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will so continue to the end. Equally earnest and resolute is the spirit of all the allied nations and especially of the great neighbouring and kindred Commonwealth, whose enormous power and vast resources are now beginning to make themselves felt in the determination of the issue.

I commend your deliberations to the Divine guidance in the confident expectation that they Will be worthy of the supreme purpose to to which our national endeavour is dedicated.

His Excellency the Governor General was pleased to retire, and the House of Commons withdrew.

The sitting of the Senate was resumed.

BILL PRO FORMA.

Hon. Sir JAMES LOUGHEED presented a Bill intituled, An Act relating to Railways..

The Bill was read the first time.

CONSIDERATION OF HIS EXCEL-
LENCY'S SPEECH.

On motion of Hon. Sir James Lougheed, it was ordered that the Speech of His Excellency the Governor General be taken into consideration to-morrow.

COMMITTEE ON ORDERS AND
PRIVILEGES.

Hon. Sir JAMES LOUGHEED moved:

That all the senators present during this Session be appointed a Committee to consider the Orders and Customs of the Senate and privileges of Parliament, and that the said Committee have leave to meet in the Senate Chamber when and as often as they please.

The motion was agreed to.

COMMITTEE OF SELECTION.

On motion of Hon. Sir James Lougheed, the following Senators were appointed a Committee of Selection to nominate Senators to serve on the several Standing Committees during the present Session: Hon. Messrs. Beique, Bostock, Casgrain, Daniel, Robertson, Tanner, Taylor (Leeds), Watson, and the mover.

The Senate adjourned until to-morrow at 3 p.m.

THE SENATE.

Tuesday, March 19, 1918.

The Senate met at 3 p.m., the Speaker in the Chair.

Prayers and routine proceedings.

NEW SENATORS INTRODUCED. Hon. William H. Bennett, of Midland, Ontario, introduced by Hon. Sir James Lougheed and Hon. George Taylor.

Hon. Robert Alexander Mulholland, of Port Hope, Ontario, introduced by Hon. Sir James Lougheed and Hon. Mr. Pringle.

STANDING COMMITTEES.

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF SELECTION. Hon. Sir JAMES LOUGHEED presented the report of the Committee of Selection appointed to nominate senators to serve on the several Standing Committees during the present session. He said: As the report is rather lengthy, I shall not read it, but will move that it be considered to-morrow, and in the meantime it will be printed. It may not be out of place for me to say that the committee on this occasion found it necessary to make a readjustment to some extent of the committees with which we were empowered to deal. That readjustment is due to this fact: the amendment to the British North America Act giving additional representation to the West in the Senate, as honourable gentlemen will recall, came into force upon the dissolution of Parliament, and this session finds that amendment in operation. Consequently nine new senators were appointed in addition to those appointments which had already been made to fill vacancies. Four groups were thus created, of 24 members each, from the different sections of Canada-24 from the Maritime Provinces, 24 from Quebec, 24 from Ontario, and a like number from the four provinces west of the Great Lakes. To give an equal representation to each group on each committee involved, as honourable gentlemen will readily understand, a few readjustments. We gave every consideration to the older members who had constituted the committees, and honourable gentlemen, upon looking over the Minutes to-morrow, when printed, will observe, I hope, that

no

very serious readjustment has taken place. I considered it desirable to make this explanation so that if some honourable gentlemen find that they are not on all the committees to which they were formerly appointed they will understand the reason.

The motion, for consideration of the report to-morrow, was agreed to.

THE GOVERNOR GENERAL'S SPEECH.

ADDRESS IN REPLY.

The Senate proceeded to the consideration of His Excellency the Governor General's Speech at the opening of the session.

Hon. D. O. L'ESPERANCE rose to move that an Address be presented to His Excellency the Governor General to offer the humble thanks of this House to His Excellency for the gracious Speech which he has been pleased to make to both Houses of Parliament. He said:

(Translation) Honourable gentlemen: I highly appreciate the honour which has been done me by the honourable leader of the House in inviting me to propose the Address to be presented to His Excellency the Governor General.

I take this opportunity, Mr. Speaker, to offer you my most sincere congratulations and to tell you how pleased I am to see you again occupying the high office which you filled with such dignity and distinction during the closing session of the last Parliament. In asking you to continue as Speaker of this House, the honourable leader of the Government gives you an evidence of esteem and confidence which does you honour and which, I have no doubt, will be highly appreciated by your compatriots.

