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departs from any precedent in nouncing the intention of the Government to extend to women the franchise. In this I heartily concur. Why should not women, who live under the law and are subject to the law, have a voice as to who should make the law, and what the law should be? The two twin provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were the first, not only to extend to women the right to exercise their franchise, but to accord them the fullest privilege of citizenship. In the province of Alberta two women are members of the Legislature, and in British Columbia there is one. When we consider what the women of Canada have done in heroic service and sacrifice, no less than the men at the front-for when the man is killed his suffering is over, but the mother or the wife lives on, suffers on, and dies a living death -when we consider what our nurses and Red Cross women have contributed to the war, who would deny them the fullest rights of citizenship? When we remember that the best Sovereign that ever sat upon the British Throne was a woman, the noble and revered Queen Victoria, who would say that women should not be free to fill the highest positions in the gift of the people?

The proposed prohibition enactment under the War Measures Act, 1914, is not only essential for the conservation of food, but also as enabling legislation to make workable and enforceable provincial prohibitive enactments.

The conservation of food and increased production are commanding the keenest interest and co-operation by the people of Canada to-day. Much has been done. Much more will be done. In 1917 Alberta and Saskatchewan produced $1,000,000,000 worth of farm products-Alberta a trifle less than $400,000,000, and Saskatchewan a trifle more than $600,000,000. Granted as favourable a year during 1918 as last year, even the production will be much greater. The favourable balance of trade for Canada, by conservation on the one hand, and by increased production on the other, will be greatly increased.

Honourable gentlemen, the impelling and fixed determination of Canada to bend every energy and to conserve every interest to the one great purpose of realizing our war aims must possess us as a people until victory is won and the future security of the world made sure. Better had we not been born than fail in the challenge to our generation to preserve and pass on to those who come after us those priceless liberties and blessings of a free civilization which have been

handed down to us as our heritage. Whatever the sacrifice has been or may be, we can conceive of nothing more disastrous than to fail in our high purpose to defend those principles of democracy which have come to us from the past at so great a price. Human progress is always by way of human sacrifice, but in the light of history we learn that with every such sacrifice for human freedom blessings commensurate with the sacrifice accrue to the human race.

For God from evil still educes good,
And freedom's course still grows,
Though steeped in blood.

Honourable gentlemen, the people of Canada have expressed their confidence in the present Administration to accomplish the one supreme purpose of doing Canada's utmost to bring this appalling struggle to a successful conclusion. The honourable members of the Senate may differ upon many questions of legislation or of administration, but upon the one great issue at the greatest crisis of the greatest war of human history, when the destiny of our country and our liberties tremble in the balance, shall we not give our united support to the Government, charged with this gigantic task, until the war is over and victory is achieved?

Hon. HEWITT BOSTOCK: Honourable gentlemen, I have listened with great interest to the speeches of the mover and the seconder of the Address. I wish to congratulate the mover of the Address upon the very excellent speech which he made, and only regret that I am not able to thoroughly understand the language in which he spoke. I wish that we could all share with him in the ability to address this House in both languages. I wish also to congratulate my honourable friend the seconder of the Address (Hon. Mr. Michener) upon his first effort in this Chamber, and to assure him that we appreciate his remarks and the fact that he has come here to assist us in our deliberations.

I wish also to congratulate you, Mr Speaker, upon continuing to occupy the Chair in this Chamber. I am sure that we all appreciate the way in which you have presided over our deliberations in the past, and that we look forward to your continuance in office for some years to come.

Since we met last session, the honourable the leader of this House (Hon. Sir James Lougheed) has had the distinction conferred upon him of being placed in charge of a portfolio. We have many times referred to the fact that the Government had not seen fit to honour the honourable leader of this House in such a way as the members

of this House considered that he should be honoured. For a number of years he has done a great deal of work at the head of commissions, and has carried on this work with great satisfaction to the country and to those who have come in contact with him. I am sure that we are all prepared to congratulate him most heartily upon his new honour; but at the same time I hardly think we can congratulate him on the title by which he should be addressed-the honourable Minister of Soldiers' Civil Re-establishment, which is a very long title; and although we know that he will fulfil thoroughly the duties of the office to which he has been appointed, at the same time we must commiserate with him upon the title selected. In view of the work which he has done in the past, and the excellent way in which he has carried it out, I think a better title would have been the Minister and Friend of the Soldiers. I am sure that he will do all he can to look after the interests of those men who have been doing such splendid work for the country, in helping them to take their place in the life of the country when they return from the front.

