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'We are all', he says, ' very sorry to hear these news of Mr Marvell's death which hath deprived us of a faithful friend to our Corporation.' iii. Witty writing to Coates on August 29, 1678, says:

If there be anything now upon the loss of our dear friend Mr M. for whom I am a sincere mourner, which you all, . . you know where you may command.'

Marvell died Friday, August 16, and was buried on Sunday, August 18, in S. Giles Church in-the-Feilds in the south isle by the pulpit' (Wood's Life and Times, ed. Clark, ii. 414).


Letter 9 was first published in the 1681 volume; Letters 10-12, 14-17, 23, 31, in Cooke's edition (1726), from which they are here reprinted; Letters 1 and 26 were added to the collection by Thompson (1776) in his preface; Letters 2, 7, 19, and 24 were first included in Marvell's collected letters by Grosart; and Letters 3-6, 8, 13, 18, 20-2, 25, 27-30 are first included by the present editor. Further details about sources and authorities will be found in the notes to individual letters.

I give the addresses as in the MSS. or, where the MS. no longer exists, in the earliest printed text, except where it is incorrect. If no correct address survives, I give the name of the addressee in square brackets.

PAGE 291. Letter 1. This letter is printed from the original, now in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries. It was first printed in A General Dictionary, Historical and Critical, vol. vii. (1738).

The Dove-Coleridge life dates Marvell's appointment as tutor to Dutton 1657. Grosart, although he quotes the letter with the correct date 1653, repeats 1657 (on the opposite page) as that of the appointment. The error was copied by two at least of Grosart's successors. There can be no question of the correctness of the date of the letter, for in December 1653 Cromwell ceased to be His Excellency the Lord General and became His Highness the Lord Protector.

PAGE 291, 1. 10. Dutton: Marvell's pupil was William Dutton, son and heir of Sir Ralph Dutton of Gloucestershire, a royalist who died in 1646. The boy had then passed into the guardianship of his uncle John Dutton of Sherborne in Gloucestershire, who, after some changes of politics, was now a supporter and personal friend of Cromwell. Cromwell's interest in the boy in 1653 probably shows that he already looked on him as a prospective son-in-law. At any rate in John Dutton's will, dated January 14, 165, Cromwell is requested to act as guardian to William and to marry him to the Lady Frances Cromwell, his Highness's youngest daughter'' according to the discourse that hath passed betwixt us thereupon'. There seems no justification for biographers who have described Dutton as Cromwell's nephew, nor was he, at this date, even his ward. But the choice of Marvell as tutor to a boy, who was expected one day to enter Cromwell's family, indicates the Lord General's high opinion of him. We may perhaps presume, in view of Milton's letter to Bradshaw three months before, that Marvell owed his introduction to Cromwell also to Milton; and we may conjecture that Marvell was introduced to Milton by Cyriack Skinner.

I have taken the facts about Dutton from Masson's Life of Milton,

iv. 616-19. (See also Thurloe, State Papers vi. 610–12, and Clarke Papers iii. 125.) Masson's authority was Noble's Protectorate House of Cromwell. Noble adds that Dutton' disappointed in not having lady Frances, married Mary, daughter of John lord viscount Scudamore, and relict of Thomas Russel, of Worcestershire, esq. he was high sheriff of Gloucestershire, 1667; his only son dying before him, Ralph, his brother, succeeded him in his estates, and was created, 30 Cha. II. a baronet.'

PAGE 291, 1. 11. Oxenbridge: see notes on Bermudas and Janae Oxenbrigiae Epitaphium.


PAGE 292. Letter 2. This letter was first printed by Birch in the second edition of his introduction to Milton's prose works (1753). The original does not seem to be now extant, but there is a manuscript copy in the British Museum-Add. MS. 4292 (Birch) no. which was obtained from Josiah Owen by Birch for his own publication, and must, therefore, be considered the earliest extant authority for the text. I have corrected Grosart by this manuscript.

PAGE 292, 1. 19. your Book: this must have been Milton's Defensio Secunda written in Latin and published in May 1654.

PAGE 292, 1. 19. my Lord: this must be Bradshaw, who seems to have been staying at or near Eton at this time. See Masson, Life of Milton, iv. 620-2.

PAGE 293, 1. 7. Trajans columne: both writer and recipient of this letter had been in Rome and seen Trajan's column.

PAGE 293, 1. 12. Colonell Overton had been Governor of Hull since 1647. This explains Marvell's interest in him. His businesse is thus explained by Masson, iv. 606:

At the very moment when the Defensio Secunda [which contains a panegyric of Overton] appeared, Colonel Overton was in London, having just been brought from Hull (May 1654), for interrogation as to those circumstances of his recent conduct in Scotland, which had led to his recall thence under the idea that he had been favouring a Republican or Anabaptist revolt among the northern soldiery.' Masson goes on (pp. 607, 608):

'While the pamphlet [i. e. Defensio Secunda] was on Milton's table in Petty France, Overton must have been visiting him there, and often conversing with him confidentially . . . Overton . . . did come to an understanding with Cromwell. The purport of the understanding was that he should consider himself under pledge to serve the Protector in good faith until he should himself give notice that he could do so no longer. In a conversation with Cromwell Overton had said that, if he perceived his Lordship did only design the setting up of himself, and not the good of these nations then he could not continue to serve him. Thou wert a knave if thou wouldst " had been Cromwell's reply.'