Four years will soon have passed by since Canada, an autonomous Dominion within the British Empire, decided, by the unanimous and freely-expressed will of its Parliament, to take part in the conflict which was to involve the greatest nations of the world and tax to its uttermost limits the energy, the endurance and the spirit of sacrifice of peoples. When the special session was called at the beginning of the present conflict I was a member of the other House, and there is still present in my memory the unanimous enthusiasm with which the war programme submitted by the Government of the day was received.

The decision taken at the beginning of the war by the representatives of the people expressed well the intentions of their constituents, for, after four years of effort and sacrifice which have been the admiration of our Allies and the astonishment of our enemies, the Canadian people have just decided unanimously to continue this effort until the end. It is advisedly, Mr. Speaker and honourable gentlemen, that I say unanimously; for even those who have been elected in opposition to the Military Service Act have nevertheless received the mandate to support, by other means, the cause of the Allies until the final victory. Not a single candidate, to my knowledge, during the recent general elections, un

furled the standard of non-intervention. Some, it is true, favoured different means, but all have been eager to place at the head of their programme the continuation of our efforts.

It was therefore wrong for a certain section of the press, during the late campaign and since, to attempt to take advantage of prejudices against my native province. Some went so far as to apply the epithet of traitor to a people who are generous, lawabiding, loyal to the British Crown, and prepared to make the greatest sacrifices for the defence of their liberties and of the land which gave them birth. Against these erroneous and mendacious accusations I desire to make an emphatic protest. That there have been extravagances of language, that unfortunate and regrettable occurrences have taken place in the course of the last election campaign, cannot be denied. But these manifestations are inherent in our governmental system and accompany in all parts of the British Empire the exercise by the people of their sovereign right.

May I be permitted, before passing to another subject, to express a wish: it is that at the dawn of the present Parliament, at the beginning of this year, which from present indications will be so momentous in consequences for the sublime cause we are defending, this honourable Chamber, the highest in the land, will give an example of tolerance, unity and concord among the different elements composing the Canadian nation to which we are so proud to belong.

The Military Service Act is in force; its machinery, though somewhat complicated, is working in good order. The application of this law is necessarily slow, for it was enacted for the purpose of keeping our military forces up to strength, without, however, doing injury to our essential industries, chiefly agriculture, the intensive development of which is so necessary to the success of the Allies. The judges called upon to decide the numerous appeals for exemption submitted to their jurisdiction do well to proceed with prudence; this wise procedure will doubtless entail regrettable delays, but these delays are justifiable from the standpoint of the vital interests of the country.

The great problems which the Speech from the Throne brings to our attention and upon which we shall be called to deliberate, have for their principal object the co-ordination of our efforts and our means for the prosecution of the war, due regard being, however, paid to the after-war problems, less urgent, but none the less important, if

we would not lose the fruits of our present reform of the Outside Civil Service; that is, sacrifices.

Among the most important items in the programme submitted for our attention I observe, in passing, those which relate to our sources of revenue, agricultural production, and the reform of the Outside Civil Service.

The Government is obliged to find the revenue necessary for the carrying out of the programme of which the people have just approved in no uncertain terms. The financial measures adopted since the beginning of the war, by the Government, under the wise administration of Hon. Sir Thomas White, whom I am pleased to see again in charge of our finances, have given all the results expected of them, and even more, without, however, retarding the development of our industries or causing serious inconvenience to individuals.

With the continuance of the war it will doubtless become necessary to find other sources of revenue or to increase the revenues already existing. I am convinced that the present Government, like its predecessor, will be able to make this legislation as wise, as prudent, and as efficacious as it ought to be. It will be our duty to study these measures, keeping in mind the resources and the needs of the country.

Since 1912 the Federal Government has asked Parliament to vote annually certain sums of money for the encouragement of agriculture. These sums are voted in the form of special subsidies to the provinces, and are expended through the respective provincial governments. Recently there was held in the Capital a conference of the prime ministers of the different provinces, to discuss, as I understand, the best means of increasing agricultural production.

An effective means of encouraging this production would be, in my humble opinion, to guarantee to the farmer a minimum price for his products, whether wheat or other cereals, cattle, meat, butter, cheese, or vegetables. Cultivation is more expensive now than before the war. The price of everything is higher-labour, farm implements, seed grain, etc. Is it more reasonable to ask the farmer to arrange at great expense for an increase in the yield of products the prices of which might be seriously affected by a sudden ending of the war, than it would be to ask the manufacturer to buy at increased cost materials for the manufacturė of munitions without guaranteeing him a reasonable price for his output?

