An Essay Concerning Human Understanding: With Thoughts on the Conduct of Understanding ; Collated with Desmaizeaux's Ed. To which is Prefixed the Life of the Author

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Mundell & Son, 1801 - 308 pages
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Contents

But Knowledge of Bodies is to be improved only
9
If Reafon difcovered them that would not prove them
10
Conftant Connection between the Name and nominal
16
Affenting as foon as propofed and understood proves
17
A good meaſure of Time muſt divide its whole Dura
18
Truth or Falfehood always fuppofes Affirmation
19
Theſe Maxims not the first known
23
Confcience no Proof of any innate moral Rule
32
Thoſe who maintain innate practical Principles tell
39
A conftant Determination to a Purfuit of Happineſs no Abridgment of Liberty
50
The Necality of purſuing true Happinefs the Founda tion of all Liberty
51
The Reafon of
52
Government of our Paffions the right Improvement of Liberty
53
How Men come to purfue different Courſes
54
How Men come to chooſe
56
Firt From bodily Pains Secondly From wrong
57
Faculties
59
Difference of Mens Difcoveries depends upon the
66
All our Ideas are of the one or the other of theſe
73
That Men dream without remembering it in vain
79
That a man fhould be bufy in thinking and yet
83
CHAP III
89
CHAP VII
97
Memory
123
Conftantly repeated Ideas can fcarce be loſt 7 In remembering the Mind is often active
124
Brutes have Memory
126
CHAP XI
127
The difference of Wr and Judgment 3 Clearnefs alone hinders confufion 4 Comparing 5 Brutes compare but imperfecdy
129
Compounding 7 Brutes compound but little
130
Naming
131
Brutes abftract
132
Idiots and Madmen
133
Method
134
Theſe are the Beginnings of Human Knowledge 16 Appeal to Experience 17 Dark Room
135
CHAP XII
136
CHAP XIII
139
Modes of Taſte
153
The Revolutions of the Sun and Moon the propereſt
163
CHAP XV
173
Their Parts infeparable
181
CHAP XVII
188
Infinite Divifibility
196
CHAP XVIII
204
Why fome Modes have and others have not Names
206
CHAP XIX
207
The various Attention of the Mind in Thinking Hence probable that Thinking is the Action not Ef fence of the Soul
209
Pleaſure and Pain fimple Ideas
210
Good and Evil what 3 Our Paffions moved by Good and Evil 4 Love
211
Hatred 6 Defire
212
Joy 8 Sorrow CHAP XX
213
SECT
214
The Inftances to ſhow how our Ideas of the Paffions are got from Senfation and Reflection CHAP XXI
215
Power active and paffive 3 Power includes Relatives
216
Whence the Ideas of Liberty and Neceffity 8 Liberty what
220
fires arifing from wrong Judgment 58 59 Our Judgment of prefent Good or Evil always right
255
From a wrong Judgment of what makes a neceffary part of their Happineſs
256
A more particular Account of wrong Judgments
257
In comparing preſent and future
258
Caufes of this
259
In confidering Confequences of Actions
260
Caufes of this
261
Wrong Judgment of what is neceffary to our Happi
262
We can change the Agreeablenefs or Difagreeableness in things
263
70 71 72 73 Preference of Vice to Virtue a manifeſt wrong Judgment
264
SECT
275
confuſed
ftances
Made by the Mind out of fimple ones
1
Made voluntarily
2
they admit them in their Thoughts anfwered
3
Modes
4
Simple and mixed Modes
5
Confufion of Ideas is in reference to their Names
6
Defaults which make Confufion First complex Ideas made up of too few fimple ones
7
Secondly Or its fimple ones jumbled diforderly
8
Simple Ideas the Materials of all our Knowledge
9
Belongs not to Volition
10
Duration is as a Line Expanſion as a Solid
11
Liberty what
12
Neceffity what
13
1420 Liberty belongs not to the Will
14
The now fecondary Qualities of Bodies would diſappear if we could difcover the primary ones of their minute Parts
16
Our Faculties of Diſcovery fuited to our ſtate 13 Conjecture about Spirits
18
Obj Innate Principles may be corrupted anſwered
20
But to the Agent or
21
2224 In refpect of willing a Man is not free
22
Idea of Soul and Body compared 2327 Coheſion of ſolid Parts in Body as hard to be con ceived as Thinking in a Soul
23
25 26 27 The Will determined by fomething without
25
Secondary Qualities twofold firft immediately per
26
Principles must be examined
27
Volition what
28
Becauſe Uneafinefs alone is preſent
37
Becaufe all who allow the Joys of Heaven poffible purſue them not but a great Uneafinefs is never neglected
38
Defire accompanies all Uneafinefs
39
The moft preffing Uncafinefs naturally determines the Will
40
All defire Happineſs
41
Happineſs what
42
What Good is defired what
43
Why the greateſt Good is not always defired
44
Why not being defired it moves not the Will
45
Due confideration raifes Delire
46
The Power to fufpend the Profecution of any Defire makes way for Confideration
47
To be determined by our own Judgment is no Reſtraint to Liberty
48
The freeit Agents are fo determined
49
Confufion without reference to Names hardly con ceivable
89
Confufion concerns always two Ideas 12 Cauſes of Confufion
90
Complex Ideas may be diftint in one part and con fufed in another
91
This if not heeded caufes Confufion in our Arguings 15 Inftances in Eternity
92
Divifibility of Matter
93
Of Real and Fantastical Ideas
95
ther Mans Idea without being fo 22 Secondly When judged to agree to real Existence when they do not 23 Thirdly When judged adequate without b...
118
Ideas when falfe
119
More properly to be called right or wrong 27 Conclufion CHAP XXXIII
120
Of the Affociation of Ideas SECT 1 Something unreaſonable in moft Men 2 Not wholly from Selflove 3 Nor from Education 4 A Degree of Madneſs
121
From a wrong connection of Ideas 6 This connection how made
122
Some Antipathies an Effect of
123
1012 Instances 13 Why Time cures fome Diſorders in the Mind which Reaſon cannot 1416 Farther Inftances of the Effects of the Affociation of Ideas
126
Its Influence on intellectual Habits 18 Obfervable in different Sects
127
CHA P I
129
Of the Signification of Words
132
What things have proper Names
138
Real and nominal Effence the fame in fimple Ideas
147
Simple Ideas why undefinable farther explained
153
CHAP IX
210
Of Perception
260
CHAP IV
iv
CHAP V
v
CHAP XVI
xi
SECT Of fimple Ideas of Reflection
1
Made by the Power of compofing in the mind
2
All artificial things are collective Ideas
3
Mixed Modes made of confiftent Ideas are real
4
Habitual Knowledge twofold
5
Whole and Part not innate Ideas
6
Which Ideas firſt are not evident
7
Demonftrative
8
Depends on Proofs 4 But not fo cafy
9
Not without precedent Doubt 6 Not fo clear
10
Thirdly For want of intermediate Ideas
11
Suitable to Gods goodness that all men fhould have
12
Fifthly Becaufe of doubtful Terms
13
Each distinct abſtract Idea is a diſtinct Effence
14
Perception the Inlet of Knowledge
15
Idea of Subftance not innate
18
reaſoning
52
Being nothing but the joining or feparating Ideas with
59
tainty
63
Real and nominal Effence
64
This more particularly concerns Subſtances
65
Judgment may reach farther but that is not Know
73
Firt As to Identity and Diverſity all Propofitions are equally felfevident 5 Secondly In Coexiſtence we have few ſelfevident Propofitions
78
Thirdly In other Relations we may have 7 Fourthly Concerning the real Éxiſtence we have none
81
Theſe Axioms do not much influence our other Know ledge
83
What Ufe thefe general Maxims have 12 Maxims if care be not taken in the Ufe of Words may prove Contradictions 13 Inftance in Vacuum
92
They prove not the Existence of Things without us 15 Their Application dangerous about complex Ideas
94
1618 Inftance in
95
Little Ufe of thefe Maxims in Proofs where we have clear and diftinct Ideas
96
Their Ufe dangerous where our Ideas are confufed CHAP VIII
97
Secondly When a part of any complex Idea is predi cated of the whole 5 As part of the Definition of the defined
101
InftanceMan and Palfry
102
For this teaches but the Signification of Words
103
But no real Knowledge
104
That eternal Being must be most powerful
110
Whether material or
116
Firft Becauſe we cannot have them but by the Inlet
124
Paft Exiftence is known by Memory
130
The true Method of advancing Knowledge is by con
137
This may procure us Convenience not Science
139
CHAP XIII
145
The next is Demonftration by reafoning
183
To fupply the Narrowness of this we have nothing but Judgment upon probable Reaſoning 17 Intuition Demonftration Judgment
184
Confequences of Words and Confequences of Ideas
185
First Ad Verecundiam 20 Secondly Ad Ignorantiam 21 Thirdly Ad Hominem 22 Fourthly Ad Judicium
186
Above contrary and according to Reafon 24 Reafon and Faith not oppofite
187
CHAP XVIII
188
Faith and Reafon what as contradiftinguished
189
Traditional Revelation may make us know Propofi tions knowable alfo by Reaſon but not with the fame Certainty that Reafon doth
191
Secondly Want of Skill to uſe them
211
Secondly Received Hypotheſes
217
CHAP XXI
223
SECT
269

