Forged Steel Water-tube Marine Boilers ...

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Babcock & Wilcox, 1914 - 220 pages
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Page 66 - The steam gunboat had a single scoop of modern type with a divergent nozzle based on information given in a paper read before the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers of America by EF Hewins and JR Reilly.
Page 12 - The necessary supply of water is to be injected, by means of a forcing pump, into the cap at one end ; and through a tube inserted into the cap at the other end, the steam is to be conveyed to the cylinder of the steam engine. The whole is then to be encircled in brick work or masonry in the usual manner, placed either horizontally or perpendicularly, at option.
Page 85 - The accompanying table shows the number of British thermal units that will be absorbed by one pound of water, when heated from 32 degrees to various temperatures below 212 degrees. WATER BETWEEN 32 AND 212 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT There are four notable temperatures for pure water, viz. : 1. Freezing point at sea level, 32° F. . . . Weight per cu. ft. ,62.418 lb.; per cu. in., .03612 Ib. 2. Point of maximum density, 39.1° F.
Page 95 - This, again, involves an assumption which is open to some doubt, which is that steam, when in a quiescent state, drops all its moisture and becomes dry. No other practical method, however, has been proposed, and this is, therefore, the only method used at the present time. Some engineers, however, refuse to make any calibration, but, instead, make an assumed allowance for error. To make the calibration, close the boiler stop valve, which must be on the steam pipe beyond the calorimeter connection....
Page 67 - ... annular channel of the nozzle and put it in communication with the central chamber. The effect is that, when the burner is assembled with the washer in place, oil is delivered through the ducts tangentially to the central chamber where it rapidly revolves and almost immediately is discharged through the orifice in the tip.
Page 68 - ... in unsuspected ways, and while almost any method may result in smokeless combustion, maximum economy and capacity can be secured only by careful and intelligent design. It is not necessary to give the air a whirling motion but, judging from our rather exhaustive experiments, better gas analyses are secured, lower air pressures are required, and less refinement of adjustment is needed if the air be brought into contact with the oil spray with the right sort of a twist. We have found the impeller...
Page 12 - These experiments were carried no higher than 280°, at which temperature the elasticity of steam was found equal to about four times the pressure of the atmosphere. By experiments which have lately been made by myself, the elasticity of steam at the temperature of boiling oil, which has been estimated at about 600°, was found to equal forty times the pressure of the atmosphere.
Page 21 - Each section is made up of a series of straight tubes expanded at their ends into sinuous steel boxes known as " headers." The tubes are thus staggered. Extending across the front of the boiler, and connected to the upper ends of the front headers by short tubes, is a horizontal steam and water drum of ample dimensions. As the upper ends of the rear headers are also connected to this drum by horizontal tubes, each section is provided with an inlet and outlet for steam and water.
Page 85 - States standard gallon holds 231 cubic inches, and 8.3356 pounds of water at 62 degrees Fahrenheit. A British imperial gallon holds 277.274 cubic inches, and 10 pounds of water at 62 degrees Fahrenheit. Sea water (average) has a specific gravity of 1.028, boils at 213.2 degrees F., and weighs 64 pounds per cubic foot at 62 degrees Fahrenheit. A pressure of I pound per square inch is exerted by a column of water 2.3094 feet, or 27.71 inches high, at 62 degrees Fahrenheit.
Page 61 - If the temperature is known, the conditions of combustion may be inferred. The following table, from M. Pouillet, will enable the temperature to be judged by the appearance of the fire: — To determine temperature by fusion of metals, etc., — Tables.

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