I wish to congratulate the honourable gentleman from Welland (Hon. Mr. Robertson) upon attaining the position of Privy Councillor. At the present time the honourable gentleman has not a portfolio; but I know that he has a great deal of work to do, and, although he has not been long a member of this Chamber, we all appreciate the way in which his worth and ability have been recognized by the Government.

The Speech from the Throne to which our attention is called to-day deals with a very large number of questions. I do not propose to take them all up in order. I wish to deal with only those which are perhaps the most important to consider at the present time. Since we last met in this Chamber the condition of things in Europe has, I regret, to say, not improved from the point of view of the Allies. I think it is unfortunate that the success of the Central Powers, owing to the regrettable situation that has arisen in Russia, has been such as to bring to the people of the Central Powers the hope that they may bé able to retrieve the position in which they found themselves in the middle of last year. The situation in Russia is one that we must all regret sincerely. We had hoped that some effective organization would have been developed out of the circumstances that arose

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when the revolution took place in Russia and that some strong man would be found, able to take charge of affairs in that country and organize the people to carry on the fight for liberty and democracy; but it seems, unfortunately that the forces which were behind the leaders were not of the right kind, and the men themselves had not received the training that is necessary for men occupying such positions. The result has been that the Russian people are today in a condition that every one who takes an interest in that country must very sincerely regret and unfortunately, the Central Powers of Europe are to-day able to a very great extent to force their will upon the Russian people and will be, I fear, able to recuperate and gain in strength from the supplies, the ammunition, and other resources which will be available to them. This whole situation will have a serious effect. It will mean that the allied nations must put forward greater efforts in order to accomplish their object, and to bring about the result for which we all fervently hope, the termination of this terrible struggle in which the world is now engaged. We realize to-day that the interests of every country in the world are bound up with the existing condition of things and that no country can afford to stand out of this terrible struggle; every country must make its decision and take its place on one side or the other. It behooves the people of every country to realize the situation and to bend every effort in their power to bring about a victorious conclusion of the struggle for liberty and the triumph of democracy throughout the world.

Since we last met in this Chamber we have had throughout Canada a general election and the people have decided that Union Government is in their opinion the best form in which the government of the country can be carried on, and the form in which for the present it ought to be carried on. As my honourable friend from the Gulf (Hon. Mr. L'Esperance) said in his speech, the only difference between those who were in favour of Union Government and those who opposed it was the question as to the best ways and means of carrying on the fight and providing assistance from this Dominion of Canada. The great question that has been before us all is the question of the best way to keep up the support of our men at the front, and at the same time to provide all the necessary food and produce that we can for the benefit of the allied countries that are so greatly in need of it. This question of ways

and means is a very difficult one, and one which, as I am sure the Government realize, requires a tremendous amount of work in its solution. I am sure that all honourable gentlemen in this House realize that it is desirable at the present time to assist the Government in every possible way in carrying on the business of the country and in putting forward every possible effort to attain the object and end that we have in view; and any criticism raised by honourable gentlemen on either side of this Chamber will be raised only for the purpose of assisting the Government as far as possible in the work they have in hand, whether it be criticism of their legislation or criticism of the particular action that they have taken in the execution of their work.

In this Chamber we have at the present time a large addition of members, and I am sure that the new members will realize that the object of the Senate is to revise, and perhaps consider more carefully and deliberately and with that mature judgment and perhaps greater experience which a large number of members of this body have had in such matters, the legislation that is introduced by the Government in either House of Parliament. For that reason the criticism offered in this Chamber with regard to proposed legislation should be more independent and more deeply considered than possibly it is in the other House.

Now, I propose to refer for a few minutes to one or two points in the Speech. Mention has been made in it of the question of the Civil Service. An Order in Council has been passed dealing with this matter. I have only had time to peruse that Order in Council rather cursorily, but so far as I have been able to study it, the principle of the Order in Council does not indicate any new policy but seems to be on the same lines as those of the measure which was brought down by the Government of the time in 1908, when the Civil Service Act was amended and a commission was appointed for the purpose of dealing with the Inside Service. At that time the principle of appointment after an examination and proper consideration of the candidates' qualifications by the Commission, and the promotion of members of the Inside Service for merit and after further examination, was adopted, and we hoped that that condition of things would be steadily carried on, whatever Government was in power. Unfortunately, after the change of