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Overton does not seem to have kept his word. He was arrested in January 1655 and detained in the Tower till after Cromwell's death. PAGE 293, 1. 13. Skyner: i. e. Cyriack. See note to Corporation Letters 96.

PAGE 293.

Letter 3. The text is taken from Bodleian MS. Clarendon 57 f. 42. This is a copy of the original and is in the handwriting of one of Charles II's agents, H. Slingsby, secretary to the Earl of Bristol. It had been intercepted in the French Post Office by M. de Marcès, who was on the Post Office staff in Paris. It was printed (1742) in Thurloe's State Papers, vi. 743, being then in the possession of Joseph Radcliffe of the Înner-Temple esq.

Marvell is here writing to Lockhart, the English ambassador in Paris, when Thurloe is indisposed. Lockhart twice refers to him in subsequent letters to Thurloe (Thurloe's State Papers, vi. 747 and 769) dated Jan 18 and Feb. 9 [i. e. Jan. 30. (O.S.)], 1658. In the first of them Lockhart says he has heard from Marvell twice and he refers to Marvell's report in the letter before us that Thurloe was getting better. The interceptor passed the letter on to its destination after making a copy of it.

PAGE 293. Letter 4. This fragment was first printed by Monsieur Pierre Legouis in the Modern Language Review, October 1923. It is a replica of the original and is engraved under the reproduction of the Hollis' portrait of Marvell at Wilberforce House, Hull. It no doubt refers to the circumstances of Marvell's election to Richard Cromwell's Parliament, for which see M. Legouis's article.

PAGE 294. Letter 5. This and the following letter are printed from the originals in the British Museum Add. MS. 22919 (Negotiations of Sir G. Downing, vol. i). The first was printed by Osmund Airy in the Athenaeum, 7 July, 1883, the second has not been printed before. The date is O:S.

PAGE 294, 1. 5. Secretary: i. e. Thurloe. Marvell is frequently described as Milton's assistant. But he was in direct subordination to Thurloe and should be described as Thurloe's assistant. Marvell in fact was the Latin Secretary in Thurloe's office, while Milton retained (at a reduced salary) the position independent of the Secretary of State which he had held before his blindness. Masson describes Milton's position as that of Latin Secretary extraordinarius.

Marvell probably entered on his office on September 2, 1657, his salary being £200 a year and liable to fall into arrear. At any rate in Thurloe's papers (Rawl. MS. A 62, p. 49-in the Bodleian) we find, under Government disbursements from November 1, 1657 to November 1, 1658, that on September 3, 1658 there was paid

To Mr Andrew Marvell being for one quarters sallary for attending the publique service, and was due 20 xbris 1657 -£00050-00-00

Latin-Secretary Philip Meadows had gone on August 31, 1657 as Ambassador to Denmark, but the odd thing is that there is no reference to Marvell's appointment in the Order Book of the Council of State. On the contrary that book records that on September 8, 1657 it was ordered that Mr [blank] Sterry' should in Meadows' absence take his place under Thurloe at a salary of 200 marks (not pounds). This can hardly have been Mr. Peter Sterry, who was already receiving £200 a year as Preacher. Perhaps it was his brother Nathaniel, on whose behalf Peter on August 31, 1658 received £100 due for his attendance one half year on the publique service' (Thurloe, State Papers, vii. 482). Nathaniel Sterry was an M.A. of Oxford. In March 1660 we find him travelling at the public expense to the Sound (S.P. Dom.), but under Charles II he accepted a living and died as rector and dean of Bocking (D.N.B.).

Several details of Marvell's employment under Oliver's protectorate survive. The Calendar of State Papers (Colonial) dates as ?1657 a note that John Thurloe has desired Andrew Marvell to write to the King of Portugal about an Edinburgh ship which had been seized by the Government of St. Thomas as long ago as 1637. Then we have Letter 3 in the present collection, and the account in Thurloe's State Papers, vii, of his reception of the Dutch ambassador in July. This interesting episode is told in a letter from Nieuport, the Dutch

ambassador in England, to the States-General of Holland, dated August 9, 1658 [i. e. July 30 (O.S.) ]. The following is the relevant part of the letter as printed in Thurloe's State Papers, vii. 298.

