warm-lined slippers; Edmund Naish's balls instead of skeins of cotton (before the use of reels); Thomas Story's forecast of the discovery of stratified geology, and C. Francis Jenkins's recent inventions of a brake apparatus for aeroplanes and of a device to launch a plane almost instantly on one hundred feet of runway. INTERESTING on several accounts, and
especially as denoting a certain change of opinion in popular estimate of the romantic