Government in 1911, it was not apparently considered satisfactory to administer the Inside Service in the way that had been started, and the Act of 1908 became more or less a dead letter. The Order in Council now brought down by the Government, and which foreshadows further legislation, extends the principle of the Act of 1908 to the Outside Service and further brings in the question of the men returned from the front. Of course, the necessity of dealing with men who have returned from the front is due to the conditions of the present time. In 1908 there was no problem of the returned soldier. I think we all agree that everything possible should be done to find positions for returned men, if they are qualified to perform the duties required, and we approve of the Order in Council which states:

The Prime Minister further recommends that under the powers conferred by the War Measures Act, 1914, and under all other powers vested in your Excellency in Council, the following regulation be enacted:

In all competitive examinations held under the Civil Service Amendment Act, 1908, persons who have been on active service overseas in the military or naval forces of His Majesty, or any of the Allies of His Majesty, who have left such service with an honourable record, or who have been honourably discharged, and who obtain sufficient marks to pass such examination, shall, irrespective of the marks they have obtained, be placed in the order of merit on the list of successful candidates above all other candidates.

That places the returned soldier in a position ahead of the ordinary members of the Civil Service, and, I think, rightly too. I am sure that we all agree with the honourable gentleman from the Gulf (Hon. Mr. L'Espérance) that the relief to members of Parliament of not having to deal with the question of patronage will be very great, and I hope that they will all support the effort of the Government to make the Civil Service a profession which any man in the country will be proud to enter, and which he may enter with the feeling that he has before him a career in which he may hope to serve his country, and that when the time of life arrives when he can no longer perform his duties he will be enabled to retire with honour and credit to himself, knowing that his life has been spent in giving his best services to his country when he was able.

The other measures that will be brought before the House can be better dealt with when they are submitted; but I want to draw the attention of the Government at the present time to the question of food control. It is one that is exercising the minds of the people in all parts of the

country. There has been a considerable amount of criticism in the West regarding the manner in which the question of food control has been dealt with. The people probably do not realize the difficulties under which the Government are labouring, particularly those of the transportation problem. The honourable leader of the Government will, however, remember that the people were encouraged last year to increase the production of foodstuffs. The result was that in the province from which I come a large quantity of potatoes and other vegetables and farm products of a perishable nature was raised. The evaporator plants on the coast have been filled to their capacity, and at the present moment there are large supplies of roots and other vegetables in the hands of the farmers, with no demand for them. The evaporator plants are not in a position to make any financial arrangements with the farmers, because they have reached the limit of their credit, and there seems to be no chance for them to sell their products. I have met with many people who say that the situation offers no encouragement to them to make a similar effort this year. That situation may be peculiar to my particular part of the country, and I presume it may have been to some extent brought about by the transportation difficulty. Probably no one but a member of the Government can know or realize what the transportation question means at the present time, or the difficulties of finding means to send produce to the places where it is required in Europe; but I think that this question should be investigated, and the farmers should receive instructions, so that they may know just what is best for them to grow during the coming season. Since all grain crops can be saved and stored very much more satisfactorily than anything in the line of vegetables or roots, the farmers, I think, should be instructed to devote all their power and attention to grain crops. The Government can doubtless provide means of storing grain very much better and more cheaply, should it be necessary to do so, than they could crops like potatoes, which last only a short time and are very liable to go to waste.

Similarly with regard to the campaign that was carried on in the West for the raising of pigs. We have seen statistics indicating that there is in the world today a shortage of about 35,000,000 pigs, but if the transportation difficulty enters again into this question, persons who begin now to raise a large number of pigs may find that when those pigs are ready for the

market there will be practically no market for them, because the allied buyers, who, I presume, arrange for the sending forward of all food supplies, are not in a position to ship the animals. If men who have raised a large number of these animals find no means of disposing of them when they are ready for the market, a great deal of trouble will be caused. We had some experience of it in the West in the early stages of the war. Conditions arose in which there was only, apparently, a limited demand for this class of animal, and I have been told by men engaged in hograising that they actually went so far as to shoot the animals because they had not enough feed for them and did not propose to keep them, not knowing whether they could find a market later or not. When a large number of persons rush into the raising of hogs, as there is a danger they may do, without properly considering the whole question, the result is loss and disappointment and discontent throughout the country, and I think the Food Controller would be well advised to issue instructions which would be at any rate a guidance to persons engaging in the industry.