The Speech from the Throne apprises us that legislation will be introduced for the

to remove from political influence the appointments to the various departments of the Government. Those especially who have been members of the other House will properly appreciate this salutary reform. Competition for appointment and the pressune brought to bear upon members of Parliament had become really tyrannical. Moreover, the people's representatives were subjected to violent attacks, mostly unjustified, with regard to the exercise of this. patronage. The reform of the Outside Civil Service will therefore have two direct results. The first and the more important will be the improvement of the Service by the classification and selection of employees, not according to political merit, but in conformity with the qualifications required by the Civil Service Commission; the other, which I have just mentioned, will be the relief of members of Parliament from a task which the majority of them accepted with resignation as one of the necessary evils of public life.

I desire, before concluding these few remarks, to express my appreciation of the Government's naval construction programme as announced a few weeks ago by the Hon. Charles Ballantyne, Minister of Marine. I can state without exaggeration that all true patriots were thrilled with joy and pride at the announcement of this bold policy, the realization of which will destiny. The development of our merchant have a considerable influence upon our marine will inevitably bring about the coordination of all our means of transporof our foreign trade, promote the prospertation, insure the maintenance and growth ity of our seaports, and compensate in large measure for the material sacrifices we shall have made during the present war. Government, and more especially the honI desire, therefore, to congratulate the ourable Minister of Marine, who was the man best fitted to give effect to a programme so extensive.

Not wishing to impose upon the patience of this honourable House, I pass over in silence several subjects mentioned in the Speech from the Throne, and not the least important. I leave to the honourable seconder of the Address in reply the task of dealing with such questions as railways, immigration and colonization, which are of such keen interest to the Western Provinces. I desire to thank you, Mr. Speaker, as well as my honourable colleagues, for the attention which has been given to my humble words, and before taking my seat

I will, with your permission, say a few words in the language which is that of the majority in this House.

Honourable gentlemen, following a custom established since Confederation, I was proud to address the House, at such an important time, in my native tongue. But I am bound to say that it is somewhat depressing for one to feel that the language he speaks is not understood by the great majority of his hearers. I trust, however, that the policy of using alternately both of the official languages, for the moving and the seconding of the Address, will be strictly adhered to with only one possible alteration: that is, I hope that the use of the French language in the Parliament will not forever be restricted to members of French origin. Following the great and terrible war that has so closely bound together our immortal mother countries, France and England, is it too much to expect that the, sweet language of France will become more popular and will hereafter be more universally taught in this country, so that we may better understand each other and realize that lasting and fruitful union dreamed of by the fathers of Confederation.

Hon. EDWARD MICHENER: Honourable gentlemen, I have the honour to second the resolution so ably presented by the honourable member who has just spoken. I desire to associate myself with the expression which he gave with respect to Mr. Speaker; also, to affirm our continued and sincerest loyalty to His Gracious Majesty and his representative in our Dominion, His Excellency the Duke of Devonshire. Western Canada had the honour of a visit from His Excellency last fall. We were especially pleased to learn of his keen interest in the agricultural possibilities and development of Canada.

I should like, before proceeding, to refer to one remark which was made by the honourable gentleman who moved the resolution, towards the close of his speech. He expressed the hope that the day would come when every member of the House would understand both languages. I regret exceedingly that I was not able to follow all that the honourable member said in his native tongue, but I stated to him, and wish to state to the House, that I am going to see to it that my sons shall not be handicapped in this way.

When I see about me honourable gentlemen of long and distinguished parliamentary service and experience, when I recall the statesmen who have as members of this House contributed so much to the upbuilding of a greater Canada, I appre ciate the honour of having a place in the counsels of the Senate of Canada. We who have recently been called to the Upper House can have no more worthy or impelling purpose than to emulate the example of the illustrious men who have given so unstintingly and loyally of their time and energies to the service of their country.

Not since Confederation has the Parliament of Canada been charged with such tremendous responsibilities as now confront them, in the prosecution of the struggle for the preservation of our liberties. Not only has the Government the mighty task of carrying on the war, but by reason of the war great social and economic questions are arising which must command the attention of Parliament.