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Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page xi - For if we will reflect on our own ways of thinking, we shall find that sometimes the mind perceives the agreement or disagreement of two ideas immediately by themselves, without the intervention of any other: and this, I think, we may call 'intuitive knowledge.
Page 64 - I would be understood to mean, that notice which the mind takes of its own operations, and the manner of them, by reason whereof there come to be ideas of these operations in the understanding.
Page 97 - ... some motion must be thence continued by our nerves or animal spirits, by some parts of our bodies, to the brain or the seat of sensation, there to produce in our minds the particular ideas we have of them.
Page 190 - ... a new set of discoveries communicated by God immediately; which reason vouches the truth of, by the testimony and proofs it gives that they come from God. So that he that takes away reason to make way for revelation, puts out the light of both, and does muchwhat the same as if he would persuade a man to put out his eyes, the better to receive the remote light of an invisible star by a telescope.
Page 8 - From all which it is evident, that the extent of our knowledge comes not only short of the reality of things, but even of the extent of our own ideas.
Page 64 - ... got; which operations, when the soul comes to reflect on and consider, do furnish the understanding with another set of ideas which could not be had from things without; and such are perception, thinking, doubting, believing, reasoning...
Page 80 - When the understanding is once stored with these simple ideas, it has the power to repeat, compare, and unite them, even to an almost infinite variety, and so can make at pleasure new complex ideas.
Page 237 - ... harangues and popular addresses, they are certainly, in all discourses that pretend to inform or instruct, wholly to be avoided ; and, where truth and knowledge are concerned, cannot but be thought a great fault either of the language or person 'that makes use of them.
Page 177 - I think it may not be amiss to take notice, that, however faith be opposed to reason, faith is nothing but a firm assent of the mind ; which, if it be regulated, as is our duty, cannot be afforded to any thing but upon good reason, and so cannot be opposite to it. He that believes without having any reason for believing, may be in love with his own fancies ; but neither seeks truth as he ought, nor pays the obedience due to his Maker...

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