Upon the 2d instant in the night, being come into the river Thames, and perceiving that I, by reason of the calm, could not get to Gravesend with the ship of war till the next day at noon, I thought good to send away my son with the chalop to signify to the lord secretary of state, and the master of the ceremonies, my arrival here, and to deliver to the first a letter written to his lordship, to the end that it would not be judged unseemly, that I should return without publick reception to your high and mighty lordship's house, which I left furnished the last time I went from hence. My son being come to London, and understanding that the lord protector was residing at Hampton-court, and that the said lord secretary of state was not returned from his country-house two miles out of the city, rid presently thither, and meeting the said lord by the way, delivered my letter to him his lordship told him, that the lord protector had notice sent him of my arrival the day before, and that he had given order for my reception, desiring that my said son would come into his coach and ride with him to Whitehall; where the said lord caused presently a barge of his highness to be made ready to be sent to me, with a gentleman called Marvell, who is employed in the despatches for the Latin tongue. In the night, my son came and brought me to Gravesend a letter from the said lord secretary, dated in Whitehall the 24th of July, old stile; wherein he writ me word, that the said gentleman was expressly sent unto me, to salute me, and to speak with me concerning my reception, and that he would say nothing more concerning the same, that it would be most acceptable to his highness, as it would best express and declare the great esteem which he hath of your high and mighty lordships, and that he would not willingly omit any opportunity, to declare his good intention to the same, although it were but in point of ceremony; and desired therefore, that I would take such resolution concerning my coming to London, as I should judge would give the most content to your high and mighty lordships, The next day came the said gentleman before the sermon in the morning, to bid me welcome in the name of his highness the lord protector, and to present me a publick reception with barges and coaches, and also an entertainment, such as is usually given to the chiefest ambassadors. But understanding, that the lord protector and the whole court was in great sadness for the mortal distemper of the lady Claypole his highnesse's daughter; and considering that I must have stay'd some days out of this city, and afterwards have also lost time much time with the further ceremonies, I believed that it would be most acceptable to your lordships, that I hasten to dispatch their orders and commands given me by your high and mighty lordships resolution, and therefore I came to London with the said gentleman in the barge in the night season, where I was told that the lord protector would come from Hampton-court to sit in council the next day at Whitehall.'

One supposes that Nieuport and Marvell had arranged both the offer and the refusal of the public reception and entertainment.

Six weeks later Cromwell was dead, and so on September 7, 1658 the Council approved a list of persons to have mourning for him. Six yards (instead of nine originally proposed) were granted to the 'Latin Secretaries, John Milton and Andrew Marvell'.

Early in the next year we find Marvell writing the two letters here printed. Both deal with the debates in Richard Cromwell's Parliament (of which Marvell was a member) on the Protectorship. Thurloe was leader of the pro-Richard or Government party and Marvell in these letters is, primarily, voicing not his own but Thurloe's sentiments. But the last lines of his poem on Cromwell's death suggest that he agreed with them.

Nevertheless he kept his post under the Restored Rump, and on July 14, 1659 appears to have been granted lodgings in Whitehall. On October 13 in that year Lambert's coup d'état brought the Rump to its second but not its final conclusion, and as a consequence the Council of State gave way on October 26 to the Committee of Safety. At its last meeting on October 25 it drew up a list of officials to whom salaries were due to date, among whom is Marvell to whom £86 125. of his £200 a year was owing. Masson (v. 625 and 673) assumes that Marvell remained in office under the various changes which took place between October 26, 1659 and February 21, 1660, when to the Rump restored for a second time in the previous December were admitted the secluded members of the Long Parliament. In fact Masson suggests that Marvell even then retained his post. There is nothing improbable in this, but I do not know of any proof of it.

PAGE 295. Letter 6. This letter is undated, but internal evidence fixes the date as Friday, March 25, 1659. See Burton's Diary. The anti-Protectorate party tried to exclude the members for Scotland and Ireland, who were solid for the house of Cromwell.

PAGE 295. Letter 7. This letter is now lost but the address is preserved at Wilberforce House, Hull. It is in Marvell's hand. Both Marvell and Ramsden franked the letter, and it is marked as received on May 31, 1660. Grosart printed it among the Notes and Illustrations at the end of his volume, and we now have only his text to go by. It may be noted that Marvell was a member of the Committee of the House of Commons appointed November 6, 1660 ' to prepare and bring in a Bill for settling the Militia of this Kingdom'.

PAGE 296. Letter 8. This letter is preserved in the Bodleian among the Carte Papers. I printed it in 1922 in the Marvell Tercentenary volume edited by Mr. W. H. Bagguley and published by The Oxford University Press. The address is lost but the index describes it as written to Lord Wharton, and it is endorsed' 2a Aprill 1667 Mr Marvell to mee' in what is presumably Wharton's hand.

Philip, fourth Baron Wharton, was an old Čommonwealth's man and now a member of the Country party, so that it is easy to understand how Marvell came to be corresponding with him.

PAGE 296, 1. 30. Ford-Simon Ford wrote a poem on the burning of London (Wood, Ath. Ox.).

PAGE 296, 1. 37. notoriousnesse of the Evill—Proverbs, xiv. 9: 'Fools make a mock at sin was Stillingfleet's text. The sermon 'Printed by His Majesties especial Command', was preached before the King on March 13, 1667.

PAGE 297, 1. 14. Burlington: i. e. Bridlington.

PAGE 298. Letter 9. This is from the 1681 volume, pp. 67-9. John Trott of Laverstoke in Hampshire was created a baronet October 12, 1660, and was M.P. for Andover till his death in 1672, when the baronetcy became extinct. His two sons John, who was at school at Winchester, and Edmund both matriculated at Oriel College, Oxford, December 7, 1660, aged respectively 18 and 17. John became a student of the Inner Temple in 1661, Edmund in

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