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granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session.


and powers.

1. He shall, from time to time, give to the congress in- Other duties formation of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and shall commission all the officers of the United States.


to impeach

1. The president, vice-president and all civil officers of officers llable the United States, shall be removed from office on impeach- ment. ment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors.



1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vest- Judicial power. ed in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the congress may, from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall Judges to hold hold their offices during good behavior; and shall, at ring good beha stated times, receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.


their offices du

vior, &c.


1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law Extent of the and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the judicial power. United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, (Modified. See other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admi- No. 11.) ralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states, between a state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.


Original and

appellate juris

supreme court.

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public mindiction of the isters and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. În. all other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the congress shall make.

Tr al of crimes to be by jury, &c.

Definition of treason.

Congress to declare its punishment.

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the congress may by law have directed.


1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

2. The congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.

Credit in one state to the

of another.



1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to public acts, &c. the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

Reciprocity of citizens.

Criminals flying from one state to ano

ther, to be delivered upon demand.


1. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states.

2. A person charged in any state with treason, felony or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime. 3. No person held to service or labor in one state under be delivered up the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor; but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

Runaways to


be admitted


1. New states may be admitted by the congress into this New states may union; but no new state shall be formed or erected within to the union, the jurisdiction of any other state, nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned, as well as of the congress.


2. The congress shall have power to dispose of and Congress to make all needful rules and regulations respecting the terri- over territory tory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particu

lar state.


form of gov

anteed to each

1. The United States shall guaranty to every state in Republican this union a republican form of government, and shall ernment guar protect each of them against invasion; and on application state, &c. of the legislature, or of the executive, (when the legislature can not be convened,) against domestic violence.


amending this

1. The congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses Mode of shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution. constitution; or, on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the congress; provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article: and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the senate.


former debts.

1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into, Amplif before the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this constitution, as under the confederation.

tion, &c., the

the state judges

2. This constitution, and the laws of the United States This constitu which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties supreme law: made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the bound thereby. United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and

Certain officers

to take oath to


the judges in every state shall be bound thereby; anything in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.

3. The senators and representatives before mentioned, support consti- and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

No religious test.



1. The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same.

Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the states present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America, the twelfth. In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names.

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[The following extract from the journals of congress, shows the adopon of the constitution, and the time when it took effect.]



On the question to agree to the following proposition, it was resolved in the affirmative by the unanimous votes of nine states, viz., of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia.

tion declared

Whereas the convention assembled in Philadelphia, pur- The constitu suant to the resolution of congress of the 21st February, to be ratified. 1787, did, on the 17th of September in the same year, report to the United States in congress assembled, a constitution for the people of the United States; whereupon congress, on the 28th of the same September, did resolve unanimously, "that the said report, with the resolutions and letter accompanying the same, be transmitted to the several legislatures, in order to be submitted to a convention of delegates chosen in each state by the people thereof, in conformity to the resolves of the convention made and provided in that case:" and whereas the constitution so reported by the convention, and by congress transmitted to the several legislatures, has been ratified in the manner therein declared to be sufficient for the establishment of the same, and such ratifications duly authenticated have been received by congress, and are filed in the office of the secretary; therefore,

into operation

March 1789.

Resolved, That the first Wednesday in January next be the day for Federal gov appointing electors in the several states, which before the said day shall ernment to go have ratified the said constitution; that the first Wednesday in Febru- on the 4th of ary next be the day for the electors to assemble in their respective states, and vote for a president; and that the first Wednesday in March next be the time, and the present seat of congress the place, for commencing proceedings under the said constitution.

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