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for the direct support of heresy and schism. Nay, we consider such a measure to be diametrically opposed to the first principles of our constitution in Church and State. We see the great practical difficulties in the way of any other arrangement; but we still hope and believe that, ere long, no theological instruction, save on Church principles, will be administered in any national school; children, whose parents wish them so to do, being allowed to retire at the hour when such instruction is directly communicated. But this "quæstio vexatissima" must not be further debated here. Finally, may we be permitted to congratulate the inhabitants of Leeds in their possession of such a Parish Church and of such a Vicar. Whatever be Dr. Hook's politics, his theology is irreproachable, and utterly devoid of party spirit in any sense. We admire his clearness; we applaud his strong sense and moral courage; we may even add, that we love his indefatigable zeal and earnestness "in spending and being spent" in the cause of our Blessed Lord and Saviour.
Since the above was written, we have seen a correspondence in the public prints, which in some degree tends to exempt from the more serious part of the charges against him, the person referred to at the beginning of this notice.
XLI.-1. First Principles of Arithmetic. By THOMAS TATE, Mathematical Master of the National Society's Training School at Battersea. Fifth Edition, with additions and improvements. London: Longmans. 1848.
2. Exercises in Arithmetic. Published under the sanction of the "Committee of Council on Education." By THOMAS TATE, &c. London: Longmans.
3. The Intellectual Calculator. By JOHN THOMAS CROSSLEY and WILLIAM MARTIN. Forty-second Edition. London : Hamilton, Adams, and Co.
ALL very excellent works, which we can heartily recommend to "Teachers and Monitors in Elementary Schools," or elsewhere. XLII. The Autobiography of Rose Allen. Edited by A LADY. London: Longmans. 1847.
THOUGH pleasingly written, kindly in tone and well intended, this little tale is full from one end to the other of the false and latitudinarian notions so generally in vogue with those who in Church matters think that good nature is a better thing than godly discipline or sound doctrine. The authoress is evidently of opinion that heresy is a venial sin, and schism perfectly immaculate.
"It is hoped, however, that the story may help to induce a more
general recognition of the reciprocal duties of master and servant, and a more conscientious appreciation of the responsibilities of their respective stations."
It concludes in the following words, to which we gladly give circulation, anxiously wishing that it may arrest the attention and influence the practice of those to whom this censure applies:
"I have written these sketches of the different situations which I have filled, hoping that they may suggest to those who do not always pay due attention to the welfare of their households, the duty of consulting their servants' feelings, which are so often the same as their own; hoping also that they will endeavour to bear in mind how easily they may wound, and easily they may gratify those who are dependent upon them for the daily comfort of their lives. Very strong are the mutual bonds of duty and obligation between servants and employers. And when they are properly felt and attended to, very valuable are the friendships which may be formed. At all events, very pleasant may their mutual intercourse be rendered, when servants give themselves up with heartiness and good-will to the performance of their various duties; and when their employers remember that kindness and consideration are as much due to their feelings as is attention to their bodily comfort, or the punctual payment of their wages."-pp. 161, 162.
XLIII.-1. Allen and Cornwell's School Grammar. Eleventh Edition. London: Simpkin and Marshall.
2. Grammar for Beginners, being an Introduction to Allen and Cornwell's School Grammar. London: Simpkin and Marshall. THESE are the best English grammars that we have seen; but, like other good things, they have defects. We have noticed three prominent faults.
Instead of following the old plan of dividing substantives into three genders; these authors declare that there are only two, and that nouns of the neuter gender belong to neither, thus:—
"EXAMPLES.-Man, woman; boy, girl; horse, mare.
"EXPLANATION.-Man means he, and is of the MASCULINE gender; woman means she, and is of the FEMININE gender. Boy means he, and is masculine; girl means she, and is feminine. Horse means he, and is masculine; mare means she, and is feminine.
"22. There are two genders, the masculine and the feminine.
"23. The masculine denotes the he; the feminine denotes the she; a man, masculine; woman, feminine." After an exercise on the above follows:
"EXAMPLES.-Desk, candle, glass, watch.
"EXPLANATION.-Desk is neither he nor she; so it is neither masculine nor feminine; desk is, therefore, said to be NEUTER, for neuter means neither.
"Candle too is neither he nor she; so it is neither masculine nor feminine; candle, therefore, is NEUTER,
"24. Names of things without life are of no gender, and therefore called neuter nouns; as table, pen."—Grammar for Beginners, pp. 23, 24.
This we decidedly condemn; it is pedantic without being scholar-like, and a novelty but no improvement; besides, it is in itself incorrect, and calculated to produce mischiefs. This should be altered.
We should be glad if Messrs. A. and C. would tell us what gender a working bee belongs to: it is "neither he nor she," and yet it is not "without life."
We object again to denominating "I have loved," the present complete tense. It is a gross blunder, apparently derived from a confusion of two things entirely different, the Greek Perfect and the English Preterite ;-the first of which may indeed be called by those who feel a pleasure in giving new names to old things— the complete present the latter of which cannot be called so without violence to the meaning of words.
