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Filing and Record of Certificate-The certificate of every such corporation shall be filed for record with the secretary of state, who, if he finds that it conforms to law, and, if a financial corporation, has indorsed thereon the approval of the public examiner,* or, if an insurance company, that of the insurance commissioner, and, in every case, that the required fee has been paid, shall record the same and certify that fact thereon. After such record, such certificate shall be filed for record with the register of deeds of the county of the principal place of business as specified in the certificate. (G. S. 1923, 7444).

Publication of Certificate-Every such certificate of incorporation shall be published in a qualified newspaper in the county of such principal place of business, for two successive days in a daily, or for two successive weeks in a weekly newspaper. Upon filing with the secretary of state proof of such publication, its corporate organization shall be complete. (G. S. 1923, 7445).

General Powers-Every corporation formed under the provisions of this chapter shall have power:

1. To have succession by its corporate name for the time stated in its certificate of incorporation.

2. To sue and be sued in any court.

3. To have and use a common seal and alter the same at pleasure.

4. To acquire, by purchase or otherwise, and to hold, enjoy, improve, lease, incumber, and convey all real and personal property necessary to the purposes of its organization, subject to the limitations hereafter declared.

5. To elect or appoint, in such manner as it may determine, all necessary or proper officers, agents, boards, and committees, to fix their compensation, and define their powers and duties.

6. To make and amend, consistently with law, by-laws providing for the management of its property and the regulation and government of its affairs.

7. To wind up and liquidate its business in the manner provided by law. (G. S. 1923, 7447).

By-Laws-How Adopted-The first board of directors, trustees, or managers shall adopt by-laws, which shall remain effective until and except as amended by the stockholders or members at any regular or special meeting called therefor. (G. S. 1923, 7453).

By-Laws and Statement to be Filed and Posted-A copy of the by-laws of every corporation, whose articles are filed with the secretary of state, the names of its officers and a statement of the amount of the capital stock actually and in good faith subscribed for, if there be any, the amount and character of payments actually made thereon, and in the case of corporations empowered to take private property, the amount of its indebtedness in a general way, shall also be kept posted in its principal place of business; which statement shall be corrected as often as any material change takes place in relation to any part of the subject-matter of such statement. (G. S. 1923, 7454).

Duration-Renewal-A railroad corporation may be formed for any period specified in its certificate of incorporation. A savings bank shall have perpetual succession. Every other corporation shall be formed for a period not exceeding thirty years in the first instance, but may be renewed from time to time for a further term not exceeding thirty years, whenever a three-fourths vote of the stock or members in case of mutual or nonstock corporations represented at any regular meeting, or at any special meeting called for that purpose, which shall have been clearly *Powers and duties of public examiner vested in superintendent of banks. (See section 5323, page 53.)

specified in the call, shall have heretofore or shall hereafter adopt a resolution to that effect, and in case of stock companies when those desiring it shall have purchased at its value the stock of those opposed thereto. (G. S. 1923, 7455).

When Renewal Takes Effect-No such resolution shall take effect until a duly certified copy thereof shall have been filed, recorded, and published in the same manner as its original certificate. (G. S. 1923, 7456).

Business, How Managed-The business of every such corporation, except savings banks, shall be managed by a board of at least three directors, elected by ballot by and from the stockholders or members; provided, however, that when the certificate of incorporation or the by-laws so provides, a vacancy in the board of directors may be filled by the remaining directors; provided, however, that not more than one-third of the members of the board may be so filled in any one year; that of savings banks, by a board of at least seven trustees, residents of the county of its location, each of whom before being authorized to act, shall file a written acceptance of the trust. A majority of the directors or trustees shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. (G. S. 1923, 7458).

Officers-Certain Corporations Legalized-Every domestic corporation, except when otherwise specially provided, shall have a president, secretary and treasurer, and may have one or more vice presidents and other officers as its certificate of incorporation or by-laws may provide. The time and manner of their election and their respective duties shall be prescribed in the certificate of incorporation or in the by-laws. The president shall be a director or trustee. The secretary and treasurer may or may not be a director or trustee, as shall be provided in the certificate of incorporation, or in the by-laws. That all corporations heretofore organized under the laws of this state in which the matters in this section referred to are contained in the certificate of incorporation, are hereby legalized and in all things made valid. (G. S. 1923, 7459: See also G. S. 1923, 7460).

Regulation as to Voting-Unless otherwise provided in the certificate or by-laws, at every meeting each stockholder or member, resident or non-resident, shall be entitled to one vote in person, or by proxy made within one year or other time specially limited by law, for each share or other lawful unit of representation held by him in his individual, corporate, or representative capacity, but no stock shall be voted on at any election within twenty days after its transfer on the books of the corporation. (G. S. 1923, 7461).