We endorse with all our hearts the sentiment expressed in the Speech from the Throne, "that the effort which yet lies before us demands our sternest resolve, but we shall not shrink from it, if our hearts are as firm and our courage as undaunted as those of our countrymen who hold our battle line beyond the seas.' If I interpret aright the spirit of the people of Canada, it is that the hearts of the people are with the men at the front. and they are prepared to back them up to the full strength of Canada's power. Men, munitions, and money are not enough for Canada to help win the war. We must put our full strength, our heart, our soul, into the struggle as a united people. We must be possessed of the same spirit of service and sacrifice as our gallant men who have placed their lives upon the altar of their country.

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The Speech refers to the Canadian Expeditionary Force as still maintaining its unbroken record of distinguished achievement. Of this fact we as Canadians are justly proud. In all the strategical gagements of the war thus far our men have never failed to make the top. The enemy have recognized their daring and heroism by placing against the Canadian forces the best regiments of the Prussian Guards. Our forces at the battle line have shown such an unswerving purpose to live up to the highest traditions of soldiers and patriots that they have merited a lasting honour and glory for Canada among the allied nations. At no time during the war

has the responsibility of Canada been as great as to-day. The fate of the allied cause rests with Great Britain, her dominions and our great ally to the south. The eastern situation is dark indeed. Russia is broken and has become an easy prey for German aggression. Rumania, Poland, Serbia, and Italy can do no more than defend what is left. Gallant Belgium, that held the German hordes back so heroically at the beginning, is despoiled, outraged, and ravished. Brave and brilliant France is putting her all in the struggle, fighting for her existence. It remains for Britain, Canada and the United States to put forth their full strength for the restoration of the heritage of the despoiled nations, for the destruction of militarism, and for making the world safe for democracy. With an allconquering faith in our cause, our armies and navy and in our God, we will conquer or die.

The Speech refers to the extension of the present Civil Service Act to the Outside Service, so that promotions and appointments will be made solely on merit and efficiency. This is especially opportune, in view of the demand of the times for the Government to assume larger powers and obligations in undertaking as national enterprises more of the public utilities of the country.

The creation of two new departments of the Government will meet with the approval of the people. The first, that of Immigration and Colonization, is pregnant with possibilities. What Canada needs is population of the right kind to develop her lands and resources. The province of Alberta, from which I come, alone has sufficient land and resources to sustain a population larger than the whole of Canada today. We need people to help develop all our great natural assets; but we want people who will become Canadians, who can appreciate Canadian aims, ideals, traditions, and institutions. Immigration has kept up during the war. Doubtless afterwards there will be an unprecedented settlement in Canada which will tax the new department to direct and control.

We must have a united Canada. Our interests are in common. Let us not think in terms of the East or the West, but of a greater Canada which is destined to fill an increasingly larger place among the nations of the world. What is in the interests of the West is in the interests of the East. It is incumbent upon the Government to use every effort to encourage the development of our vast agricultural areas, our mines, our timber, our fisheries, and all our other

great natural wealth. Interprovincial trade must be encouraged. The conception of the Fathers of Confederation in joining together the scattered settlements of Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific by iron bands of interprovincial traffic was a national conception which we must realize to-day more than ever before. The West will transport her grain, her coal, and her other natural products to the East. In return, the East will send Western Canada her manufactured products. The prosperity and development of the West spells increased wealth and production for the East.

Canada has a transportation problem. To-day we have more transcontinental mileage in our three interprovincial railway systems than the present traffic can support profitably. Last winter Eastern Canada had a fuel shortage. In the province of Alberta alone we have 85 per cent of the coal reserves of Canada, enough to supply fuel for the people of Canada for centuries to come. It is in the development of all these great natural resources of Western Canada that the future is bright with hope, not only for the solution of the question of transportation, but also for the creation of wealth through increased production that we can hope to meet the immense financial obligations of the country.

Honourable gentlemen, the greatest duty of Canada, next to the prosecution of the war, is to take care of the returned soldier. The new department created for this purpose will be directed by men of wide experience. Already much has been done to care for as well as train men for service through vocational training. I would like to have your indulgence while I give a concrete example of the effective work done in this direction. A blacksmith from my town returned from the front, physically unfit for his usual work. He took several months' training in mechanics and engineering in Calgary, and, as a result, he is now qualified to give a higher service, and to support himself and his family by a work which he is physically and mentally able to do. This is only one example out of many which shows the excellent and magnificent undertaking which the Government proposes along this line.

The land settlement question is one which will require great consideration. Many dif ferent views are held upon this question. One principle, I think, most men agree upon, that in any scheme of land settlement the soldier should not be isolated. A social centre must necessarily be a part of any plan.

The Government's programme, as indicated by the Speech from the Throne,

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