In their larger work the writers thus express their views on the subject:
"OBS. 3. The form I have written is usually called the Perfect Tense. This is a correct term: for perfect means complete; and I have written, implies that the writing is complete. But it is complete now. So it is Present as well as Complete. It asserts the completion of an action at the present time. [In passing, we may observe that the authors have in this instance written completion instead of completeness. To assert the completion of an action at the present time, is to assert that it is just completed.] The doing of the action is past, but the completeness of the action is spoken of as present.
"OBS. 4. The Present complete is used to express an action, the effects of which are spoken of as coming down to the present time. Thus we say, Cæsar has written his Commentaries in a very chaste style. But we cannot say Caesar HAS WRITTEN his work on language in a very chaste style; for it has not come down to us. We must say, Cæsar WROTE his work on language in a very chaste style."—p. 32.
Take these instances as a proof to the contrary ;
"PORTIA. Why doth the Jew pause? Take thy forfeiture.
Here it is quite evident that the Preterite, HATH REFUSED, is
not identical with the Greek Perfect.
Take, again, this citation from Lord Byron's Manfred :
66 we were not made
To torture thus each other, though it were
Here again it is quite evident that have loved denotes a something past, and a state of feeling which is supposed not to continue to the present.
Again, in the celebrated battle scene in Moore's Veiled Prophet of Khorassan, we read:—
"Twice HATH the sun upon their conflict SET
And RISEN again, and found them grappling yet."
Assuredly Messrs. A. and C.'s statement does not hold good here. There is a passage in Crabbe which strikingly illustrates our view of the case :
"Much HAVE I FEAR'D, but am no more afraid," &c.
Borough, Letter XX. line 79. New or uncommon names should not be introduced into elementary works without grave reason-none such exists in the present case-in fact, the whole affair is a mistake.
A stranger and graver blunder, however, occurs in the observation which follows immediately that last quoted :—
"121. OBS. 5.-For the Incomplete in the Passive Voice there are two forms, one with the participle in ing after the Auxiliary be, as, the house is building; the other with being and the Past Participle after the Auxiliary, as, the house is being built. Generally, where it can be used, the form with the participle in ing merely is preferable, and in such phrases as, the house is building, the book is printing, &c., is nearly always used: but sometimes this form would cause ambiguity, or be wholly unintelligible; as if we were to say, the book is praising." Allen and Cornwell's School Grammar, p. 32.
The ingenuity and research displayed in hunting out this "form" of the "Incomplete Present" deserved certainly better success.-Messrs. A. and C., however, in this instance, remind us of the adventurous seamen who having discovered, as they supposed, a new island, landed to take possession of it. But no sooner had they lighted their fire than all their dreams were dispelled by the disappearance of their island, which turned out to be a monster of the deep, instead of a piece of terra firma.
In the instances adduced to prove the existence of this new tense, the word terminating in ing is not a participle, and the phrases are merely just within the extreme pale of grammatical licence, even if so much as this be granted to them.
The house is building is a contraction of the elegant phrase, the house is a-building the preposition represented by the par
ticle a- is invariably understood in every such case-consequently the words building, printing, &c., are not participles. Some will call them gerunds, others verbal nouns, others (as we have seen somewhere, we forget where) another form of the English Infinitive; but no one who carefully investigates the case, and compares the analogous phrases of other languages with this "form of the incomplete present," will admit that the words are participles, nor will any one, we think, except the authors of the work before us, recommend such expressions as 'the house is building,' 'the book is printing,' the cow is milking,' the mistake is making, the letter is writing, as models to be generally imitated.
"THE Matin Bell; or, the Church's Call to Daily Prayer," by Bishop Mant (Oxford: Parker), is a poem in which the duty and privileges of Daily Service are described in such a manner as to lend an additional charm to the exercise of this sacred office. Would that we were not so immersed in the bustle of life, as to avail ourselves so little of the privilege, where it is afforded! This money-loving tendency of the age is ably referred to by Mr. Bosanquet, in "a Letter to Lord John Russell, on the Safety of the Nation" (Hatchards), in which the evils of our political system are traced to it.
Mr. Burns is republishing his series of Tales, translated chiefly from German authors, at an extremely cheap rate. Chamisso and La Motte Fouqué furnish the greater portion of the material.
We have read with much satisfaction a pamphlet by the Rev. J. B. P. Dennis (Rivingtons), entitled, "Some Thoughts on the Necessity of Rites and Ceremonies in the Church, and on the Apostolical Succession." This publication, which was called forth by a Visitation Sermon, in which unsound doctrines on these points had been broached, is highly creditable to the learning, judgment, and Christian feeling of the author.
An acute and able pamphlet on Auricular Confession, “ Kappa to Delta, &c." (Davy: London) is deserving of notice; as also a publication "On the Importance of the Episcopal Office in a newly-founded Mission," by the Rev. H. M. White (Oxford: Parker). The latter work is to promote the Borneo Mission.
Amongst detached sermons we may notice the Rev. E. R. Eardley Wilmot's Discourse on "Christian Loyalty" (Hatchards), as a manly assertion of old-fashioned political principles, which we should gladly see recognized by our statesmen. A new edition of the Rev. T. A. Holland's Sermon on Harvest Time," (Rivingtons,) is very appropriate to the season. We may also mention the Rev. T. Ainger's Discourse, "Sound Education the Security of National Tranquillity" (Longmans), as judicious and sound.