Cumulative Voting-The certificate of incorporation, original or amended, of any corporation now or hereafter organized under the laws of this state, and thereunder issuing, or authorized to issue, shares of its capital stock may provide that at all elections of directors or managers each stockholder or member shall be entitled to as many votes as shall equal the number of his shares of stock multiplied by the number of directors or managers to be elected, and that he may cast all of such votes for a single director or manager, or may distribute them among the number to be voted for, or for any two or more of them, as he may see fit, which right, when exercised, shall be termed "cumulative voting." (G. S. 1923, 7462).

Transfer of Stock-The delivery, by the rightful owner or by one by him intrusted therewith, to a bona fide purchaser or pledgee for value, of a certificate of stock, duly transferred in writing by the holder personally, or accompanied by his power of attorney authorizing such transfer, shall be sufficient to transfer title, but shall not affect the right of the corporation to pay any dividend thereon, or to treat the holder of record as the owner in fact, until such transfer has been recorded on its books, or a new certificate issued to the transferee, who, upon delivery of the former certificate to the treasurer, shall be entitled to receive such new one. Stock shall not be transferred upon the books of the corporation while any in

stallment thereon remains delinquent, nor while any indebtedness of the record holder thereof to the corporation remains unpaid; nor shall any transfer deprive it of the right to maintain a personal action against any subscriber to its stock. A pledgee of stock transferred as collateral security shall be entitled to a new certificate, if the instrument of transfer substantially describe the debt or duty intended to be secured thereby. Such new certificate shall state on its face that it is held as collateral security. and the name of the pledgor, who alone shall be liable as a stockholder and entitled to vote thereon. (G. S. 1923, 7463).

Effect of Transfer-Stock Books-The transfer of shares is not valid, except as between the parties thereto, until it is regularly entered on the books of the company, so far as to show the names of the persons, by and to whom transferred, the number or other designation of the shares, and the date of the transfer; but such transfer shall not in any way exempt the person making such transfer from any liabilities of said corporation which were created prior to such transfer. The books of the company shall be so kept as to show intelligibly the original stockholders, their respective interests, the amount which has been paid in on their shares, and all transfers thereof, and such books, or a correct copy thereof, so far as the items mentioned in this section are concerned, shall be subject to the inspection of any person desiring the same. (G. S. 1923, 7464).

Liability of Stockholders-Every stockholder shall be personally liable for corporate debts in the following cases:

1. For all unpaid installments on stock owned by him or transferred for the purpose of defrauding creditors.

2. For failure by the corporation to comply substantially with the provisions as to organization and publicity.

3. For personally violating any of such provisions in the transaction of any corporate business as officer, director, or member, and for fraudulent or dishonest conduct in the discharge of any official duty. (G. S. 1923, 7465).

Capital Stock-Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, the capital of any stock corporation shall in no case be less than ten thousand dollars. It shall be divided into shares of not less than one dollar nor more than one hundred dollars each, but the capital and number of shares may be increased at any regular or specially called meeting of the stockholders. (G. S. 1923, 7468).

Records of Stock-Reports-Dividends-In all stock corporations the directors shall cause accurate and complete records to be kept of all corporate proceedings and of all stock subscribed, transferred, cancelled, or retired, and proper books, accounts, files, and records of all other business transacted. All such books and records shall at all reasonable times and for all proper purposes be open to the inspection of every stockholder. Its directors shall, when required, present to the stockholders written reports of its condition and business, and declare such dividends of the profits of the business as they deem advisable, but shall not thereby reduce the capital while there are outstanding liabilities. (G. S. 1923, 7470).

Amendment to Certificate-The certificate of incorporation of any corporation now or hereafter organized and existing under the laws of this state may be amended so as to change its corporate name, or so as to increase or decrease its capital stock, or so as to change the number and par value of the shares of its capital stock, or in respect of any other matter which an original certificate of a corporation of the same kind might lawfully have contained, by the adoption of a resolution specifying the proposed amendment, at a regular meeting or at a special meeting called for that expressly stated purpose, in either of the following ways: (1) by a majority vote of all its shares, if a stock corporation; or if not, (2) by a majority vote of its members; or, in either case (3) by a majority of its

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entire board of directors, trustee, or other managers within one year after having been thereto duly authorized by specific resolution duly adopted at such a meeting of stockholders or members, and by causing such resolution to be embraced in a certificate duly executed by its president and secretary, or other presiding and recording officers, under its corporate seal, and approved, filed, recorded, and published in the manner prescribed for the execution, approval, filing, recording, and publishing of a like original certificate. (G. S. 1923, 7472).

Fees Before filing any certificate of incorporation, renewal or amendment increasing the capital stock, there shall be paid to the state treasurer a fee of fifty dollars for the first fifty thousand dollars, or any fraction thereof, of the capital stock of an original or renewed corporation, and five dollars for each additional ten thousand dollars or fraction thereof. But nothing in this section shall apply to a corporation forined and operated solely for raising or improving livestock, or for the cultivation or improving of farms, gardens, or agricultural lands, growing beets or for canning fruits or vegetables, or to any telephone company connecting towns or villages of less than two thousand inhabitants, or to local building and loan associations, and nothing in this section shall apply to corporations organized for the purpose of conducting a chautauqua system of education, or to purely social corporations organized for maintaining curling clubs or associations, but the capital stock of any such last named corporation shall not exceed five thousand dollars. (G. S. 1923, 7475. See also G. S. 1923, 7477).