The Address refers to the commercial, industrial and financial stability of Canada at the present time. We are all glad to know that the condition of the country is so good, and I think that the Minister of Finance is to be congratulated on the successful flotation of the Victory Loan which he negotiated during the parliamentary recess. That loan was well taken up. The people of the country came forward and subscribed to it in a way that showed they were behind the Government in that matter, and were anxious to do all that they could to assist in finding the money required for carrying on the affairs of the country. But in dealing with this question the Government is calling upon the people to conserve their wealth and to invest their money in Government loans, and the Government has undertaken to arrange for the financing of certain shipbuilding industries in this Dominion. As I understand, the money required by the Imperial Munitions Board for the carrying on of the shipbuilding industry is supplied by the Government, and consequently we are responsible for finding all that money at the present moment. The people naturally ask themselves: if they individually are to be careful and save all the money they can, why the work that is being done by the Munitions Board should be done in the extravagant

way in which it is being done? There is great criticism of the action of that board on the coast at the present time. I think it is only right to call the attention of the Government to the matter, so that if they are not in a position to deal with the Imperial Munitions Board and to represent to them that this matter is not being handled satisfactorily, they can call upon the Government of Great Britain to take hold of the matter and deal with it as I think it should be dealt with; because when the people are called upon to pay increased taxation and to save their money for the purpose of enabling the Government to get the financial assistance that is necessary, they will and do criticise very severely any loose or extravagant method. And, as time goes on and the Government has to raise further money throughout the country, they will find that this question will be brought before them, and it may have an effect upon the raising of that money.

In the building of wooden ships there seems to be no reason why a company should not go directly to the lumber yard and get the required material without employing other people to act as go-betweens. It is general knowledge that when you employ individuals to purchase goods for you you have to pay commission, which raises the cost of the material to the man who has to use it. That and other points in connection with this shipbuilding industry certainly require looking into. We want to see this industry well established in this country, both on the Atlantic and on the Pacific. I think we have the resources and the materials, and we are getting the men together and training them; so that not only at the present time, but when the war is over, the shipbuilding industry will be on a thoroughly sound and well-established basis in Canada, and will be a great source of revenue to the country. At the present time, under the policy that has been pursued by the Imperial Munitions Board, certain firms have been handicapped and could not compete with the board in building ships because of the way that money was spent.

The whole country was very much shocked when it heard the news of the terrible disaster which took place at Halifax. The Speech from the Throne referred to further legislation which will be brought down for the purpose of providing relief for the people who were injured in that terrible disaster. The sympathy of the people of Canada, and of people throughout the world in general, went out to the citizens of Hali

fax. Persons who have been accustomed to seeing the terrible destruction which is going on in Europe at the present time on the fighting front have stated that the destruction and horror of the Halifax disaster were worse than anything they saw in Flanders. We shall be only too glad to do anything to assist in alleviating the distress which has arisen; and, although I am not aware that information has been given out to that effect, we hope that the conditions have been thoroughly looked into, and regulations made, so that no disaster of the kind can occur again. When these munition ships are being moved about and are calling at certain ports, it is desirable that every precaution should be taken so that they cannot come into collision as happened at Halifax. Every endeavour should be made to see that no disaster of this nature can occur again, and, further, that, if possible, those responsible for this terrible disaster should be brought to book. There must have been some carelessness on the part of somebody to have caused the collision which led to the disaster.

I join with my honourable friend from Red Deer (Hon. Mr. Michener) in his remarks about immigration. We require immigrants who are qualified to take up the work of the country and are prepared to take their stand as good citizens of Canada. I fear that in the past a large number of people who have come to this country have not had the proper education and have not been of the right kind to make such citizens as we want. I hope that the minister who has been appointed to the portfolio of Immigration-a man who knows well the requirements of the country -will use every endeavour to see that in the future we get the class of immigrants that will make thoroughly good citizens and will help us to develop those natural resources which are going to be the mainstay of this country in the near future.

The other matters dealt with in the Speech from the Throne will be referred to later on, and it is not my intention to take up the time of the House any further, except to congratulate the Government upon the businesslike way in which they have started the work of this session. I hope this will continue so that we may put through the work of Parliament as expeditiously as possible, so that the members may return to the different parts of the country and do their share in the work that awaits them. At the present time everybody throughout this country has so much to do, and is so vitally interested in

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