Meeting Called by Members-Whenever, by reason of the death, absence, or other legal disability of the officers of any corporation, there is no person authorized to call or preside at a legal meeting thereof, any three or more of its stockholders or members may call a meeting by giving to all the others the notice prescribed in Section 7477, and designating therein some person to preside at such meeting until a chairman and clerk are chosen, who shall act during the absence of those authorized to act in one or both of those capacities, respectively. Any business may be done at such meeting which could be lawfully transacted at a regular meeting. (G. S. 1923, 7478).

Irregular Meetings, How Validated-Whenever all the stockholders or members of a corporation are present or duly represented at any meeting, however called or notified, and duly execute a written assent thereto on the records thereof, the business transacted at such meeting shall be as valid as if it had been legally called. (G. S. 1923, 7479. See, also G. S. 1923, 7480).

Stock Certificates, To Whom Issued-Upon payment in full of all amounts due any corporation from any person upon any certificate for its stock, and the surrender of all receipts, if any, issued therefor, he shall be furnished with a certificate, under the corporate seal, stating the number of shares and class of its stock owned by him, signed by its president or vice president, and by its secretary, under its corporate seal. Said certificate shall be prima facie evidence of such ownership (G. S. 1923, 7481).

New Certificate-Every corporation, on the surrender of a worn-out or defaced certificate, shall issue a new one therefor, without indemnity. Whenever an affidavit stating the loss or destruction of any certificate of its stock shall be presented to the directors of any corporation, they shall cause a new one to be issued to the owner thereof, but may, in their discretion, first require a satisfactory bond for not more than double the market value of the stock, to indemnify the corporation against any claim arising from the issue of such new certificate. On giving such bond the corporation shall issue such new certificate. If the evidence is clear that said certificate has been lost or destroyed, and has not been heard of for seven years,

it shall be the duty of said corporation to issue a new certificate without indemnity, and the secretary or other proper officer shall make a report thereof in his register of shareholders, and said corporation shall be released from all damages in reference thereto. (G. S. 1923, 7482).

Executors, etc., May Vote-Not Personally Liable-Every executor, administrator, guardian, or trustee shall represent the shares of stock in his hands, for all purposes, at all meetings of the corporation, but while acting in good faith shall not be personally liable; but the estates and funds in his hands shall be liable in like manner and to the same extent as the beneficiary or other represented party or interest would be if competent to act and holding the stock in their own names, respectively. (G. S. 1923, 7483).

Dissolution of Corporations-Whenever any corporation except a bank of discount and deposit or savings bank has determined, upon the affirmative vote of a majority of each class of its stock entitled to vote, or of its members if without capital stock, that it is for the interest of all persons concerned therein that it be dissolved, it may cause appropriate action to be taken to effect such dissolution. (G. S. 1923, 7484).

Continuance for Three Years to Close Affairs-Every corporation whose existence terminates by limitation, forfeiture, or otherwise, shall nevertheless continue for three years thereafter, for the purpose of prosecuting and defending actions, closing its affairs, disposing of its property, and dividing its capital, but for no other purpose. (G. S. 1923, 7485.

Extension of Time, see G. S. 1923, 7486).

Diversion of Corporate Property-The diversion of corporate property to other objects than those specified in the recorded and published certificate, where injury to any individual results therefrom, the declaring of dividends when the profits are insufficient to pay the same or when the funds remaining will not meet the corporate liabilities, or any intentional deception of the public or individuals in relation to its means or liabilities, are felonies, and every person guilty of any one of them shall be punished by a fine of not more than five thousand dollars, or by imprisonment in the state prison for not more than three years, or by both. (G. S. 1923, 7489).

False Statements-Every officer, agent, or employee of any corporation, who shall knowingly and wilfully subscribe or make any false statement, false report, or false entry in or upon any of the books, papers, or other documents thereof, or in behalf thereof, or shall knowingly and wilfully subscribe or exhibit any false paper, book, or document with intent to deceive any person or officer authorized to examine the financial condition of any such corporation, or shall knowingly and wilfully subscribe or make any false report whatsoever shall be guilty of a felony, and be punished by imprisonment in the state prison not less than one nor more than ten years. (G. S. 1923, 7490).

False Statements to Obtain Credit-see G. S. 1923, 10388.

False Statements Concerning Value-Exception-Any person who knowingly makes or publishes any book, prospectus, notice, report, statement, exhibit or other publication containing any statement which is wilfully false and which is intended to give and does give a substantially greater or less apparent value to the shares, bonds or property, or any part thereof, of any corporation, joint stock association, co-partnership or individual, than said shares, bonds, property or any part thereof, shall in fact possess, shall be deemed guilty of a felony.

Provided, that nothing herein contained shall apply to any report or statement made to any commercial agency or any report or statement solicited by the person, firm or corporation to whom it is made. (G. S. 1923, 10389).

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